Skip header and navigation

Refine By

45 records – page 1 of 3.

Polar ocean ecosystems in a changing world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95774
Source
Nature. 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):362-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2005
Author
Smetacek Victor
Nicol Stephen
Author Affiliation
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. vsmetacek@awi-bremerhaven.de
Source
Nature. 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):362-8
Date
Sep-15-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Arctic Regions
Ecosystem
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Abstract
Polar organisms have adapted their seasonal cycles to the dynamic interface between ice and water. This interface ranges from the micrometre-sized brine channels within sea ice to the planetary-scale advance and retreat of sea ice. Polar marine ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate change because small temperature differences can have large effects on the extent and thickness of sea ice. Little is known about the interactions between large, long-lived organisms and their planktonic food supply. Disentangling the effects of human exploitation of upper trophic levels from basin-wide, decade-scale climate cycles to identify long-term, global trends is a daunting challenge facing polar bio-oceanography.
PubMed ID
16163347 View in PubMed
Less detail

Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95815
Source
Oecologia. 2005 Apr;143(3):470-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
Pearce-Higgins J W
Yalden D W
Whittingham M J
Author Affiliation
Dunedin House, RSPB, 25 Ravelston Terrace, Edinburgh, EH4 3TP, UK. james.pearce-higgins@rspb.org.uk
Source
Oecologia. 2005 Apr;143(3):470-6
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Charadriiformes - physiology
Climate
Diptera - physiology
Food chain
Great Britain
Models, Theoretical
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Time Factors
Abstract
Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%.
PubMed ID
15685442 View in PubMed
Less detail

Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem function in Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294970
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-07-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Aimée T Classen
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130; akoltz@wustl.edu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Date
08-07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon Cycle
Food chain
Fungi - chemistry - physiology
Global warming
Insecta - physiology
Nitrogen - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Spiders - physiology
Tundra
Abstract
Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that warming alters the effects of wolf spiders, a dominant tundra predator, on belowground litter decomposition. Specifically, while high densities of wolf spiders result in faster litter decomposition under ambient temperatures, they result, instead, in slower decomposition under warming. Higher spider densities are also associated with elevated levels of available soil nitrogen, potentially benefiting plant production. Changes in decomposition rates under increased wolf spider densities are accompanied by trends toward fewer fungivorous Collembola under ambient temperatures and more Collembola under warming, suggesting that Collembola mediate the indirect effects of wolf spiders on decomposition. The unexpected reversal of wolf spider effects on Collembola and decomposition suggest that in some cases, warming does not simply alter the strength of top-down effects but, instead, induces a different trophic cascade altogether. Our results indicate that climate change-induced effects on predators can cascade through other trophic levels, alter critical ecosystem functions, and potentially lead to climate feedbacks with important global implications. Moreover, given the expected increase in wolf spider densities with climate change, our findings suggest that the observed cascading effects of this common predator on detrital processes could potentially buffer concurrent changes in decomposition rates.
Notes
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2010 Jul 12;365(1549):2019-24 PMID 20513710
Cites: Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Nov;8(11):779-90 PMID 20948551
Cites: Science. 2006 Jun 16;312(5780):1612-3 PMID 16778046
Cites: Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Feb;23(2):673-685 PMID 27344007
Cites: Oecologia. 1999 Aug;120(2):279-286 PMID 28308090
Cites: Biol Lett. 2009 Aug 23;5(4):542-4 PMID 19435831
Cites: Oecologia. 2005 Jan;142(3):421-7 PMID 15549404
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 12;112(19):E2507-16 PMID 25918393
Cites: Nature. 2013 May 30;497(7451):615-8 PMID 23676669
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2008 Dec;11(12):1351-63 PMID 19062363
Cites: Ecology. 2009 Jun;90(6):1463-9 PMID 19569360
Cites: J Anim Ecol. 2012 May;81(3):516-23 PMID 22112157
Cites: Ambio. 2004 Nov;33(7):436-47 PMID 15573571
Cites: Am Nat. 2001 Mar;157(3):262-81 PMID 18707289
Cites: Biol Lett. 2014 Jun;10(6):null PMID 24966204
Cites: Science. 2007 Feb 2;315(5812):640-2 PMID 17272720
Cites: Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006 Mar;38(3):583-602 PMID 16503280
Cites: Sci Rep. 2015 Jul 23;5:12396 PMID 26202370
Cites: Oecologia. 1977 Dec;28(4):333-340 PMID 28308938
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 17;103(42):15502-5 PMID 17023538
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2012 Sep;15(9):1033-41 PMID 22732002
Cites: Nat Ecol Evol. 2017 Dec;1(12):1836-1845 PMID 29133902
Cites: Oecologia. 2008 Mar;155(3):605-17 PMID 18080143
Cites: Nature. 2004 Sep 23;431(7007):440-3 PMID 15386009
Cites: Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):1434-8 PMID 22700928
Cites: Ecology. 2006 Jun;87(6):1432-7 PMID 16869417
PubMed ID
30038011 View in PubMed
Less detail

Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95385
Source
Ecol Appl. 2009 Jul;19(5):1365-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Higdon Jeff W
Ferguson Steven H
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Clayton H. Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth, and Resources, University of Manitoba, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N6, Canada. jeff.higdon@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Source
Ecol Appl. 2009 Jul;19(5):1365-75
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Arctic Regions
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Ice
Ice Cover
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Whale, Killer - physiology
Abstract
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are major predators that may reshape marine ecosystems via top-down forcing. Climate change models predict major reductions in sea ice with the subsequent expectation for readjustments of species' distribution and abundance. Here, we measure changes in killer whale distribution in the Hudson Bay region with decreasing sea ice as an example of global readjustments occurring with climate change. We summarize records of killer whales in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin in the eastern Canadian Arctic and relate them to an historical sea ice data set while accounting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the data. We find evidence for "choke points," where sea ice inhibits killer whale movement, thereby creating restrictions to their Arctic distribution. We hypothesize that a threshold exists in seasonal sea ice concentration within these choke points that results in pulses in advancements in distribution of an ice-avoiding predator. Hudson Strait appears to have been a significant sea ice choke point that opened up .approximately 50 years ago allowing for an initial punctuated appearance of killer whales followed by a gradual advancing distribution within the entire Hudson Bay region. Killer whale sightings have increased exponentially and are now reported in the Hudson Bay region every summer. We predict that other choke points will soon open up with continued sea ice melt producing punctuated predator-prey trophic cascades across the Arctic.
PubMed ID
19688941 View in PubMed
Less detail

Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida) and implications of climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263870
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98452
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jasmine Nahrgang
Oystein Varpe
Ekaterina Korshunova
Svetlana Murzina
Ingeborg G Hallanger
Ireen Vieweg
Jørgen Berge
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98452
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animal Distribution - physiology
Animals
Arctic Regions
Body Weights and Measures
Climate change
Female
Fertility - physiology
Food chain
Gadiformes - physiology
Gastrointestinal Contents
Geography
Gonads - anatomy & histology
Linear Models
Male
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Sex Characteristics
Sex ratio
Temperature
Abstract
The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present basic new knowledge regarding the life history traits for one of the most important species in the entire Arctic, the polar cod (Boreogadus saida). Furthermore, by comparing regions of contrasting climatic influence (domains), we present evidence as to how its growth and reproductive success is impaired in the warmer of the two domains. As the future Arctic is predicted to resemble today's Atlantic domains, we forecast changes in growth and life history characteristics of polar cod that will lead to alteration of its role as an Arctic keystone species. This will in turn affect community dynamics and energy transfer in the entire Arctic food chain.
Notes
Cites: Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1692-412040196
Cites: Science. 2005 Jun 24;308(5730):1912-515890845
Cites: Science. 2006 Mar 10;311(5766):1461-416527980
Cites: Science. 2007 Jan 5;315(5808):95-717204649
Cites: PLoS One. 2008;3(1):e143918197250
Cites: Mar Pollut Bull. 2010 Mar;60(3):390-520003991
Cites: Mar Pollut Bull. 2010 Aug;60(8):1336-4520385393
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2012;4:11-3722457967
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 5;109(23):8995-922615381
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 28;109(35):14052-722891319
Cites: Science. 2013 Jan 18;339(6117):313-523329044
PubMed ID
24871481 View in PubMed
Less detail

To Everything There Is a Season: Summer-to-Winter Food Webs and the Functional Traits of Keystone Species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292347
Source
Integr Comp Biol. 2017 11 01; 57(5):961-976
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-01-2017
Author
Murray M Humphries
Emily K Studd
Allyson K Menzies
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada H9X 3V9.
Source
Integr Comp Biol. 2017 11 01; 57(5):961-976
Date
11-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Food chain
Hibernation
Mammals - physiology
Seasons
Abstract
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e.g., senescence, diapause, and hibernation), whereas some plants and resident animals-here referred to as seasonal generalists-remain present and trophically coupled in winter. The co-occurrence of species with divergent responses to winter introduces seasonal variation in interaction strengths, resulting in summer-to-winter differences in trophic organization. Autumn cooling and shortening day length arrests primary productivity and cues seasonal herbivores to decouple, leaving generalist carnivores to concentrate their predation on the few generalist herbivores that remain resident, active, and vulnerable to predation in winter, which themselves feed on the few generalist plant structures available in winter. Thus, what was a bottom-up pulse, spread among many species in summer, including highly productive seasonal specialists, reverses into strong top-down regulation in winter that is top-heavy, and concentrated among a small number of generalist herbivores and their winter foods. Intermediate-sized, generalist herbivores that remain active and vulnerable to predation in winter are likely to be keystone species in seasonal food webs because they provide the essential ecosystem service of turning summer primary productivity into winter food for carnivores. Empirical examination of terrestrial mammals and their seasonal trophic status in the boreal forest and across an arctic-to-tropics seasonality gradient indicates seasonal specialization is more common among herbivores, small body sizes, and in regions with intermediate seasonality, than among carnivores, large body size, and regions where summers are very short or very long. Better understanding of food webs in seasonal environments, including their vulnerability and resilience to climate change, requires a multi-season perspective.
PubMed ID
29040576 View in PubMed
Less detail

Slow science: the value of long ocean biogeochemistry records.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257334
Source
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-28-2014
Author
Stephanie A Henson
Author Affiliation
National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK s.henson@noc.ac.uk.
Source
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025)
Date
Sep-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biology - methods
Carbon Cycle
Chemistry - methods
Climate change
Food chain
Geology - methods
Models, Biological
Oceanography - methods
Oceans and Seas
Time Factors
Abstract
Sustained observations (SOs) have provided invaluable information on the ocean's biology and biogeochemistry for over 50 years. They continue to play a vital role in elucidating the functioning of the marine ecosystem, particularly in the light of ongoing climate change. Repeated, consistent observations have provided the opportunity to resolve temporal and/or spatial variability in ocean biogeochemistry, which has driven exploration of the factors controlling biological parameters and processes. Here, I highlight some of the key breakthroughs in biological oceanography that have been enabled by SOs, which include areas such as trophic dynamics, understanding variability, improved biogeochemical models and the role of ocean biology in the global carbon cycle. In the near future, SOs are poised to make progress on several fronts, including detecting climate change effects on ocean biogeochemistry, high-resolution observations of physical-biological interactions and greater observational capability in both the mesopelagic zone and harsh environments, such as the Arctic. We are now entering a new era for biological SOs, one in which our motivations have evolved from the need to acquire basic understanding of the ocean's state and variability, to a need to understand ocean biogeochemistry in the context of increasing pressure in the form of climate change, overfishing and eutrophication.
Notes
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2009;1:169-9221141034
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2009;1:19-4221141028
Cites: Nature. 2011 Apr 14;472(7342):E6-7; discussion E8-921490625
Cites: Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2011 May 28;369(1943):1980-9621502171
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jun 28;108(26):10597-60121670286
Cites: ISME J. 2011 Dec;5(12):1881-9521716310
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 7;109(6):1842-922308450
Cites: ISME J. 2012 Mar;6(3):513-2321975596
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2009;1:279-30221141038
Cites: Nature. 2010 Jun 24;465(7301):1062-520577212
Cites: Ecology. 2010 Apr;91(4):977-8920462113
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 17;106(46):19211-819901326
Cites: Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):791-319423827
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Sep 18;109(38):15366-7122949638
Cites: PLoS One. 2008;3(11):e383619043583
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 7;105(40):15452-718824689
Cites: Science. 2007 Mar 30;315(5820):1843-617395828
Cites: Nature. 2006 Dec 7;444(7120):752-517151666
Cites: Nature. 2006 Dec 7;444(7120):695-617151650
Cites: Nature. 2005 Sep 29;437(7059):681-616193043
Cites: Nature. 2004 Aug 19;430(7002):881-415318219
Cites: Nature. 2003 May 22;423(6938):398-912761538
Cites: Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):635-811493920
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e5721223460832
Cites: Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025). pii: 20130339. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2013.033925157190
Cites: Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025). pii: 20130335. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2013.033525157191
Cites: Analyst. 2013 Jan 21;138(2):593-60223171958
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2009 Jan;24(1):49-5718952317
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Sep 4;46(17):9548-5622835223
Cites: Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):54-822767922
Cites: Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):140822678359
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2012;4:177-20722457973
PubMed ID
25157192 View in PubMed
Less detail

Natal dispersal based on past and present environmental phenology in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257425
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Apr;174(4):1139-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
J. HuĊĦek
H M Lampe
T. Slagsvold
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway, jan.husek@hihm.no.
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Apr;174(4):1139-49
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
Biota
Breeding
Female
Food chain
Geography
Insects
Male
Norway
Plants
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Songbirds - physiology
Abstract
Natal dispersal allows individuals to reach suitable breeding sites. The effect of present plant phenology as a cue for dispersal into areas with favourable stages of development has been well established across avian and mammalian taxa. However, the effect of past experience is less understood. We studied the effect of past and present phenology of the environment on the direction and distance of natal dispersal in a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). We monitored spring settlement of local recruits in six nest box plots along a 10-km stretch of a south-north gradient of plant and caterpillar food development. We found that males used both past experience of caterpillar phenology from early life and actual plant phenology during the recruitment season as independent cues for breeding settlement. Males that had experienced a mismatch with the caterpillar food peak as a nestling, and/or those that arrived late in the spring in the recruitment year, moved north of their natal site, whereas males that had experienced a better match with the caterpillars as a nestling, and/or those that migrated earlier in the spring, settled at a similar site or more to the south. In females, no such effects were found, suggesting that the usage of phenological cues is sex specific. In summary, tracking environmental phenology by natal dispersal may represent an effective mechanism for settling in new favourable areas, and may thus potentially cause rapid change of a species' geographical breeding range in response to climate change.
PubMed ID
24297099 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impact of warming, moderate nitrogen addition and bark herbivory on BVOC emissions and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298085
Source
Tree Physiol. 2018 10 01; 38(10):1461-1475
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-01-2018
Author
Päivi Tiiva
Elina Häikiö
Anne Kasurinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Tree Physiol. 2018 10 01; 38(10):1461-1475
Date
10-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Finland
Food chain
Global warming
Herbivory
Hot Temperature
Nitrogen - metabolism
Pinus sylvestris - growth & development - physiology
Plant Bark - physiology
Plant Shoots - growth & development - physiology
Seedlings - growth & development - physiology
Soil - chemistry
Volatile Organic Compounds - metabolism
Weevils - physiology
Abstract
The changing climate will expose boreal forests to rising temperatures, increasing soil nitrogen (N) levels and an increasing risk of herbivory. The single and interaction effects of warming (+2 °C increase), moderate N addition (30 kg ha-1 year-1) and bark herbivory by large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) on growth and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were studied in growth chambers over 175 days. In addition, warming and N addition effects on shoot net photosynthesis (Pn) were measured. Nitrogen addition increased both shoot and root dry weights, whereas warming, in combination with herbivory, reduced stem height growth. Warming together with N addition increased current-year shoot Pn, whereas N effects on previous-year shoot Pn were variable over time. Warming decreased non-oxygenated monoterpene (MT) emissions in June and increased them in July. Of individual MT compounds, a-pinene, d-3-carene, ?-terpinene and terpinolene were among the most frequently responsive compounds in warming treatments in the May-July period. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed only from warming treatments in July. Moderate N addition increased oxygenated monoterpenes in May, and MTs in June and September. However, N addition effect on MTs in June was clearer without warming than with warming. Bark herbivory tended to increase MT emissions in combination with warming and N addition 3 weeks after the damage caused by weevils. Of individual compounds in other BVOC blends, herbivory increased the emissions of methyl-benzene, benzene and hexanal in July. Hence, though both warming and N addition have a potential to change BVOC emissions from Scots pines, the N effect may also be partly cancelled by warming. Furthermore, herbivory pressure in combination with climate warming and N addition may, at least periodically, increase BVOC release to the atmosphere from young Scots pine seedlings.
PubMed ID
29648619 View in PubMed
Less detail

How do polar marine ecosystems respond to rapid climate change?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96639
Source
Science. 2010 Jun 18;328(5985):1520-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-18-2010
Author
Oscar Schofield
Hugh W Ducklow
Douglas G Martinson
Michael P Meredith
Mark A Moline
William R Fraser
Author Affiliation
Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. oscar@marine.rutgers.edu
Source
Science. 2010 Jun 18;328(5985):1520-3
Date
Jun-18-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Biomass
Birds
Climate change
Cold Climate
Ecosystem
Fishes
Food chain
Ice Cover
Mammals
Oceanography - methods
Oceans and Seas
Phytoplankton
Population Dynamics
Seawater
Abstract
Climate change will alter marine ecosystems; however, the complexity of the food webs, combined with chronic undersampling, constrains efforts to predict their future and to optimally manage and protect marine resources. Sustained observations at the West Antarctic Peninsula show that in this region, rapid environmental change has coincided with shifts in the food web, from its base up to apex predators. New strategies will be required to gain further insight into how the marine climate system has influenced such changes and how it will do so in the future. Robotic networks, satellites, ships, and instruments mounted on animals and ice will collect data needed to improve numerical models that can then be used to study the future of polar ecosystems as climate change progresses.
PubMed ID
20558708 View in PubMed
Less detail

Increased autumn rainfall disrupts predator-prey interactions in fragmented boreal forests.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286571
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Apr;23(4):1361-1373
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Julien Terraube
Alexandre Villers
Léo Poudré
Rauno Varjonen
Erkki Korpimäki
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2017 Apr;23(4):1361-1373
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Female
Finland
Food chain
Forests
Male
Predatory Behavior
Rain
Strigiformes
Taiga
Abstract
There is a pressing need to understand how changing climate interacts with land-use change to affect predator-prey interactions in fragmented landscapes. This is particularly true in boreal ecosystems facing fast climate change and intensification in forestry practices. Here, we investigated the relative influence of autumn climate and habitat quality on the food-storing behaviour of a generalist predator, the pygmy owl, using a unique data set of 15?850 prey items recorded in western Finland over 12?years. Our results highlighted strong effects of autumn climate (number of days with rainfall and with temperature
PubMed ID
27371812 View in PubMed
Less detail

Future climate scenarios for a coastal productive planktonic food web resulting in microplankton phenology changes and decreased trophic transfer efficiency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259367
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94388
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Albert Calbet
Andrey F Sazhin
Jens C Nejstgaard
Stella A Berger
Zachary S Tait
Lorena Olmos
Despoina Sousoni
Stamatina Isari
Rodrigo A Martínez
Jean-Marie Bouquet
Eric M Thompson
Ulf Båmstedt
Hans H Jakobsen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94388
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomass
Chlorophyll - biosynthesis
Ciliophora - physiology
Climate
Climate change
Diatoms - physiology
Dinoflagellida - physiology
Eutrophication
Food chain
Forecasting
Heterotrophic Processes
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Models, Statistical
Norway
Phytoplankton - physiology
Temperature
Abstract
We studied the effects of future climate change scenarios on plankton communities of a Norwegian fjord using a mesocosm approach. After the spring bloom, natural plankton were enclosed and treated in duplicates with inorganic nutrients elevated to pre-bloom conditions (N, P, Si; eutrophication), lowering of 0.4 pH units (acidification), and rising 3°C temperature (warming). All nutrient-amended treatments resulted in phytoplankton blooms dominated by chain-forming diatoms, and reached 13-16 µg chlorophyll (chl) a l-1. In the control mesocosms, chl a remained below 1 µg l-1. Acidification and warming had contrasting effects on the phenology and bloom-dynamics of autotrophic and heterotrophic microplankton. Bacillariophyceae, prymnesiophyceae, cryptophyta, and Protoperidinium spp. peaked earlier at higher temperature and lower pH. Chlorophyta showed lower peak abundances with acidification, but higher peak abundances with increased temperature. The peak magnitude of autotrophic dinophyceae and ciliates was, on the other hand, lowered with combined warming and acidification. Over time, the plankton communities shifted from autotrophic phytoplankton blooms to a more heterotrophic system in all mesocosms, especially in the control unaltered mesocosms. The development of mass balance and proportion of heterotrophic/autotrophic biomass predict a shift towards a more autotrophic community and less-efficient food web transfer when temperature, nutrients and acidification are combined in a future climate-change scenario. We suggest that this result may be related to a lower food quality for microzooplankton under acidification and warming scenarios and to an increase of catabolic processes compared to anabolic ones at higher temperatures.
Notes
Cites: Nature. 2000 Sep 21;407(6802):364-711014189
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e6647523776676
Cites: Nature. 2004 Aug 19;430(7002):881-415318219
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 May;33(5):1225-8327932
Cites: Nature. 2006 Dec 7;444(7120):695-617151650
Cites: Nature. 2006 Dec 7;444(7120):752-517151666
Cites: Oecologia. 2007 Jan;150(4):668-8116964503
Cites: Oecologia. 2007 Jan;150(4):655-6717048013
Cites: Nature. 2007 Nov 22;450(7169):545-817994008
Cites: Science. 2008 Apr 18;320(5874):336-4018420926
Cites: Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):268-7219359590
Cites: Nature. 2010 Jul 29;466(7306):591-620671703
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2009;1:169-9221141034
Cites: Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2011;3:291-31521329207
Cites: ISME J. 2011 Sep;5(9):1397-40521412344
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e3473722509351
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e5648223457574
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e5954823667421
Cites: Nature. 2003 Sep 25;425(6956):36514508477
PubMed ID
24721992 View in PubMed
Less detail

The changing contribution of top-down and bottom-up limitation of mesopredators during 220 years of land use and climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286122
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2017 May;86(3):566-576
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Marianne Pasanen-Mortensen
Bodil Elmhagen
Harto Lindén
Roger Bergström
Märtha Wallgren
Ype van der Velde
Sara A O Cousins
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2017 May;86(3):566-576
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Finland
Food chain
Foxes - physiology
Lynx - physiology
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Sweden
Abstract
Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain herbivore/mesopredator limitation, if bottom-up change relaxes resource constraints? Here, we explore changes in mesopredator (red fox Vulpes vulpes) abundance over 220 years in response to eradication and recovery of an apex predator (Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx), and changes in land use and climate which are linked to resource availability. A three-step approach was used. First, recent data from Finland and Sweden were modelled to estimate linear effects of lynx density, land use and winter temperature on fox density. Second, lynx density, land use and winter temperature was estimated in a 22 650 km(2) focal area in boreal and boreo-nemoral Sweden in the years 1830, 1920, 2010 and 2050. Third, the models and estimates were used to project historic and future fox densities in the focal area. Projected fox density was lowest in 1830 when lynx density was high, winters cold and the proportion of cropland low. Fox density peaked in 1920 due to lynx eradication, a mesopredator release boosted by favourable bottom-up changes - milder winters and cropland expansion. By 2010, lynx recolonization had reduced fox density, but it remained higher than in 1830, partly due to the bottom-up changes. Comparing 1830 to 2010, the contribution of top-down limitation decreased, while environment enrichment relaxed bottom-up limitation. Future scenarios indicated that by 2050, lynx density would have to increase by 79% to compensate for a projected climate-driven increase in fox density. We highlight that although top-down limitation in theory can buffer bottom-up change, this requires compensatory changes in apex predator abundance. Hence apex predator recolonization/recovery to historical levels would not be sufficient to compensate for widespread changes in climate and land use, which have relaxed the resource constraints for many herbivores and mesopredators. Variation in bottom-up conditions may also contribute to context dependence in apex predator effects.
PubMed ID
28075011 View in PubMed
Less detail

Integrating multiple lines of evidence into historical biogeography hypothesis testing: a Bison bison case study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105372
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Feb 22;281(1777):20132782
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-22-2014
Author
Jessica L Metcalf
Stefan Prost
David Nogués-Bravo
Eric G DeChaine
Christian Anderson
Persaram Batra
Miguel B Araújo
Alan Cooper
Robert P Guralnick
Author Affiliation
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, University of Adelaide, , Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, , Boulder, CO, USA, Museum of Natural History, University of Colorado, , Boulder, CO, USA, Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, University of Otago, , Dunedin, New Zealand, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, , Berkeley, CA, USA, Center for Macroecology, Evolution, and Climate, University of Copenhagen, , Copenhagen, Denmark, Department of Biology, Western Washington University, , Bellingham, WA, USA, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, , Cambridge, MA, USA, Department of Geology, Greenfield Community College, , Greenfield, MA, USA, Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, , Madrid, Spain, Imperial College London, , Silwood Park Campus, Berkshire, UK.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Feb 22;281(1777):20132782
Date
Feb-22-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Evolution
Bison - genetics - physiology
Canada
Climate
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Demography
Food chain
Fossils
Humans
Models, Genetic
Population Density
United States
Abstract
One of the grand goals of historical biogeography is to understand how and why species' population sizes and distributions change over time. Multiple types of data drawn from disparate fields, combined into a single modelling framework, are necessary to document changes in a species's demography and distribution, and to determine the drivers responsible for change. Yet truly integrated approaches are challenging and rarely performed. Here, we discuss a modelling framework that integrates spatio-temporal fossil data, ancient DNA, palaeoclimatological reconstructions, bioclimatic envelope modelling and coalescence models in order to statistically test alternative hypotheses of demographic and potential distributional changes for the iconic American bison (Bison bison). Using different assumptions about the evolution of the bioclimatic niche, we generate hypothetical distributional and demographic histories of the species. We then test these demographic models by comparing the genetic signature predicted by serial coalescence against sequence data derived from subfossils and modern populations. Our results supported demographic models that include both climate and human-associated drivers of population declines. This synthetic approach, integrating palaeoclimatology, bioclimatic envelopes, serial coalescence, spatio-temporal fossil data and heterochronous DNA sequences, improves understanding of species' historical biogeography by allowing consideration of both abiotic and biotic interactions at the population level.
PubMed ID
24403338 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95588
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Jul 12;363(1501):2369-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-12-2008
Author
Post Eric
Forchhammer Mads C
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Penn State University, 208 Mueller Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA. esp10@psu.edu
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Jul 12;363(1501):2369-75
Date
Jul-12-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Fertility - physiology
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Greenland
Plants - growth & development
Population Dynamics
Reindeer - physiology
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
In highly seasonal environments, offspring production by vertebrates is timed to coincide with the annual peak of resource availability. For herbivores, this resource peak is represented by the annual onset and progression of the plant growth season. As plant phenology advances in response to climatic warming, there is potential for development of a mismatch between the peak of resource demands by reproducing herbivores and the peak of resource availability. For migratory herbivores, such as caribou, development of a trophic mismatch is particularly likely because the timing of their seasonal migration to summer ranges, where calves are born, is cued by changes in day length, while onset of the plant-growing season on the same ranges is cued by local temperatures. Using data collected since 1993 on timing of calving by caribou and timing of plant growth in West Greenland, we document the consequences for reproductive success of a developing trophic mismatch between caribou and their forage plants. As mean spring temperatures at our study site have risen by more than 4 degrees C, caribou have not kept pace with advancement of the plant-growing season on their calving range. As a consequence, offspring mortality has risen and offspring production has dropped fourfold.
PubMed ID
18006410 View in PubMed
Less detail

Food web structure and interaction strength pave the way for vulnerability to extinction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95605
Source
J Theor Biol. 2007 Nov 7;249(1):77-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-7-2007
Author
Karlsson Patrik
Jonsson Tomas
Jonsson Annie
Author Affiliation
Systems Biology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, P.O. Box 408, SE-541 28 Skövde, Sweden.
Source
J Theor Biol. 2007 Nov 7;249(1):77-92
Date
Nov-7-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Biodiversity
Competitive Behavior
Ecosystem
Extinction, Biological
Food chain
Models, Biological
Stochastic Processes
Abstract
This paper focuses on how food web structure and interactions among species affects the vulnerability, due to environmental variability, to extinction of species at different positions in model food webs. Vulnerability is here not measured by a traditional extinction threshold but is instead inspired by the IUCN criteria for endangered species: an observed rapid decline in population abundance. Using model webs influenced by stochasticity with zero autocorrelation, we investigate the ecological determinants of species vulnerability, i.e. the trophic interactions between species and food web structure and how these interact with the risk of sudden drops in abundance of species. We find that (i) producers fulfil the criterion of vulnerable species more frequently than other species, (ii) food web structure is related to vulnerability, and (iii) the vulnerability of species is greater when involved in a strong trophic interaction than when not. We note that our result on the relationship between extinction risk and trophic position of species contradict previous suggestions and argue that the main reason for the discrepancy probably is due to the fact that we study the vulnerability to environmental stochasticity and not extinction risk due to overexploitation, habitat destruction or interactions with introduced species. Thus, we suggest that the vulnerability of species to environmental stochasticity may be differently related to trophic position than the vulnerability of species to other factors. Earlier research on species extinctions has looked for intrinsic traits of species that correlate with increased vulnerability to extinction. However, to fully understand the extinction process we must also consider that species interactions may affect vulnerability and that not all extinctions are the result of long, gradual reductions in species abundances. Under environmental stochasticity (which importance frequently is assumed to increase as a result of climate change) and direct and indirect interactions with other species some extinctions may occur rapidly and apparently unexpectedly. To identify the first declines of population abundances that may escalate and lead to extinctions as early as possible, we need to recognize which species are at greatest risk of entering such dangerous routes and under what circumstances. This new perspective may contribute to our understanding of the processes leading to extinction of populations and eventually species. This is especially urgent in the light of the current biodiversity crisis where a large fraction of the world's biodiversity is threatened.
PubMed ID
17727894 View in PubMed
Less detail

Multi-locus phylogeography of the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus): passive dispersal via the west-wind drift or response to prey species and climate change?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95610
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:131
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Harlin-Cognato April D
Markowitz Tim
Würsig Bernd
Honeycutt Rodney L
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. cognatoa@msu.edu
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:131
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actins - genetics
Animal Migration
Animals
Climate
Cytochromes b - genetics
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Dolphins - classification - genetics
Fishes - genetics
Food chain
Genetic Variation
Geography
Introns
Molecular Sequence Data
Oceans and Seas
Phylogeny
Temperature
Wind
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) is distributed along temperate, coastal regions of New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and Peru where it feeds on schooling anchovy, sardines, and other small fishes and squid tightly associated with temperate ocean sea surface temperatures. Previous studies have suggested that the dusky dolphin dispersed in the Southern Hemisphere eastward from Peru via a linear, temperate dispersal corridor provided by the circumpolar west-wind drift. With new mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, we propose an alternative phylogeographic history for the dusky dolphin that was structured by paleoceanographic conditions that repeatedly altered the distribution of its temperate prey species during the Plio-Pleistocene. RESULTS: In contrast to the west-wind drift hypothesis, phylogenetic analyses support a Pacific/Indian Ocean origin, with a relatively early and continued isolation of Peru from other regions. Dispersal of the dusky dolphin into the Atlantic is correlated with the history of anchovy populations, including multiple migrations from New Zealand to South Africa. Additionally, the cooling of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific led to the divergence of anchovy populations, which in turn explains the north-south equatorial transgression of L. obliquidens and the subsequent divergence of L. obscurus in the Southern Hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study fails to support the west-wind drift hypothesis. Instead, our data indicate that changes in primary productivity and related abundance of prey played a key role in shaping the phylogeography of the dusky dolphin, with periods of ocean change coincident with important events in the history of this temperate dolphin species. Moderate, short-term changes in sea surface temperatures and current systems have a powerful effect on anchovy populations; thus, it is not infeasible that repeated fluctuations in anchovy populations continue to play an important role in the history of coastal dolphin populations.
PubMed ID
17683557 View in PubMed
Less detail

Global change shifts vegetation and plant-parasite interactions in a boreal mire.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95637
Source
Ecology. 2007 Feb;88(2):454-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Wiedermann Magdalena M
Nordin Annika
Gunnarsson Urban
Nilsson Mats B
Ericson Lars
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. lena.wiedermann@emg.umu.se
Source
Ecology. 2007 Feb;88(2):454-64
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Angiosperms - metabolism - microbiology - physiology
Carbon - metabolism
Climate
Cyperaceae - metabolism - physiology
Ericaceae - metabolism - microbiology - physiology
Food chain
Fungi - growth & development
Hot Temperature
Nitrogen - metabolism - physiology
Plant Diseases - microbiology
Plant Leaves - metabolism
Sphagnopsida - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Vaccinium - metabolism - microbiology - physiology
Wetlands
Abstract
The aim of this study was to detect vegetation change and to examine trophic interactions in a Sphagnum-dominated mire in response to raised temperature and nitrogen (N) addition. A long-term global-change experiment was established in 1995, with monthly additions of N (30 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) and sulfur (20 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) during the vegetation period. Mean air temperature was raised by 3.6 degrees C with warming chambers. Vegetation responses were negligible for all treatments for the first four years, and no sulfur effect was seen during the course of the experiment. However, after eight years of continuous treatments, the closed Sphagnum carpet was drastically reduced from 100% in 1995 down to 41%, averaged over all N-treated plots. Over the same period, total vascular plant cover (of the graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum and the two dwarf-shrubs Andromeda polifolia and Vaccinium oxycoccos) increased from 24% to an average of 70% in the N plots. Nitrogen addition caused leaf N concentrations to rise in the two dwarf-shrubs, while for E. vaginatum, leaf N remained unchanged, indicating that the graminoid to a larger extent than the dwarf-shrubs allocated supplemented N to growth. Concurrent with foliar N accumulation of the two dwarf-shrubs, we observed increased disease incidences caused by parasitic fungi, with three species out of 16 showing a significant increase. Warming caused a significant decrease in occurrence of three parasitic fungal species. In general, decreased disease incidences were found in temperature treatments for A. polifolia and in plots without N addition for V. oxycoccos. The study demonstrates that both bryophytes and vascular plants at boreal mires, only receiving background levels of nitrogen of about 2 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1), exhibit a time lag of more than five years in response to nitrogen and temperature rise, emphasizing the need for long-term experiments. Moreover, it shows that trophic interactions are likely to differ markedly in response to climate change and increased N deposition, and that these interactions might play an important role in controlling the change in mire vegetation composition, with implications for both carbon sequestration and methane emission.
Notes
Erratum In: Ecology. 2007 Jul;88(7):1876
PubMed ID
17479763 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change and the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95644
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Jan 29;362(1477):149-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-29-2007
Author
Clarke Andrew
Murphy Eugene J
Meredith Michael P
King John C
Peck Lloyd S
Barnes David K A
Smith Raymond C
Author Affiliation
British Antarctic Survey, NERC, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. accl@bas.ac.uk
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Jan 29;362(1477):149-66
Date
Jan-29-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Ecosystem
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Invertebrates - physiology
Oceanography
Oceans and Seas
Population Dynamics
Temperature
Abstract
The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing one of the fastest rates of regional climate change on Earth, resulting in the collapse of ice shelves, the retreat of glaciers and the exposure of new terrestrial habitat. In the nearby oceanic system, winter sea ice in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas has decreased in extent by 10% per decade, and shortened in seasonal duration. Surface waters have warmed by more than 1 K since the 1950s, and the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has also warmed. Of the changes observed in the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region to date, alterations in winter sea ice dynamics are the most likely to have had a direct impact on the marine fauna, principally through shifts in the extent and timing of habitat for ice-associated biota. Warming of seawater at depths below ca 100 m has yet to reach the levels that are biologically significant. Continued warming, or a change in the frequency of the flooding of CDW onto the WAP continental shelf may, however, induce sublethal effects that influence ecological interactions and hence food-web operation. The best evidence for recent changes in the ecosystem may come from organisms which record aspects of their population dynamics in their skeleton (such as molluscs or brachiopods) or where ecological interactions are preserved (such as in encrusting biota of hard substrata). In addition, a southwards shift of marine isotherms may induce a parallel migration of some taxa similar to that observed on land. The complexity of the Southern Ocean food web and the nonlinear nature of many interactions mean that predictions based on short-term studies of a small number of species are likely to be misleading.
PubMed ID
17405211 View in PubMed
Less detail

General features of the arctic relevant to climate change in freshwater ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95670
Source
Ambio. 2006 Nov;35(7):330-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Prowse Terry D
Wrona Frederick J
Reist James D
Hobbie John E
Lévesque Lucie M J
Vincent Warwick F
Author Affiliation
Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, National Water Research Institute of Environment Canada, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, BC. Terry.prowse@ec.gc.ca
Source
Ambio. 2006 Nov;35(7):330-8
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Cold Climate
Ecosystem
Food chain
Fresh Water
Wetlands
Abstract
Large variations exist in the size, abundance and biota of the two principal categories of freshwater ecosystems, lotic (flowing water; e.g., rivers, streams, deltas and estuaries) and lentic (standing water; lakes, ponds and wetlands) found across the circumpolar Arctic. Arctic climate, many components of which exhibit strong variations along latitudinal gradients, directly affects a range of physical, chemical and biological processes in these aquatic systems. Furthermore, arctic climate creates additional indirect ecological effects through the control of terrestrial hydrologic systems and processes, particularly those associated with cryospheric components such as permafrost, freshwater ice and snow accumulation/ablation. The ecological structure and function of arctic freshwater systems are also controlled by external processes and conditions, particularly those in the headwaters of the major arctic rivers and in the adjacent marine environment. The movement of physical, chemical and biotic components through the interlinked lentic and lotic freshwater systems are major determinants of arctic freshwater ecology.
PubMed ID
17256637 View in PubMed
Less detail

45 records – page 1 of 3.