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Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95385
Source
Ecol Appl. 2009 Jul;19(5):1365-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Higdon Jeff W
Ferguson Steven H
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Clayton H. Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth, and Resources, University of Manitoba, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N6, Canada. jeff.higdon@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Source
Ecol Appl. 2009 Jul;19(5):1365-75
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Arctic Regions
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Ice
Ice Cover
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Predatory Behavior
Whale, Killer - physiology
Abstract
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are major predators that may reshape marine ecosystems via top-down forcing. Climate change models predict major reductions in sea ice with the subsequent expectation for readjustments of species' distribution and abundance. Here, we measure changes in killer whale distribution in the Hudson Bay region with decreasing sea ice as an example of global readjustments occurring with climate change. We summarize records of killer whales in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin in the eastern Canadian Arctic and relate them to an historical sea ice data set while accounting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the data. We find evidence for "choke points," where sea ice inhibits killer whale movement, thereby creating restrictions to their Arctic distribution. We hypothesize that a threshold exists in seasonal sea ice concentration within these choke points that results in pulses in advancements in distribution of an ice-avoiding predator. Hudson Strait appears to have been a significant sea ice choke point that opened up .approximately 50 years ago allowing for an initial punctuated appearance of killer whales followed by a gradual advancing distribution within the entire Hudson Bay region. Killer whale sightings have increased exponentially and are now reported in the Hudson Bay region every summer. We predict that other choke points will soon open up with continued sea ice melt producing punctuated predator-prey trophic cascades across the Arctic.
PubMed ID
19688941 View in PubMed
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Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95588
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Jul 12;363(1501):2369-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-12-2008
Author
Post Eric
Forchhammer Mads C
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Penn State University, 208 Mueller Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA. esp10@psu.edu
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Jul 12;363(1501):2369-75
Date
Jul-12-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Fertility - physiology
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Greenland
Plants - growth & development
Population Dynamics
Reindeer - physiology
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
In highly seasonal environments, offspring production by vertebrates is timed to coincide with the annual peak of resource availability. For herbivores, this resource peak is represented by the annual onset and progression of the plant growth season. As plant phenology advances in response to climatic warming, there is potential for development of a mismatch between the peak of resource demands by reproducing herbivores and the peak of resource availability. For migratory herbivores, such as caribou, development of a trophic mismatch is particularly likely because the timing of their seasonal migration to summer ranges, where calves are born, is cued by changes in day length, while onset of the plant-growing season on the same ranges is cued by local temperatures. Using data collected since 1993 on timing of calving by caribou and timing of plant growth in West Greenland, we document the consequences for reproductive success of a developing trophic mismatch between caribou and their forage plants. As mean spring temperatures at our study site have risen by more than 4 degrees C, caribou have not kept pace with advancement of the plant-growing season on their calving range. As a consequence, offspring mortality has risen and offspring production has dropped fourfold.
PubMed ID
18006410 View in PubMed
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Food web structure and interaction strength pave the way for vulnerability to extinction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95605
Source
J Theor Biol. 2007 Nov 7;249(1):77-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-7-2007
Author
Karlsson Patrik
Jonsson Tomas
Jonsson Annie
Author Affiliation
Systems Biology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, P.O. Box 408, SE-541 28 Skövde, Sweden.
Source
J Theor Biol. 2007 Nov 7;249(1):77-92
Date
Nov-7-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Biodiversity
Competitive Behavior
Ecosystem
Extinction, Biological
Food chain
Models, Biological
Stochastic Processes
Abstract
This paper focuses on how food web structure and interactions among species affects the vulnerability, due to environmental variability, to extinction of species at different positions in model food webs. Vulnerability is here not measured by a traditional extinction threshold but is instead inspired by the IUCN criteria for endangered species: an observed rapid decline in population abundance. Using model webs influenced by stochasticity with zero autocorrelation, we investigate the ecological determinants of species vulnerability, i.e. the trophic interactions between species and food web structure and how these interact with the risk of sudden drops in abundance of species. We find that (i) producers fulfil the criterion of vulnerable species more frequently than other species, (ii) food web structure is related to vulnerability, and (iii) the vulnerability of species is greater when involved in a strong trophic interaction than when not. We note that our result on the relationship between extinction risk and trophic position of species contradict previous suggestions and argue that the main reason for the discrepancy probably is due to the fact that we study the vulnerability to environmental stochasticity and not extinction risk due to overexploitation, habitat destruction or interactions with introduced species. Thus, we suggest that the vulnerability of species to environmental stochasticity may be differently related to trophic position than the vulnerability of species to other factors. Earlier research on species extinctions has looked for intrinsic traits of species that correlate with increased vulnerability to extinction. However, to fully understand the extinction process we must also consider that species interactions may affect vulnerability and that not all extinctions are the result of long, gradual reductions in species abundances. Under environmental stochasticity (which importance frequently is assumed to increase as a result of climate change) and direct and indirect interactions with other species some extinctions may occur rapidly and apparently unexpectedly. To identify the first declines of population abundances that may escalate and lead to extinctions as early as possible, we need to recognize which species are at greatest risk of entering such dangerous routes and under what circumstances. This new perspective may contribute to our understanding of the processes leading to extinction of populations and eventually species. This is especially urgent in the light of the current biodiversity crisis where a large fraction of the world's biodiversity is threatened.
PubMed ID
17727894 View in PubMed
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Multi-locus phylogeography of the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus): passive dispersal via the west-wind drift or response to prey species and climate change?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95610
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:131
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Harlin-Cognato April D
Markowitz Tim
Würsig Bernd
Honeycutt Rodney L
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. cognatoa@msu.edu
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:131
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actins - genetics
Animal Migration
Animals
Climate
Cytochromes b - genetics
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Dolphins - classification - genetics
Fishes - genetics
Food chain
Genetic Variation
Geography
Introns
Molecular Sequence Data
Oceans and Seas
Phylogeny
Temperature
Wind
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) is distributed along temperate, coastal regions of New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, and Peru where it feeds on schooling anchovy, sardines, and other small fishes and squid tightly associated with temperate ocean sea surface temperatures. Previous studies have suggested that the dusky dolphin dispersed in the Southern Hemisphere eastward from Peru via a linear, temperate dispersal corridor provided by the circumpolar west-wind drift. With new mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, we propose an alternative phylogeographic history for the dusky dolphin that was structured by paleoceanographic conditions that repeatedly altered the distribution of its temperate prey species during the Plio-Pleistocene. RESULTS: In contrast to the west-wind drift hypothesis, phylogenetic analyses support a Pacific/Indian Ocean origin, with a relatively early and continued isolation of Peru from other regions. Dispersal of the dusky dolphin into the Atlantic is correlated with the history of anchovy populations, including multiple migrations from New Zealand to South Africa. Additionally, the cooling of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific led to the divergence of anchovy populations, which in turn explains the north-south equatorial transgression of L. obliquidens and the subsequent divergence of L. obscurus in the Southern Hemisphere. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study fails to support the west-wind drift hypothesis. Instead, our data indicate that changes in primary productivity and related abundance of prey played a key role in shaping the phylogeography of the dusky dolphin, with periods of ocean change coincident with important events in the history of this temperate dolphin species. Moderate, short-term changes in sea surface temperatures and current systems have a powerful effect on anchovy populations; thus, it is not infeasible that repeated fluctuations in anchovy populations continue to play an important role in the history of coastal dolphin populations.
PubMed ID
17683557 View in PubMed
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Global change shifts vegetation and plant-parasite interactions in a boreal mire.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95637
Source
Ecology. 2007 Feb;88(2):454-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Wiedermann Magdalena M
Nordin Annika
Gunnarsson Urban
Nilsson Mats B
Ericson Lars
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. lena.wiedermann@emg.umu.se
Source
Ecology. 2007 Feb;88(2):454-64
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Angiosperms - metabolism - microbiology - physiology
Carbon - metabolism
Climate
Cyperaceae - metabolism - physiology
Ericaceae - metabolism - microbiology - physiology
Food chain
Fungi - growth & development
Hot Temperature
Nitrogen - metabolism - physiology
Plant Diseases - microbiology
Plant Leaves - metabolism
Sphagnopsida - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Vaccinium - metabolism - microbiology - physiology
Wetlands
Abstract
The aim of this study was to detect vegetation change and to examine trophic interactions in a Sphagnum-dominated mire in response to raised temperature and nitrogen (N) addition. A long-term global-change experiment was established in 1995, with monthly additions of N (30 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) and sulfur (20 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) during the vegetation period. Mean air temperature was raised by 3.6 degrees C with warming chambers. Vegetation responses were negligible for all treatments for the first four years, and no sulfur effect was seen during the course of the experiment. However, after eight years of continuous treatments, the closed Sphagnum carpet was drastically reduced from 100% in 1995 down to 41%, averaged over all N-treated plots. Over the same period, total vascular plant cover (of the graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum and the two dwarf-shrubs Andromeda polifolia and Vaccinium oxycoccos) increased from 24% to an average of 70% in the N plots. Nitrogen addition caused leaf N concentrations to rise in the two dwarf-shrubs, while for E. vaginatum, leaf N remained unchanged, indicating that the graminoid to a larger extent than the dwarf-shrubs allocated supplemented N to growth. Concurrent with foliar N accumulation of the two dwarf-shrubs, we observed increased disease incidences caused by parasitic fungi, with three species out of 16 showing a significant increase. Warming caused a significant decrease in occurrence of three parasitic fungal species. In general, decreased disease incidences were found in temperature treatments for A. polifolia and in plots without N addition for V. oxycoccos. The study demonstrates that both bryophytes and vascular plants at boreal mires, only receiving background levels of nitrogen of about 2 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1), exhibit a time lag of more than five years in response to nitrogen and temperature rise, emphasizing the need for long-term experiments. Moreover, it shows that trophic interactions are likely to differ markedly in response to climate change and increased N deposition, and that these interactions might play an important role in controlling the change in mire vegetation composition, with implications for both carbon sequestration and methane emission.
Notes
Erratum In: Ecology. 2007 Jul;88(7):1876
PubMed ID
17479763 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change and the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95644
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Jan 29;362(1477):149-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-29-2007
Author
Clarke Andrew
Murphy Eugene J
Meredith Michael P
King John C
Peck Lloyd S
Barnes David K A
Smith Raymond C
Author Affiliation
British Antarctic Survey, NERC, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. accl@bas.ac.uk
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Jan 29;362(1477):149-66
Date
Jan-29-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Ecosystem
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Invertebrates - physiology
Oceanography
Oceans and Seas
Population Dynamics
Temperature
Abstract
The Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing one of the fastest rates of regional climate change on Earth, resulting in the collapse of ice shelves, the retreat of glaciers and the exposure of new terrestrial habitat. In the nearby oceanic system, winter sea ice in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas has decreased in extent by 10% per decade, and shortened in seasonal duration. Surface waters have warmed by more than 1 K since the 1950s, and the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has also warmed. Of the changes observed in the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region to date, alterations in winter sea ice dynamics are the most likely to have had a direct impact on the marine fauna, principally through shifts in the extent and timing of habitat for ice-associated biota. Warming of seawater at depths below ca 100 m has yet to reach the levels that are biologically significant. Continued warming, or a change in the frequency of the flooding of CDW onto the WAP continental shelf may, however, induce sublethal effects that influence ecological interactions and hence food-web operation. The best evidence for recent changes in the ecosystem may come from organisms which record aspects of their population dynamics in their skeleton (such as molluscs or brachiopods) or where ecological interactions are preserved (such as in encrusting biota of hard substrata). In addition, a southwards shift of marine isotherms may induce a parallel migration of some taxa similar to that observed on land. The complexity of the Southern Ocean food web and the nonlinear nature of many interactions mean that predictions based on short-term studies of a small number of species are likely to be misleading.
PubMed ID
17405211 View in PubMed
Less detail

General features of the arctic relevant to climate change in freshwater ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95670
Source
Ambio. 2006 Nov;35(7):330-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Prowse Terry D
Wrona Frederick J
Reist James D
Hobbie John E
Lévesque Lucie M J
Vincent Warwick F
Author Affiliation
Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, National Water Research Institute of Environment Canada, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, BC. Terry.prowse@ec.gc.ca
Source
Ambio. 2006 Nov;35(7):330-8
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Cold Climate
Ecosystem
Food chain
Fresh Water
Wetlands
Abstract
Large variations exist in the size, abundance and biota of the two principal categories of freshwater ecosystems, lotic (flowing water; e.g., rivers, streams, deltas and estuaries) and lentic (standing water; lakes, ponds and wetlands) found across the circumpolar Arctic. Arctic climate, many components of which exhibit strong variations along latitudinal gradients, directly affects a range of physical, chemical and biological processes in these aquatic systems. Furthermore, arctic climate creates additional indirect ecological effects through the control of terrestrial hydrologic systems and processes, particularly those associated with cryospheric components such as permafrost, freshwater ice and snow accumulation/ablation. The ecological structure and function of arctic freshwater systems are also controlled by external processes and conditions, particularly those in the headwaters of the major arctic rivers and in the adjacent marine environment. The movement of physical, chemical and biotic components through the interlinked lentic and lotic freshwater systems are major determinants of arctic freshwater ecology.
PubMed ID
17256637 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate-driven warming during spring destabilises a Daphnia population: a mechanistic food web approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95692
Source
Oecologia. 2007 Mar;151(2):351-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Wagner Annekatrin
Benndorf Jürgen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Hydrobiology, Dresden University of Technology, 01062, Dresden, Germany. annekatrin.wagner@tu-dresden.de
Source
Oecologia. 2007 Mar;151(2):351-64
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Daphnia - growth & development
Food chain
Fresh Water
Germany
Greenhouse Effect
Phytoplankton - growth & development
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
Temperature-driven changes in interactions between populations are crucial to the estimation of the impact of global warming on aquatic food webs. We analysed inter-annual variability in two data sets from Bautzen reservoir, Germany. In a long-term data set (1981-1999) we examined the pelagic phenology of Daphnia galeata, a keystone species, the invertebrate predator Leptodora kindtii, phytoplankton and Secchi depth in relation to water temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation index. In a short-term data set (1995-1998) we examined food web relations, particularly the consumption of D. galeata by young-of-the-year (YOY) percids and L. kindtii and rates of population change of D. galeata (abundance, recruitment pattern and non-consumptive mortality). The start of the clear-water stage (CWS) was correlated with winter temperatures. It started 5.8 days earlier per degree warming after warm winters (mean January-March temperature>or=2.5 degrees C) compared to cold winters (mean temperatureor=14 degrees C) compared to years when it was low (
PubMed ID
17120058 View in PubMed
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Effects of food abundance, density and climate change on reproduction in the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95712
Source
Oecologia. 2006 Sep;149(3):505-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Nielsen Jan Tøttrup
Møller Anders Pape
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Evoltuive, CNRS UMR 7103, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Bât. A, 7ème étage, 7 qai St. Bernard, Case 237, 75252 Paris Cedex, France.
Source
Oecologia. 2006 Sep;149(3):505-18
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds - physiology
Climate
Clutch Size
Fagus - growth & development
Fertility
Food chain
Hawks - physiology
Periodicity
Population Density
Time Factors
Abstract
The reproductive success of predators depends on abiotic environmental conditions, food abundance and population density, and food abundance, density and their interactions may respond to changes in climatic conditions. Timing of reproduction by five of the eight numerically most common prey of the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus advanced significantly since 1971, during a period of temperature increase. There was no evidence that mean laying date or any other reproductive parameter of sparrowhawks changed consistently during the study period 1977-1997. Laying date advanced and percentage of unsuccessful female sparrowhawks decreased with beech mast in the current year, an index of food abundance for avian prey. Mean laying date of sparrowhawks was advanced in warmer springs, and although mean clutch size was not larger in warm than in cold springs, mean brood size of successful pairs and breeding success increased in such springs, showing that sparrowhawks enjoyed a fitness gain when reproducing early. The timing of sparrowhawk reproduction with respect to the peak in abundance of fledgling prey increased, from a good match between mean timing of fledging by prey and maximum demand for food by the predator in 1977, to reproduction occurring later than the peak in fledging prey availability in 1997. The size of the breeding population of sparrowhawks was not predicted by mean spring temperature, the size of the breeding population the previous year or beech mast crop. The size of the post-breeding population was predicted by size of the breeding and post-breeding population the previous year and by the proportion of unsuccessful females the current year. These findings imply that sparrowhawks did not respond to change in climate, although climate changed the timing of reproduction by the main prey species.
PubMed ID
16896781 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impact of extreme temperatures on parasitoids in a climate change perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95714
Source
Annu Rev Entomol. 2007;52:107-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Hance Thierry
van Baaren Joan
Vernon Philippe
Boivin Guy
Author Affiliation
Unité d'Ecologie et de Biogéographie, Centre de Recherche sur la Biodiversité, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1348, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique. hance@ecol.ucl.ac.be
Source
Annu Rev Entomol. 2007;52:107-26
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Climate
Food chain
Geography
Host-Parasite Interactions - physiology
Insects - parasitology - physiology
Temperature
Time Factors
Abstract
Parasitoids depend on a series of adaptations to the ecology and physiology of their hosts and host plants for survival and are thus likely highly susceptible to changes in environmental conditions. We analyze the effects of global warming and extreme temperatures on the life-history traits of parasitoids and interactions with their hosts. Adaptations of parasitoids to low temperatures are similar to those of most ectotherms, but these adaptations are constrained by the responses of their hosts. Life-history traits are affected by cold exposure, and extreme temperatures can reduce endosymbiont populations inside a parasitoid, eventually eliminating populations of endosymbionts that are susceptible to high temperatures. In several cases, divergences between the thermal preferences of the host and those of the parasitoid lead to a disruption of the temporal or geographical synchronization, increasing the risk of host outbreaks. A careful analysis on how host-parasitoid systems react to changes in temperature is needed so that researchers may predict and manage the consequences of global change at the ecosystem level.
PubMed ID
16846383 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change: the tipping point of the iceberg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95721
Source
Nature. 2006 Jun 15;441(7095):802-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2006

Polar ocean ecosystems in a changing world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95774
Source
Nature. 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):362-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2005
Author
Smetacek Victor
Nicol Stephen
Author Affiliation
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. vsmetacek@awi-bremerhaven.de
Source
Nature. 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):362-8
Date
Sep-15-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Arctic Regions
Ecosystem
Food chain
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Abstract
Polar organisms have adapted their seasonal cycles to the dynamic interface between ice and water. This interface ranges from the micrometre-sized brine channels within sea ice to the planetary-scale advance and retreat of sea ice. Polar marine ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate change because small temperature differences can have large effects on the extent and thickness of sea ice. Little is known about the interactions between large, long-lived organisms and their planktonic food supply. Disentangling the effects of human exploitation of upper trophic levels from basin-wide, decade-scale climate cycles to identify long-term, global trends is a daunting challenge facing polar bio-oceanography.
PubMed ID
16163347 View in PubMed
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Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95815
Source
Oecologia. 2005 Apr;143(3):470-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2005
Author
Pearce-Higgins J W
Yalden D W
Whittingham M J
Author Affiliation
Dunedin House, RSPB, 25 Ravelston Terrace, Edinburgh, EH4 3TP, UK. james.pearce-higgins@rspb.org.uk
Source
Oecologia. 2005 Apr;143(3):470-6
Date
Apr-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Charadriiformes - physiology
Climate
Diptera - physiology
Food chain
Great Britain
Models, Theoretical
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Time Factors
Abstract
Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%.
PubMed ID
15685442 View in PubMed
Less detail

Slow science: the value of long ocean biogeochemistry records.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257334
Source
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-28-2014
Author
Stephanie A Henson
Author Affiliation
National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK s.henson@noc.ac.uk.
Source
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014 Sep 28;372(2025)
Date
Sep-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biology - methods
Carbon Cycle
Chemistry - methods
Climate change
Food chain
Geology - methods
Models, Biological
Oceanography - methods
Oceans and Seas
Time Factors
Abstract
Sustained observations (SOs) have provided invaluable information on the ocean's biology and biogeochemistry for over 50 years. They continue to play a vital role in elucidating the functioning of the marine ecosystem, particularly in the light of ongoing climate change. Repeated, consistent observations have provided the opportunity to resolve temporal and/or spatial variability in ocean biogeochemistry, which has driven exploration of the factors controlling biological parameters and processes. Here, I highlight some of the key breakthroughs in biological oceanography that have been enabled by SOs, which include areas such as trophic dynamics, understanding variability, improved biogeochemical models and the role of ocean biology in the global carbon cycle. In the near future, SOs are poised to make progress on several fronts, including detecting climate change effects on ocean biogeochemistry, high-resolution observations of physical-biological interactions and greater observational capability in both the mesopelagic zone and harsh environments, such as the Arctic. We are now entering a new era for biological SOs, one in which our motivations have evolved from the need to acquire basic understanding of the ocean's state and variability, to a need to understand ocean biogeochemistry in the context of increasing pressure in the form of climate change, overfishing and eutrophication.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25157192 View in PubMed
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Natal dispersal based on past and present environmental phenology in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257425
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Apr;174(4):1139-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
J. HuĊĦek
H M Lampe
T. Slagsvold
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway, jan.husek@hihm.no.
Source
Oecologia. 2014 Apr;174(4):1139-49
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
Biota
Breeding
Female
Food chain
Geography
Insects
Male
Norway
Plants
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Songbirds - physiology
Abstract
Natal dispersal allows individuals to reach suitable breeding sites. The effect of present plant phenology as a cue for dispersal into areas with favourable stages of development has been well established across avian and mammalian taxa. However, the effect of past experience is less understood. We studied the effect of past and present phenology of the environment on the direction and distance of natal dispersal in a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). We monitored spring settlement of local recruits in six nest box plots along a 10-km stretch of a south-north gradient of plant and caterpillar food development. We found that males used both past experience of caterpillar phenology from early life and actual plant phenology during the recruitment season as independent cues for breeding settlement. Males that had experienced a mismatch with the caterpillar food peak as a nestling, and/or those that arrived late in the spring in the recruitment year, moved north of their natal site, whereas males that had experienced a better match with the caterpillars as a nestling, and/or those that migrated earlier in the spring, settled at a similar site or more to the south. In females, no such effects were found, suggesting that the usage of phenological cues is sex specific. In summary, tracking environmental phenology by natal dispersal may represent an effective mechanism for settling in new favourable areas, and may thus potentially cause rapid change of a species' geographical breeding range in response to climate change.
PubMed ID
24297099 View in PubMed
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To Everything There Is a Season: Summer-to-Winter Food Webs and the Functional Traits of Keystone Species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292347
Source
Integr Comp Biol. 2017 11 01; 57(5):961-976
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-01-2017
Author
Murray M Humphries
Emily K Studd
Allyson K Menzies
Stan Boutin
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada H9X 3V9.
Source
Integr Comp Biol. 2017 11 01; 57(5):961-976
Date
11-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Food chain
Hibernation
Mammals - physiology
Seasons
Abstract
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e.g., senescence, diapause, and hibernation), whereas some plants and resident animals-here referred to as seasonal generalists-remain present and trophically coupled in winter. The co-occurrence of species with divergent responses to winter introduces seasonal variation in interaction strengths, resulting in summer-to-winter differences in trophic organization. Autumn cooling and shortening day length arrests primary productivity and cues seasonal herbivores to decouple, leaving generalist carnivores to concentrate their predation on the few generalist herbivores that remain resident, active, and vulnerable to predation in winter, which themselves feed on the few generalist plant structures available in winter. Thus, what was a bottom-up pulse, spread among many species in summer, including highly productive seasonal specialists, reverses into strong top-down regulation in winter that is top-heavy, and concentrated among a small number of generalist herbivores and their winter foods. Intermediate-sized, generalist herbivores that remain active and vulnerable to predation in winter are likely to be keystone species in seasonal food webs because they provide the essential ecosystem service of turning summer primary productivity into winter food for carnivores. Empirical examination of terrestrial mammals and their seasonal trophic status in the boreal forest and across an arctic-to-tropics seasonality gradient indicates seasonal specialization is more common among herbivores, small body sizes, and in regions with intermediate seasonality, than among carnivores, large body size, and regions where summers are very short or very long. Better understanding of food webs in seasonal environments, including their vulnerability and resilience to climate change, requires a multi-season perspective.
PubMed ID
29040576 View in PubMed
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Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida) and implications of climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263870
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98452
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jasmine Nahrgang
Oystein Varpe
Ekaterina Korshunova
Svetlana Murzina
Ingeborg G Hallanger
Ireen Vieweg
Jørgen Berge
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98452
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animal Distribution - physiology
Animals
Arctic Regions
Body Weights and Measures
Climate change
Female
Fertility - physiology
Food chain
Gadiformes - physiology
Gastrointestinal Contents
Geography
Gonads - anatomy & histology
Linear Models
Male
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Sex Characteristics
Sex ratio
Temperature
Abstract
The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present basic new knowledge regarding the life history traits for one of the most important species in the entire Arctic, the polar cod (Boreogadus saida). Furthermore, by comparing regions of contrasting climatic influence (domains), we present evidence as to how its growth and reproductive success is impaired in the warmer of the two domains. As the future Arctic is predicted to resemble today's Atlantic domains, we forecast changes in growth and life history characteristics of polar cod that will lead to alteration of its role as an Arctic keystone species. This will in turn affect community dynamics and energy transfer in the entire Arctic food chain.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24871481 View in PubMed
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Voles and weasels in the boreal Fennoscandian small mammal community: what happens if the least weasel disappears due to climate change?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302861
Source
Integr Zool. 2019 Jul; 14(4):327-340
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-2019
Author
Hannu Ylönen
Marko Haapakoski
Thorbjörn Sievert
Janne Sundell
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Konnevesi Research Station, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Source
Integr Zool. 2019 Jul; 14(4):327-340
Date
Jul-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae - physiology
Climate change
Finland
Food chain
Mustelidae - physiology
Norway
Sweden
Abstract
Climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats for populations and a challenge for individual behavior, interactions and survival. Predator-prey interactions are modified by climate processes. In the northern latitudes, strong seasonality is changing and the main predicted feature is shortening and instability of winter. Vole populations in the boreal Fennoscandia exhibit multiannual cycles. High amplitude peak numbers of voles and dramatic population lows alternate in 3-5-year cycles shortening from North to South. One key factor, or driver, promoting the population crash and causing extreme extended lows, is suggested to be predation by the least weasel. We review the arms race between prey voles and weasels through the multiannual density fluctuation, affected by climate change, and especially the changes in the duration and stability of snow cover. For ground-dwelling small mammals, snow provides thermoregulation and shelter for nest sites, and helps them hide from predators. Predicted increases in the instability of winter forms a major challenge for species with coat color change between brown summer camouflage and white winter coat. One of these is the least weasel, Mustela nivalis nivalis. Increased vulnerability of wrong-colored weasels to predation affects vole populations and may have dramatic effects on vole dynamics. It may have cascading effects on other small rodent-predator interactions and even on plant-animal interactions and forest dynamics.
PubMed ID
30811858 View in PubMed
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Differences between Arctic and Atlantic fjord systems on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in zooplankton from Svalbard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302917
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jun 15;409(14):2783-95. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 May 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Hallanger IG
Ruus A
Warner NA
Herzke D
Evenset A
Schøyen M
Gabrielsen GW
Borgå K
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jun 15;409(14):2783-95. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 May 20.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Atlantic Ocean
Analysis
Metabolism
Chemistry
Chlordan
DDT
Environmental monitoring
Food chain
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorocyclohexane
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated
Mirex
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Seawater
Svalbard
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Statistics & numerical data
Zooplankton
Abstract
Differences in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between fjords characterized by different water masses were investigated by comparing POP concentrations, patterns and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in seven species of zooplankton from Liefdefjorden (Arctic water mass) and Kongsfjorden (Atlantic water mass), Svalbard, Norway. No difference in concentrations and patterns of POPs was observed in seawater and POM; however higher concentrations and BAFs for certain POPs were found in species of zooplankton from Kongsfjorden. The same species were sampled in both fjords and the differences in concentrations of POPs and BAFs were most likely due to fjord specific characteristics, such as ice cover and timing of snow/glacier melt. These confounding factors make it difficult to conclude on water mass (Arctic vs. Atlantic) specific differences and further to extrapolate these results to possible climate change effects on accumulation of POPs in zooplankton. The present study suggests that zooplankton do biomagnify POPs, which is important for understanding contaminant uptake and flux in zooplankton, though consciousness regarding the method of evaluation is important.
PubMed ID
21600630 View in PubMed
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Seasonality in contaminant accumulation in Arctic marine pelagic food webs using trophic magnification factor as a measure of bioaccumulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302919
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 May;30(5):1026-35. doi: 10.1002/etc.488. Epub 2011 Mar 18.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Hallanger IG
Warner NA
Ruus A
Evenset A
Christensen G
Herzke D
Gabrielsen GW
Borgå K
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 May;30(5):1026-35. doi: 10.1002/etc.488. Epub 2011 Mar 18.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquatic Organisms
Arctic Regions
Birds
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fishes
Flame Retardants
Food chain
Male
Metabolisn
Analysis
Organic Chemicals
Pesticides
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Seasons
Seawater
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Water Pollution, Chemical
Statistics & numerical data
Zooplankton
Abstract
Seasonality in biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs; polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants) in Arctic marine pelagic food webs was investigated in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs; average factor change in concentration between two trophic levels) were used to measure food web biomagnification in biota in May, July, and October 2007. Pelagic zooplankton (seven species), fish (five species), and seabirds (two species) were included in the study. For most POP compounds, highest TMFs were found in July and lowest were in May. Seasonally changing TMFs were a result of seasonally changing POP concentrations and the d¹5N-derived trophic positions of the species included in the food web. These seasonal differences in TMFs were independent of inclusion/exclusion of organisms based on physiology (i.e., warm- versus cold-blooded organisms) in the food web. The higher TMFs in July, when the food web consisted of a higher degree of boreal species, suggest that future warming of the Arctic and increased invasion by boreal species can result in increased food web magnification. Knowledge of the seasonal variation in POP biomagnification is a prerequisite for understanding changes in POP biomagnification caused by climate change.
PubMed ID
21312250 View in PubMed
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49 records – page 1 of 3.