Based on a framework for analyzing stakeholder coherence horizontally and vertically, the present study examined the governance of forest threats in Sweden. Opinions of forest risk governance in stakeholder groups with and without a connection to private forestry were compared (n?=?2496) and the opinions were analyzed in relation to current governance practices. More specifically, forest threat appraisals, trust in the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA), and the acceptability of forest risk policy measures directed at private forest owners were assessed. Results revealed an overall coherence between different stakeholders in this context. However, the groups differed in, for example, the acceptability of the hypothetical regulative measure aiming to reduce damages threatening the forest long-term (e.g., climate change). Furthermore, an extensive use of advice for a fee may challenge particularly the internal, but also the external, legitimacy of forest risk governance. The forest owner stakeholder group showed lower threat appraisals when evaluating threat to one's own forest rather than to the Swedish forest, except regarding browsing by animals. Regulations were not disapproved of in any of the stakeholder groups, although the forest owner group generally displayed higher acceptability of encouraging measures compared to the general public. Trust in the SFA was furthermore confirmed as an important driver of policy acceptability, and higher threat appraisals of novel threats, such as climate change and fire, resulted in a higher acceptability of measures less central or new in this context. The value of analyzing stakeholder coherence for natural resource management and governance is discussed.
Polar cod is an abundant Arctic key species, inhabiting an ecosystem that is subjected to rapid climate change and increased petroleum related activities. Few studies have investigated biological effects of crude oil on lipid metabolism in this species, despite lipids being a crucial compound for Arctic species to adapt to the high seasonality in food abundance in their habitat. This study examines the effects of dietary crude oil exposure on transcription levels of genes related to lipid metabolism (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors [ppar-a, ppar-?], retinoic X receptor [rxr-ß], palmitoyl-CoA oxidase [aox1], cytochrome P4507A1 [cyp7a1]), reproduction (vitellogenin [vtg-ß], gonad aromatase [cyp19a1]) and biotransformation (cytochrome P4501A1 [cyp1a1], aryl hydrocarbon receptor [ahr2]). Exposure effects were also examined through plasma chemistry parameters. Additional fish were exposed to a PPAR-a agonist (WY-14,643) to investigate the role of PPAR-a in their lipid metabolism. The dose-dependent up-regulation of cyp1a1 reflected the activation of genes related to PAH biotransformation upon crude oil exposure. The crude oil exposure did not significantly alter the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis except for cyp7a1 transcription levels. Plasma levels of cholesterol and alanine transaminase showed significant alterations in fish exposed to crude oil at the end of the experiment. WY exposure induced a down-regulation of ppar-a, an effect contrary to studies performed on other fish species. In conclusion, this study showed clear effects of dietary crude oil exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations on xenobiotic biotransformation but revealed only weak alterations in the lipid metabolism of polar cod.