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Future challenges to health and public health services in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144483
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):5-8, 19
Publication Type
Article
Author
John Last
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):5-8, 19
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Climate change
Environmental health
Health planning
Health Services - trends
Humans
International Cooperation
Public Health - trends
Public Health Practice
Notes
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):262; author reply 26220737823
PubMed ID
20364528 View in PubMed
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[Malaria in Moscow: evaluation of the vulnerability and susceptibility of an area].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168528
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2006 Apr-Jun;(2):6-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
V A Mironova
T N Ivanova
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2006 Apr-Jun;(2):6-10
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Disease Transmission, Infectious - prevention & control
Ecosystem
Emigration and Immigration
Humans
Insect Vectors - growth & development
Malaria - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Moscow - epidemiology
Risk factors
Seasons
Abstract
Before eradication of malaria in the USSR, there was a steady transmission of vivax malaria in the Moscow Region. In the posteradication period, there were two insignificant cases of local transmission: in 1972 and 1982. However, since 1999, there has been a local transmission of malaria every year. The possible causes of the transmission are analyzed. This includes a change in favor of better climatic conditions for malaria transmission in 1948 to 2004. It is shown that a weather quality jump in about 1984, which appeared as the area's higher susceptibility. A great deal of anophelogenic water reservoirs open the way to a local transmission in summer months. The vulnerability of the area has increased with a larger number of migrants from the endemic areas of the former USSR. Thus, more cases of malaria import (increased vulnerability), possibilities of the carrier to multiply, better climatic conditions for transmitting malaria (increased susceptibility) have created conditions for worsening its situation in the Moscow Region.
PubMed ID
16813239 View in PubMed
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[Studies on medico-legal diagnosis in cold district. 3. Autopsy findings of the victims of cold exposure (author's transl)]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57322
Source
Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1979 Jul;54(4):335-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1979
Author
T. Suzutani
H. Ishibashi
M. Endo
Source
Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1979 Jul;54(4):335-9
Date
Jul-1979
Language
Japanese
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood
Cold Climate
English Abstract
Female
Forensic Medicine
Humans
Hypothermia - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Postmortem Changes
Abstract
The authors have investigated the autopsy findings of 8 bodies died from cold. The conclusions are as follows: Pink colour of the blood in the left ventricle or the pulmonary veins, pink colour of the lungs and pink patches of the skin are fairly pathognomic findings of death from cold. Seven out of eight bodies have presented at least one of these findings. Subserous or submucous hemorrhage is less pathognomic and has been presented less frequently.
PubMed ID
527922 View in PubMed
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Direct and indirect effects of climate change on herbicide leaching--a regional scale assessment in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264576
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 May 1;514:239-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2015
Author
Karin Steffens
Nicholas Jarvis
Elisabet Lewan
Bodil Lindström
Jenny Kreuger
Erik Kjellström
Julien Moeys
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 May 1;514:239-49
Date
May-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Groundwater - chemistry
Herbicides - analysis
Models, Chemical
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Climate change is not only likely to improve conditions for crop production in Sweden, but also to increase weed pressure and the need for herbicides. This study aimed at assessing and contrasting the direct and indirect effects of climate change on herbicide leaching to groundwater in a major crop production region in south-west Sweden with the help of the regional pesticide fate and transport model MACRO-SE. We simulated 37 out of the 41 herbicides that are currently approved for use in Sweden on eight major crop types for the 24 most common soil types in the region. The results were aggregated accounting for the fractional coverage of the crop and the area sprayed with a particular herbicide. For simulations of the future, we used projections of five different climate models as model driving data and assessed three different future scenarios: (A) only changes in climate, (B) changes in climate and land-use (altered crop distribution), and (C) changes in climate, land-use, and an increase in herbicide use. The model successfully distinguished between leachable and non-leachable compounds (88% correctly classified) in a qualitative comparison against regional-scale monitoring data. Leaching was dominated by only a few herbicides and crops under current climate and agronomic conditions. The model simulations suggest that the direct effects of an increase in temperature, which enhances degradation, and precipitation which promotes leaching, cancel each other at a regional scale, resulting in a slight decrease in leachate concentrations in a future climate. However, the area at risk of groundwater contamination doubled when indirect effects of changes in land-use and herbicide use, were considered. We therefore concluded that it is important to consider the indirect effects of climate change alongside the direct effects and that effective mitigation strategies and strict regulation are required to secure future (drinking) water resources.
PubMed ID
25666284 View in PubMed
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Continuous summer export of nitrogen-rich organic matter from the Greenland Ice Sheet inferred by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264617
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Dec 16;48(24):14248-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-16-2014
Author
Emily C Lawson
Maya P Bhatia
Jemma L Wadham
Elizabeth B Kujawinski
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Dec 16;48(24):14248-57
Date
Dec-16-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbon
Climate change
Ecosystem
Fourier Analysis
Greenland
Ice Cover - chemistry
Mass Spectrometry - methods
Nitrogen - chemistry
Seasons
Time Factors
Abstract
Runoff from glaciers and ice sheets has been acknowledged as a potential source of bioavailable dissolved organic matter (DOM) to downstream ecosystems. This source may become increasingly significant as glacial melt rates increase in response to future climate change. Recent work has identified significant concentrations of bioavailable carbon and iron in Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) runoff. The flux characteristics and export of N-rich DOM are poorly understood. Here, we employed electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to determine the elemental compositions of DOM molecules in supraglacial water and subglacial runoff from a large GrIS outlet glacier. We provide the first detailed temporal analysis of the molecular composition of DOM exported over a full melt season. We find that DOM pools in supraglacial and subglacial runoff are compositionally diverse and that N-rich material is continuously exported throughout the melt season, as the snowline retreats further inland. Identification of protein-like compounds and a high proportion of N-rich DOM, accounting for 27-41% of the DOM molecules identified by ESI FT-ICR MS, may suggest a microbial provenance and high bioavailability of glacially exported DOM to downstream microbial communities.
PubMed ID
25375225 View in PubMed
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Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264712
Source
Nat Commun. 2014;5:3929
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jon R Hawkings
Jemma L Wadham
Martyn Tranter
Rob Raiswell
Liane G Benning
Peter J Statham
Andrew Tedstone
Peter Nienow
Katherine Lee
Jon Telling
Source
Nat Commun. 2014;5:3929
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antarctic Regions
Climate change
Greenland
Ice Cover - chemistry
Iron
Metal Nanoparticles - chemistry
Oceans and Seas
Abstract
The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.
Notes
Cites: Science. 2012 Nov 30;338(6111):1199-20123197531
Cites: Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):633-722932387
Cites: Science. 2009 Apr 17;324(5925):397-40019372431
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1790-511830636
Cites: Science. 2005 Apr 1;308(5718):67-7115802595
Cites: Microbiol Rev. 1991 Jun;55(2):259-871886521
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Sep 1;37(17):3953-712967118
Cites: Science. 2007 Jul 27;317(5837):478-8217588896
PubMed ID
24845560 View in PubMed
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Plant phenological responses to a long-term experimental extension of growing season and soil warming in the tussock tundra of Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264776
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jul 16;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-16-2015
Author
Roxaneh Khorsand Rosa
Steven F Oberbauer
Gregory Starr
Inga Parker La Puma
Eric Pop
Lorraine Ahlquist
Tracey Baldwin
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jul 16;
Date
Jul-16-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate warming is strongly altering the timing of season initiation and season length in the Arctic. Phenological activities are among the most sensitive plant responses to climate change and have important effects at all levels within the ecosystem. We tested the effects of two experimental treatments, extended growing season via snow removal and extended growing season combined with soil warming, on plant phenology in tussock tundra in Alaska from 1995 through 2003. We specifically monitored the responses of eight species, representing four growth forms: 1) graminoids (Carex bigellowii and Eriophorum vaginatum); 2) evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, Cassiope tetragona, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea); 3) deciduous shrubs (Betula nana and Salix pulchra); and 4) forbs (Polygonum bistorta). Our study answered three questions: 1) Do experimental treatments affect the timing of leaf bud break, flowering, and leaf senescence?; 2) Are responses to treatments species-specific and growth form-specific?; and 3) Which environmental factors best predict timing of phenophases? Treatment significantly affected the timing of all three phenophases, although the two experimental treatments did not differ from each other. While phenological events began earlier in the experimental plots relative to the controls, duration of phenophases did not increase. The evergreen shrub, Cassiope tetragona, did not respond to either experimental treatment. While the other species did respond to experimental treatments, the total active period for these species did not increase relative to the control. Air temperature was consistently the best predictor of phenology. Our results imply that some evergreen shrubs (i.e. C. tetragona) will not capitalize on earlier favorable growing conditions, putting them at a competitive disadvantage relative to phenotypically plastic deciduous shrubs. Our findings also suggest that an early onset of the growing season as result of decreased snow cover will not necessarily result in greater tundra productivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
26183112 View in PubMed
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Influence of climate on landscape characteristics in safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264859
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2014 Dec;138:192-204
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
J K Becker
T. Lindborg
M C Thorne
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2014 Dec;138:192-204
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Geological Phenomena
Models, Theoretical
Radioactive Waste - analysis
Safety
Sweden
Waste Disposal Facilities
Abstract
In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine the erosional regime (which may also be conditioned by the vegetation characteristics adopted, based both on climatic and other considerations). However, geomorphological changes may be governed by regional rather than local considerations, e.g. alteration of river base levels, river capture and drainage network reorganisation, or the progression of an ice sheet or valley glacier across the site. The regional climate is in turn governed by the global climate. In this work, a commentary is presented on the types of climate models that can be used to develop projections of climate change for use in post-closure radiological impact assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes. These models include both Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity. The relevant outputs available from these models are identified and consideration is given to how these outputs may be used to inform projections of landscape development. Issues of spatial and temporal downscaling of climate model outputs to meet the requirements of local-scale landscape development modelling are also addressed. An example is given of how climate change and landscape development influence the radiological impact of radionuclides potentially released from the deep geological disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel that SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) proposes to construct at Forsmark, Sweden.
PubMed ID
25255485 View in PubMed
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Contrasting effects of warming and increased snowfall on Arctic tundra plant phenology over the past two decades.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264976
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jul 27;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-27-2015
Author
Anne D Bjorkman
Sarah C Elmendorf
Alison L Beamish
Mark Vellend
Gregory H R Henry
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jul 27;
Date
Jul-27-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Recent changes in climate have led to significant shifts in phenology, with many studies demonstrating advanced phenology in response to warming temperatures. The rate of temperature change is especially high in the Arctic, but this is also where we have relatively little data on phenological changes and the processes driving these changes. In order to understand how Arctic plant species are likely to respond to future changes in climate, we monitored flowering phenology in response to both experimental and ambient warming for four widespread species in two habitat types over 21 years. We additionally used long-term environmental records to disentangle the effects of temperature increase and changes in snowmelt date on phenological patterns. While flowering occurred earlier in response to experimental warming, plants in unmanipulated plots showed no change or a delay in flowering over the 21-year period, despite more than 1 ?C of ambient warming during that time. This counterintuitive result was likely due to significantly delayed snowmelt over the study period (0.05-0.2 days/year) due to increased winter snowfall. The timing of snowmelt was a strong driver of flowering phenology for all species - especially for early-flowering species - while spring temperature was significantly related to flowering time only for later-flowering species. Despite significantly delayed flowering phenology, the timing of seed maturation showed no significant change over time, suggesting that warmer temperatures may promote more rapid seed development. The results of this study highlight the importance of understanding the specific environmental cues that drive species' phenological responses as well as the complex interactions between temperature and precipitation when forecasting phenology over the coming decades. As demonstrated here, the effects of altered snowmelt patterns can counter the effects of warmer temperatures, even to the point of generating phenological responses opposite to those predicted by warming alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
26216538 View in PubMed
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Spatial and temporal variation of an ice-adapted predator's feeding ecology in a changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264986
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Jul 26;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-26-2015
Author
David J Yurkowski
Steven H Ferguson
Christina A D Semeniuk
Tanya M Brown
Derek C G Muir
Aaron T Fisk
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Jul 26;
Date
Jul-26-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Spatial and temporal variation can confound interpretations of relationships within and between species in terms of diet composition, niche size, and trophic position (TP). The cause of dietary variation within species is commonly an ontogenetic niche shift, which is a key dynamic influencing community structure. We quantified spatial and temporal variations in ringed seal (Pusa hispida) diet, niche size, and TP during ontogeny across the Arctic-a rapidly changing ecosystem. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was performed on 558 liver and 630 muscle samples from ringed seals and on likely prey species from five locations ranging from the High to the Low Arctic. A modest ontogenetic diet shift occurred, with adult ringed seals consuming more forage fish (approximately 80 versus 60 %) and having a higher TP than subadults, which generally decreased with latitude. However, the degree of shift varied spatially, with adults in the High Arctic presenting a more restricted niche size and consuming more Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) than subadults (87 versus 44 %) and adults at the lowest latitude (29 %). The TPs of adult and subadult ringed seals generally decreased with latitude (4.7-3.3), which was mainly driven by greater complexity in trophic structure within the zooplankton communities. Adult isotopic niche size increased over time, likely due to the recent circumpolar increases in subarctic forage fish distribution and abundance. Given the spatial and temporal variability in ringed seal foraging ecology, ringed seals exhibit dietary plasticity as a species, suggesting adaptability in terms of their diet to climate change.
PubMed ID
26210748 View in PubMed
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Predicted Shifts in Small Mammal Distributions and Biodiversity in the Altered Future Environment of Alaska: An Open Access Data and Machine Learning Perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264988
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132054
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
A P Baltensperger
F. Huettmann
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132054
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change is acting to reallocate biomes, shift the distribution of species, and alter community assemblages in Alaska. Predictions regarding how these changes will affect the biodiversity and interspecific relationships of small mammals are necessary to pro-actively inform conservation planning. We used a set of online occurrence records and machine learning methods to create bioclimatic envelope models for 17 species of small mammals (rodents and shrews) across Alaska. Models formed the basis for sets of species-specific distribution maps for 2010 and were projected forward using the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A2 scenario to predict distributions of the same species for 2100. We found that distributions of cold-climate, northern, and interior small mammal species experienced large decreases in area while shifting northward, upward in elevation, and inland across the state. In contrast, many southern and continental species expanded throughout Alaska, and also moved down-slope and toward the coast. Statewide community assemblages remained constant for 15 of the 17 species, but distributional shifts resulted in novel species assemblages in several regions. Overall biodiversity patterns were similar for both time frames, but followed general species distribution movement trends. Biodiversity losses occurred in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta and Seward Peninsula while the Beaufort Coastal Plain and western Brooks Range experienced modest gains in species richness as distributions shifted to form novel assemblages. Quantitative species distribution and biodiversity change projections should help land managers to develop adaptive strategies for conserving dispersal corridors, small mammal biodiversity, and ecosystem functionality into the future.
PubMed ID
26207828 View in PubMed
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Utilization of ancient permafrost carbon in headwaters of Arctic fluvial networks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264989
Source
Nat Commun. 2015;6:7856
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Paul J Mann
Timothy I Eglinton
Cameron P McIntyre
Nikita Zimov
Anna Davydova
Jorien E Vonk
Robert M Holmes
Robert G M Spencer
Source
Nat Commun. 2015;6:7856
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Northern high-latitude rivers are major conduits of carbon from land to coastal seas and the Arctic Ocean. Arctic warming is promoting terrestrial permafrost thaw and shifting hydrologic flowpaths, leading to fluvial mobilization of ancient carbon stores. Here we describe (14)C and (13)C characteristics of dissolved organic carbon from fluvial networks across the Kolyma River Basin (Siberia), and isotopic changes during bioincubation experiments. Microbial communities utilized ancient carbon (11,300 to >50,000 (14)C years) in permafrost thaw waters and millennial-aged carbon (up to 10,000 (14)C years) across headwater streams. Microbial demand was supported by progressively younger ((14)C-enriched) carbon downstream through the network, with predominantly modern carbon pools subsidizing microorganisms in large rivers and main-stem waters. Permafrost acts as a significant and preferentially degradable source of bioavailable carbon in Arctic freshwaters, which is likely to increase as permafrost thaw intensifies causing positive climate feedbacks in response to on-going climate change.
PubMed ID
26206473 View in PubMed
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Women's health in northern British Columbia: The role of geography and gender

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101164
Source
Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine. 2005 Autumn;10(4):241-253
Publication Type
Article
Date
Autumn-2005
can be attributed to the north’s historical location, and its physical, sociocultural and political environments. Historical location Because of the severe climate, social isolation and relative absence of material resources, indigenous peoples and early settlers needed to be self-reliant, hard
  1 document  
Author
Leipert, BD
Reutter, L
Author Affiliation
University of Western Ontario, London, Ontartio
Source
Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine. 2005 Autumn;10(4):241-253
Date
Autumn-2005
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
224568
Keywords
British Columbia
Canada
Determinants of health
Gender
Physical environment
Political environment
Social environments
Sociocultural environment
Women
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Although research interest in women's health is growing, much of the literature does not sufficiently describe the importance of geography and gender for the health of women. This qualitative study explored factors in the northern Canadian context that influence women's health by interviewing 25 women in northern Canada.RESULTS: Findings reveal that the importance of the northern context for women's health can be attributed to the north's historical location, and its physical, sociocultural and political environments. The northern context contributes to the marginalization of northern women that is characterized by isolation, limited options, limited power and being silenced.CONCLUSION: Health care practice and policy must attend to contextual as well as individual and sociocultural factors if women's health is to be advanced in northern settings.
PubMed ID
16356385 View in PubMed
Documents
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Changing planet, changing health: How the climate crisis threatens our health and what we can do about it

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101214
Source
Berkeley: University of California Press. 355 pp.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2011
Author
Epstein, PR
Ferber, D
Source
Berkeley: University of California Press. 355 pp.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Climatic changes
Medical climatology
Abstract
Written by a physician and world expert on climate and health and an award-winning science journalist, the book reveals the surprising links between global warming and cholera, malaria, lyme disease, asthma, and other health threats.
Notes
UAA/APU Consortium Library General Collection: WB700.E67 2011
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Circumpolar adaptation, social change, and the development of autoimmune thyroid disorders among the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101218
Source
American Journal of Human Biology. 2011
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Cepon, TJ
Snodgrass, JJ
Leonard, WR
Tarskaia, LA
Klimova, TM
Fedorova, VI
Baltakhinova, ME
Krivoshapkin, VG
Source
American Journal of Human Biology. 2011
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometric dimensions
Arctic environments
Autoimmune thyroid disorders
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Climate-induced changes
Indigenous circumpolar populations
Lifestyle
Metabolic correlates
Northeastern Siberia
Thyroid function
Upregulated metabolism
Yakut adults
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in thyroid function appear to play a central role in adaptation to Arctic environments. Increased thyroid activity in indigenous circumpolar populations is associated with upregulated metabolism, including elevated basal metabolic rate (BMR); however, little is known about the possible health consequences of these climate-induced changes on thyroid function. The focus of the present study is to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders and their lifestyle and metabolic correlates among a sample of indigenous Yakut adults from northeastern Siberia. METHODS: Anthropometric dimensions, health data, and plasma samples were collected among 281 adults (143 women, 138 men; ¡Ý18 years old) from the rural community of Berdygestiakh (62¡ãN, 127¡ãE; pop. 4,900), Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia. BMR measurements were available for 96 women and 98 men. Free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels were determined using enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of women and 6% of men had clinically elevated (>30 IU/ml) TPOAb. TPOAb was positively correlated with TSH (P
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The importance of willow thickets for ptarmigan and hares in shrub tundra: the more the better?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101251
Source
Oecologia. 2011 Jul 21;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-21-2011
Author
Dorothée Ehrich
John-André Henden
Rolf Anker Ims
Lilyia O Doronina
Siw Turid Killengren
Nicolas Lecomte
Ivan G Pokrovsky
Gunnhild Skogstad
Alexander A Sokolov
Vasily A Sokolov
Nigel Gilles Yoccoz
Author Affiliation
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, 9037, Tromso, Norway, dorothee.ehrich@uit.no.
Source
Oecologia. 2011 Jul 21;
Date
Jul-21-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In patchy habitats, the relationship between animal abundance and cover of a preferred habitat may change with the availability of that habitat, resulting in a functional response in habitat use. Here, we investigate the relationship of two specialized herbivores, willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus), to willows (Salix spp.) in three regions of the shrub tundra zone-northern Norway, northern European Russia and western Siberia. Shrub tundra is a naturally patchy habitat where willow thickets represent a major structural element and are important for herbivores both as food and shelter. Habitat use was quantified using feces counts in a hierarchical spatial design and related to several measures of willow thicket configuration. We document a functional response in the use of willow thickets by ptarmigan, but not by hares. For hares, whose range extends into forested regions, occurrence increased overall with willow cover. The occurrence of willow ptarmigan showed a strong positive relationship to willow cover and a negative relationship to thicket fragmentation in the region with lowest willow cover at landscape scale, where willow growth may be limited by reindeer browsing. In regions with higher cover, in contrast, such relationships were not observed. Differences in predator communities among the regions may contribute to the observed pattern, enhancing the need for cover where willow thickets are scarce. Such region-specific relationships reflecting regional characteristics of the ecosystem highlight the importance of large-scale investigations to understand the relationships of habitat availability and use, which is a critical issue considering that habitat availability changes quickly with climate change and human impact.
PubMed ID
21833646 View in PubMed
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Apparent temperature and cause-specific emergency hospital admissions in greater copenhagen, denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101267
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22904
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Janine Wichmann
Zorana Andersen
Matthias Ketzel
Thomas Ellermann
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22904
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
One of the key climate change factors, temperature, has potentially grave implications for human health. We report the first attempt to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)) and respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD), and cerebrovascular (CBD) emergency hospital admissions in Copenhagen, controlling for air pollution. The study period covered 1 January 2002-31 December 2006, stratified in warm and cold periods. A case-crossover design was applied. Susceptibility (effect modification) by age, sex, and socio-economic status was investigated. For an IQR (8°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max), a 7% (95% CI: 1%, 13%) increase in the RD admission rate was observed in the warm period whereas an inverse association was found with CVD (-8%, 95% CI: -13%, -4%), and none with CBD. There was no association between the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max) during the cold period and any of the cause-specific admissions, except in some susceptible groups: a negative association for RD in the oldest age group and a positive association for CVD in men and the second highest SES group. In conclusion, an increase in Tapp(max) is associated with a slight increase in RD and decrease in CVD admissions during the warmer months.
PubMed ID
21829550 View in PubMed
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Quantification of UV-B flux through time using UV-B-absorbing compounds contained in fossil Pinus sporopollenin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101318
Source
New Phytol. 2011 Aug 2;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2-2011
Author
K J Willis
A. Feurdean
H J B Birks
A E Bjune
E. Breman
R. Broekman
J-A Grytnes
M. New
J S Singarayer
J. Rozema
Author Affiliation
Long-term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK Department of Biology, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen, Norway Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum & Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Uni Bjerknes Centre and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Allégaten 55, N-5007 Bergen, Norway Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands African Climate and Development Initiative, c/o Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape TownPrivate Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 South Africa Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Road, Bristol BS8 1SS, UK.
Source
New Phytol. 2011 Aug 2;
Date
Aug-2-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
? UV-B radiation currently represents c. 1.5% of incoming solar radiation. However, significant changes are known to have occurred in the amount of incoming radiation both on recent and on geological timescales. Until now it has not been possible to reconstruct a detailed measure of UV-B radiation beyond c. 150 yr ago. ? Here, we studied the suitability of fossil Pinus spp. pollen to record variations in UV-B flux through time. In view of the large size of the grain and its long fossil history, we hypothesized that this grain could provide a good proxy for recording past variations in UV-B flux. ? Two key objectives were addressed: to determine whether there was, similar to other studied species, a clear relationship between UV-B-absorbing compounds in the sporopollenin of extant pollen and the magnitude of UV-B radiation to which it had been exposed; and to determine whether these compounds could be extracted from a small enough sample size of fossil pollen to make reconstruction of a continuous record through time a realistic prospect. ? Preliminary results indicate the excellent potential of this species for providing a quantitative record of UV-B through time. Using this technique, we present the first record of UV-B flux during the last 9500 yr from a site near Bergen, Norway.
PubMed ID
21810096 View in PubMed
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Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101320
Source
Ambio. 2011 Jun;40(4):361-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Arvid Bring
Georgia Destouni
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Sweden. arvid.bring@natgeo.su.se
Source
Ambio. 2011 Jun;40(4):361-9
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.
PubMed ID
21809779 View in PubMed
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Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101347
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2011 Jul 30;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-30-2011
Author
Xiaoqiu Chen
Lin Xu
Author Affiliation
College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, People's Republic of China, cxq@pku.edu.cn.
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2011 Jul 30;
Date
Jul-30-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions.
PubMed ID
21805230 View in PubMed
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