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Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Mar 4;131(5):452
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-4-2011
Author
Lars T Fadnes
Gunnar Kvåle
Unni Gopinathan
Britt Grethe Randem
Guro Steine Letting
Author Affiliation
Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Norway. klimaoghelse@fadnes.net
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Mar 4;131(5):452
Date
Mar-4-2011
Language
English
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Global warming
Humans
Norway
Organizations
World Health
PubMed ID
21383793 View in PubMed
Less detail

"Greenwash" at the climate change summit in Copenhagen.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146351
Source
BMJ. 2009;339:b5616
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Michael Wilks
Source
BMJ. 2009;339:b5616
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Congresses as topic
Denmark
Humans
Leadership
PubMed ID
20042492 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alaskan wild berry resources and human health under the cloud of climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146583
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3884-900
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-14-2010
Author
Joshua Kellogg
Jinzhi Wang
Courtney Flint
David Ribnicky
Peter Kuhn
Elvira González De Mejia
Ilya Raskin
Mary Ann Lila
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3884-900
Date
Apr-14-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Anthocyanins - analysis - pharmacology
Blood Glucose - drug effects
Cell Line
Climate change
Fruit - chemistry
Health
Humans
Male
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Obesity - drug therapy
Plant Extracts - analysis - metabolism - pharmacology
Random Allocation
Rosaceae - chemistry
Abstract
Wild berries are integral dietary components for Alaska Native people and a rich source of polyphenolic metabolites that can ameliorate metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, five species of wild Alaskan berries (Vaccinium ovalifolium , Vaccinium uliginosum , Rubus chamaemorus , Rubus spectabilis , and Empetrum nigrum) were screened for bioactivity through a community-participatory research method involving three geographically distinct tribal communities. Compositional analysis by HPLC and LC-MS(2) revealed substantial site-specific variation in anthocyanins (0.01-4.39 mg/g of FW) and proanthocyanidins (0.74-6.25 mg/g of FW) and identified A-type proanthocyanidin polymers. R. spectabilis increased expression levels of preadipocyte factor 1 (182%), and proanthocyanidin-enriched fractions from other species reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Selected extracts reduced serum glucose levels in C57BL/6J mice by up to 45%. Local observations provided robust insights into effects of climatic fluctuations on berry abundance and quality, and preliminary site-specific compositional and bioactivity differences were noted, suggesting the need to monitor this Alaska Native resource as climate shifts affect the region.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20025229 View in PubMed
Less detail

Positively deviant networks: what are they and why do we need them?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146614
Source
J Health Organ Manag. 2009;23(6):610-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Ann Casebeer
Janice Popp
Cathie Scott
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. alcasebe@ucalgary.ca
Source
J Health Organ Manag. 2009;23(6):610-26
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Child
Child Health Services
Community Networks
Cooperative Behavior
Efficiency, Organizational
Humans
National Health Programs
Organizational Case Studies
Organizational Culture
Organizational Innovation
Public Sector
Quality Assurance, Health Care - organization & administration
Abstract
This paper aims to report "positively deviant" experiences of three public sector networks seeking to enhance organizational and system level capacities. It is the authors' thesis that the knowledge base concerning the true benefits and pitfalls of networks can be captured and interpreted only through intense, ongoing learning effort embedded in practice on the ground, combined with sustained in-depth observation and collaborative research.
The paper describes through case examples why and how different kinds of networks within different jurisdictional contexts and different organizational cultures are being used to enhance the climate for change towards better health care and improved health. The authors describe the contexts, structures, processes and impacts of three "positively deviant" networks.
The network form can provide opportunity for nurturing changes and innovations within large organizational and complex system environments. This opportunity to create additional and different pathways for improved decision making and service provision comes with challenges that should be recognized.
The authors' experiences indicate that, for networks, a key component of success relates to pulling and pushing at the edges of multiple connections and boundaries in "positively deviant" ways. This pushing and pulling is intrinsically evidence of organizational and intraorganizational learning--in the examples presented--for the improvement of health care and health.
Other networks can learn from the reported experiences and add their own cases to the empirical understanding of how networks can make a difference; this in turn can help the conceptual and theoretical understanding of them.
PubMed ID
20020595 View in PubMed
Less detail

[The need for human health protection from climate changes].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146785
Source
Gig Sanit. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):60-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
B A Revich
Source
Gig Sanit. 2009 Sep-Oct;(5):60-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Climate Change - mortality - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity - trends
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Survival Rate - trends
Young Adult
Abstract
The occurring climate changes have a considerable impact on human health. The higher frequency of different natural disasters, including flood and typhoons, deteriorates the epidemiological situation. Evidence is provided for the importance of climate warming as a risk factor for a number of communicable diseases, including West Nile fever in the Astrakhan and Volgograd Regions. The paper presents the results of analytical epidemiological surveys, by using the time-series analysis, in Tver and Moscow, which indicate an increase in the number of fatal outcomes particularly among the elderly during temperature heat and cold waves. The specific features of the impact of climate warming on human health in the northern and southern regions of the country are considered. The need for developing the National Plan of Actions to prevent the population's health from climate changes is warranted.
PubMed ID
20000092 View in PubMed
Less detail

Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267615
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e101281
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Thomas Hedemark Lundhede
Jette Bredahl Jacobsen
Nick Hanley
Jon Fjeldså
Carsten Rahbek
Niels Strange
Bo Jellesmark Thorsen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e101281
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Birds
Climate Change - economics
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Denmark
Abstract
There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country--even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem mostly worried about protecting currently-native species.
Notes
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 4;100(3):1046-5012552123
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PubMed ID
24984055 View in PubMed
Less detail

Targeted capture and resequencing of 1040 genes reveal environmentally driven functional variation in gray wolves.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267669
Source
Mol Ecol. 2015 Nov 12;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-12-2015
Author
Rena M Schweizer
Jacqueline Robinson
Ryan Harrigan
Pedro Silva
Marco Galverni
Marco Musiani
Richard E Green
John Novembre
Robert K Wayne
Source
Mol Ecol. 2015 Nov 12;
Date
Nov-12-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In an era of ever-increasing amounts of whole genome sequence data for individuals and populations, the utility of traditional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array-based genome scans is uncertain. We previously performed a SNP array-based genome scan to identify candidate genes under selection in six distinct gray wolf (Canis lupus) ecotypes. Using this information, we designed a targeted capture array for 1040 genes, including all exons and flanking regions, as well as 5000 1 kb non-genic neutral regions and resequenced these regions in 107 wolves. Selection tests revealed striking patterns of variation within candidate genes relative to non-candidate regions and identified potentially functional variants related to local adaptation. We found 27% and 47% of candidate genes from the previous SNP array study had functional changes that were outliers in SweeD and Bayenv analyses, respectively. This result verifies the use of genome wide SNP surveys to tag genes that contain functional variants between populations. We highlight non-synonymous variants in APOB, LIPG, and USH2A that occur in functional domains of these proteins, and that demonstrate high correlation with precipitation seasonality and vegetation. We find Arctic and High Arctic wolf ecotypes have higher numbers of genes under selection, which highlight their conservation value and heightened threat due to climate change. This study demonstrates that combining genome wide genotyping arrays with large scale resequencing and environmental data provides a powerful approach to discern candidate functional variants in natural populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
26562361 View in PubMed
Less detail

Recovery of arctic tundra from thermal erosion disturbance is constrained by nutrient accumulation: a modeling analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267713
Source
Ecol Appl. 2015 Jul;25(5):1271-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
A R Pearce
E B Rastetter
B L Kwiatkowski
W B Bowden
M C Mack
Y. Jiang
Source
Ecol Appl. 2015 Jul;25(5):1271-89
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Restoration and Remediation
Models, Biological
Temperature
Tundra
Abstract
Abstract. We calibrated the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model to Alaskan arctic tundra to simulate recovery of thermal erosion features (TEFs) caused by permafrost thaw and mass wasting. TEFs could significantly alter regional carbon (C) and nutrient budgets because permafrost soils contain large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) and TEFs are expected to become more frequent as the climate warms. We simulated recovery following TEF stabilization and did not address initial, short-term losses of C and nutrients during TEF formation. To capture the variability among and within TEFs, we modeled a range of post-stabilization conditions by varying the initial size of SOM stocks and nutrient supply rates. Simulations indicate that nitrogen (N) losses after the TEF stabilizes are small, but phosphorus (P) losses continue. Vegetation biomass recovered 90% of its undisturbed C, N, and P stocks in 100 years using nutrients mineralized from SOM. Because of low litter inputs but continued decomposition, younger SOM continued to be lost for 10 years after the TEF began to recover, but recovered to about 84% of its undisturbed amount in 100 years. The older recalcitrant SOM in mineral soil continued to be lost throughout the 100-year simulation. Simulations suggest that biomass recovery depended on the amount of SOM remaining after disturbance. Recovery was initially limited by the photosynthetic capacity of vegetation but became co-limited by N and P once a plant canopy developed. Biomass and SOM recovery was enhanced by increasing nutrient supplies, but the magnitude, source, and controls on these supplies are poorly understood. Faster mineralization of nutrients from SOM (e.g., by warming) enhanced vegetation recovery but delayed recovery of SOM. Taken together, these results suggest that although vegetation and surface SOM on TEFs recovered quickly (25 and 100 years, respectively), the recovery of deep, mineral soil SOM took centuries and represented a major ecosystem C loss.
PubMed ID
26485955 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267823
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104799
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Colin S Shanley
David M Albert
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104799
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Climate change
Ecosystem
Geography
Models, Theoretical
Salmon
Abstract
Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March) was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1) and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation experiments, and finer-scale climate impact and adaptation studies.
Notes
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Apr 17;104(16):6720-517412830
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Cites: Conserv Biol. 2013 Aug;27(4):774-8423866037
Erratum In: PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112926
PubMed ID
25127398 View in PubMed
Less detail

Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267827
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103739
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Abbey Rosso
Peter Neitlich
Robert J Smith
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103739
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Biomass
Conservation of Natural Resources
Lichens - growth & development
Abstract
Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n?=?144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska.
Notes
Cites: Environ Pollut. 2007 Jan;145(1):203-1816777297
Cites: Environ Monit Assess. 2009 Apr;151(1-4):161-7418509737
PubMed ID
25079228 View in PubMed
Less detail

Predictions replaced by facts: a keystone species' behavioural responses to declining arctic sea-ice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267858
Source
Biol Lett. 2015 Nov;11(11)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2015
Author
Charmain D Hamilton
Christian Lydersen
Rolf A Ims
Kit M Kovacs
Source
Biol Lett. 2015 Nov;11(11)
Date
Nov-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Since the first documentation of climate-warming induced declines in arctic sea-ice, predictions have been made regarding the expected negative consequences for endemic marine mammals. But, several decades later, little hard evidence exists regarding the responses of these animals to the ongoing environmental changes. Herein, we report the first empirical evidence of a dramatic shift in movement patterns and foraging behaviour of the arctic endemic ringed seal (Pusa hispida), before and after a major collapse in sea-ice in Svalbard, Norway. Among other changes to the ice-regime, this collapse shifted the summer position of the marginal ice zone from over the continental shelf, northward to the deep Arctic Ocean Basin. Following this change, which is thought to be a 'tipping point', subadult ringed seals swam greater distances, showed less area-restricted search behaviour, dived for longer periods, exhibited shorter surface intervals, rested less on sea-ice and did less diving directly beneath the ice during post-moulting foraging excursions. In combination, these behavioural changes suggest increased foraging effort and thus also likely increases in the energetic costs of finding food. Continued declines in sea-ice are likely to result in distributional changes, range reductions and population declines in this keystone arctic species.
PubMed ID
26582841 View in PubMed
Less detail

Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: the ACCEPT - sub-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267862
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:29469
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
evaluation of lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake, and possible age and geographical differences. Methods and materials Study population The overall aim of the ACCEPT (Adaption to Climate Change, Environmental Pollution, and Dietary Transi- tion) was establishment of a geographical and
  1 document  
Author
Ane-Kersti Skaarup Knudsen
Manhai Long
Henning S Pedersen
Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:29469
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
File Size
677738
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology
Arctic Regions
Body mass index
Breast Feeding
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Eating
Female
Humans
Life Style
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Reproductive history
Residence Characteristics
Smoking/epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland.
To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences.
Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were =18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010-2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (25.0 kg/m(2), 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women 50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds.
The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland.
PubMed ID
26582354 View in PubMed
Documents
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Impacts of land cover data selection and trait parameterisation on dynamic modelling of species' range expansion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267969
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108436
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Risto K Heikkinen
Greta Bocedi
Mikko Kuussaari
Janne Heliölä
Niko Leikola
Juha Pöyry
Justin M J Travis
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108436
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Butterflies
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Finland
Grassland
Models, Biological
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Abstract
Dynamic models for range expansion provide a promising tool for assessing species' capacity to respond to climate change by shifting their ranges to new areas. However, these models include a number of uncertainties which may affect how successfully they can be applied to climate change oriented conservation planning. We used RangeShifter, a novel dynamic and individual-based modelling platform, to study two potential sources of such uncertainties: the selection of land cover data and the parameterization of key life-history traits. As an example, we modelled the range expansion dynamics of two butterfly species, one habitat specialist (Maniola jurtina) and one generalist (Issoria lathonia). Our results show that projections of total population size, number of occupied grid cells and the mean maximal latitudinal range shift were all clearly dependent on the choice made between using CORINE land cover data vs. using more detailed grassland data from three alternative national databases. Range expansion was also sensitive to the parameterization of the four considered life-history traits (magnitude and probability of long-distance dispersal events, population growth rate and carrying capacity), with carrying capacity and magnitude of long-distance dispersal showing the strongest effect. Our results highlight the sensitivity of dynamic species population models to the selection of existing land cover data and to uncertainty in the model parameters and indicate that these need to be carefully evaluated before the models are applied to conservation planning.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25265281 View in PubMed
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Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267973
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Apr;21(4):1634-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Mark J Lara
A David McGuire
Eugenie S Euskirchen
Craig E Tweedie
Kenneth M Hinkel
Alexei N Skurikhin
Vladimir E Romanovsky
Guido Grosse
W Robert Bolton
Helene Genet
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Apr;21(4):1634-51
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Climate change
Geological Processes
Methane - analysis
Seasons
Soil - chemistry
Tundra
Abstract
The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006-2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between -438.3 and -1366 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux at 28.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2 uptake (-166.9 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux (2.8 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)) with geomorphic change from low to high center polygons, cumulatively resulting in an estimated negative feedback to warming during peak growing season.
PubMed ID
25258295 View in PubMed
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Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268031
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2015 Nov 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-11-2015
Author
Jorge Assis
Ana Vaz Lucas
Ignacio Bárbara
Ester Álvares Serrão
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2015 Nov 11;
Date
Nov-11-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L. hyperborea. Because no genetic baseline is currently available for this species, our results may represent a first step in informing conservation and mitigation strategies.
PubMed ID
26608411 View in PubMed
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Global impacts of the 1980s regime shift.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268043
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Nov 23;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-23-2015
Author
Philip C Reid
Renata E Hari
Grégory Beaugrand
David M Livingstone
Christoph Marty
Dietmar Straile
Jonathan Barichivich
Eric Goberville
Rita Adrian
Yasuyuki Aono
Ross Brown
James Foster
Pavel Groisman
Pierre Hélaouët
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
Richard Kirby
Jeff Knight
Alexandra Kraberg
Jianping Li
Tzu-Ting Lo
Ranga B Myneni
Ryan P North
J Alan Pounds
Tim Sparks
René Stübi
Yongjun Tian
Karen H Wiltshire
Dong Xiao
Zaichun Zhu
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Nov 23;
Date
Nov-23-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Despite evidence from a number of Earth systems that abrupt temporal changes known as regime shifts are important, their nature, scale and mechanisms remain poorly documented and understood. Applying principal component analysis, change-point analysis and a sequential t-test analysis of regime shifts to 72 time series, we confirm that the 1980s regime shift represented a major change in the Earth's biophysical systems from the upper atmosphere to the depths of the ocean and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and occurred at slightly different times around the world. Using historical climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and statistical modelling of historical temperatures, we then demonstrate that this event was triggered by rapid global warming from anthropogenic plus natural forcing, the latter associated with the recovery from the El Chichón volcanic eruption. The shift in temperature that occurred at this time is hypothesized as the main forcing for a cascade of abrupt environmental changes. Within the context of the last century or more, the 1980s event was unique in terms of its global scope and scale; our observed consequences imply that if unavoidable natural events such as major volcanic eruptions interact with anthropogenic warming unforeseen multiplier effects may occur.
PubMed ID
26598217 View in PubMed
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Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268051
Source
Ecol Appl. 2015 Oct;25(7):1932-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Jason E Bruggeman
Ted Swem
David E Andersen
Patricia L Kennedy
Debora Nigro
Source
Ecol Appl. 2015 Oct;25(7):1932-43
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably indicative of higher-quality habitat), are a priority for continued protection from potential nearby development and disturbance to minimize population-level impacts. Climate change. may affect Arctic peregrines in multiple ways, including through access to more snow-free nest sites and a lengthened breeding season that may increase likelihood of nest success. Our work provides insight into factors affecting a population during and after recovery, and demonstrates how the Dail-Madsen model can be used for any unmarked population with multiple years of abundance data collected through repeated surveys.
PubMed ID
26591458 View in PubMed
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Is distribution of cold stenotherms constrained by temperature? The case of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa O.F. Müller 1788).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268053
Source
J Therm Biol. 2015 Oct;53:46-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
M. Lindholm
D O Hessen
P J Færøvig
B. Rognerud
T. Andersen
F. Stordal
Source
J Therm Biol. 2015 Oct;53:46-52
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Small water bodies in cold climate respond fast to global warming, and species adapted to such habitats may be valuable indicators for climate change. We investigated the geographical and physiological temperature limits of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa), which is common in cold water arctic ponds, but at present retracts its range in alpine areas along its southern outreach of Norway. Seasonal logging of water temperatures along an altitudinal transect revealed an upper temperature limit of 12.7°C for its presence, which closely matched a calculated upper temperature limit of 12.9°C throughout its entire Norwegian range. Field data hence point to cold stenotherm features, which would be consistent with its Arctic, circumpolar distribution. Lab experiments, on the other hand, revealed a linear increase in respiration over 10-20°C. When fed ad libitum somatic growth increased with temperature, as well, without negative physiological impacts of higher temperatures. The absence of Branchinecta paludosa in ponds warmer than 13°C could still be due to a mismatch between temperature dependent metabolism and limited energy supply in these ultraoligotrophic water bodies. We discuss the concept of cold stenothermy in this context, and the impacts of regional warming on the future distribution of the Arctic fairy shrimp.
PubMed ID
26590455 View in PubMed
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Regional differentiation and extensive hybridization between mitochondrial clades of the Southern Ocean giant sea spider Colossendeis megalonyx.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268058
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2015 Jul;2(7):140424
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Lars Dietz
Claudia P Arango
Jana S Dömel
Kenneth M Halanych
Avril M Harder
Christoph Held
Andrew R Mahon
Christoph Mayer
Roland R Melzer
Greg W Rouse
Andrea Weis
Nerida G Wilson
Florian Leese
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2015 Jul;2(7):140424
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Assessing the enormous diversity of Southern Ocean benthic species and their evolutionary histories is a central task in the era of global climate change. Based on mitochondrial markers, it was recently suggested that the circumpolar giant sea spider Colossendeis megalonyx comprises a complex of at least six cryptic species with mostly small and non-overlapping distribution ranges. Here, we expand the sampling to include over 500 mitochondrial COI sequences of specimens from around the Antarctic. Using multiple species delimitation approaches, the number of distinct mitochondrial OTUs increased from six to 15-20 with our larger dataset. In contrast to earlier studies, many of these clades show almost circumpolar distributions. Additionally, analysis of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region for a subset of these specimens showed incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial results. These mito-nuclear discordances suggest that several of the divergent mitochondrial lineages can hybridize and should not be interpreted as cryptic species. Our results suggest survival of C. megalonyx during Pleistocene glaciations in multiple refugia, some of them probably located on the Antarctic shelf, and emphasize the importance of multi-gene datasets to detect the presence of cryptic species, rather than their inference based on mitochondrial data alone.
PubMed ID
26587257 View in PubMed
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