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Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263566
Source
Heredity (Edinb). 2015 Jan;114(1):94-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
L N Harris
L. Chavarie
R. Bajno
K L Howland
S H Wiley
W M Tonn
E B Taylor
Source
Heredity (Edinb). 2015 Jan;114(1):94-106
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Evolution
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Ecotype
Fresh Water
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
Lakes
Linkage Disequilibrium
Microsatellite Repeats
Models, Genetic
Northwest Territories
Phenotype
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sympatry
Trout - anatomy & histology - genetics
Abstract
Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.
PubMed ID
25204304 View in PubMed
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Comparing mercury concentrations across a thirty year time span in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr from Labrador, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263632
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:165-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
Author
S. van der Velden
J B Dempson
M. Power
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:165-74
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Mercury - metabolism
Newfoundland and Labrador
Trout - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism
Abstract
Anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from multiple sample sites in Labrador, Canada were used to investigate possible differences in total mercury concentration ([THg]) between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean [THg] of anadromous Arctic charr was 0.03 µg/g wet weight (ww) in 1977-78 and 0.04 µg/g ww in 2007-09, while mean concentrations in non-anadromous conspecifics were 0.18 µg/g ww in 1977-78 and 0.14 µg/g ww in 2007-09. After correcting for the effects of fish age and fork-length, there was no widespread difference in the mean [THg] of anadromous or non-anadromous fish between the two time periods. However, at individual sites sampled during both time periods, [THg] increased, decreased, or did not change. The mean age of sampled fish declined from 9.0 years in 1977-78 to 8.2 years in 2007-09 for anadromous fish, and from 11.7 years to 10.5 years in non-anadromous Arctic charr. Similarly, mean fork-lengths decreased from 450 mm to 417 mm in anadromous and from 402 mm to 335 mm in non-anadromous fish between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean annual temperature at four Labrador weather stations increased by 1.6°C to 2.9°C between the two sampling periods. The lack of an overall trend in anadromous or non-anadromous Arctic charr [THg] despite warming temperatures that favour increased mercury methylation suggests that regional changes in climate-driven factors have had limited impacts on mercury exposure in Labrador freshwater or marine fish.
PubMed ID
24373639 View in PubMed
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Climate Change in the North American Arctic: A One Health Perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263661
Source
Ecohealth. 2015 Jun 13;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-13-2015
Author
Joseph P Dudley
Eric P Hoberg
Emily J Jenkins
Alan J Parkinson
Source
Ecohealth. 2015 Jun 13;
Date
Jun-13-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change is expected to increase the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases among human and animal populations within the Arctic and subarctic latitudes of North America. Warmer temperatures are expected to increase disease risks from food-borne pathogens, water-borne diseases, and vector-borne zoonoses in human and animal populations of Arctic landscapes. Existing high levels of mercury and persistent organic pollutant chemicals circulating within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Arctic latitudes are a major concern for the reproductive health of humans and other mammals, and climate warming will accelerate the mobilization and biological amplification of toxic environmental contaminants. The adverse health impacts of Arctic warming will be especially important for wildlife populations and indigenous peoples dependent upon subsistence food resources from wild plants and animals. Additional research is needed to identify and monitor changes in the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans, domestic dogs, and wildlife species of critical subsistence, cultural, and economic importance to Arctic peoples. The long-term effects of climate warming in the Arctic cannot be adequately predicted or mitigated without a comprehensive understanding of the interactive and synergistic effects between environmental contaminants and pathogens in the health of wildlife and human communities in Arctic ecosystems. The complexity and magnitude of the documented impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems, and the intimacy of connections between their human and wildlife communities, makes this region an appropriate area for development of One Health approaches to identify and mitigate the effects of climate warming at the community, ecosystem, and landscape scales.
PubMed ID
26070525 View in PubMed
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Microbial ecology in a future climate: effects of temperature and moisture on microbial communities of two boreal fens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263670
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015 Jul;91(7)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Krista Peltoniemi
Raija Laiho
Heli Juottonen
Oili Kiikkilä
Päivi Mäkiranta
Kari Minkkinen
Taina Pennanen
Timo Penttilä
Tytti Sarjala
Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Tero Tuomivirta
Hannu Fritze
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015 Jul;91(7)
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Impacts of warming with open-top chambers on microbial communities in wet conditions and in conditions resulting from moderate water-level drawdown (WLD) were studied across 0-50 cm depth in northern and southern boreal sedge fens. Warming alone decreased microbial biomass especially in the northern fen. Impact of warming on microbial PLFA and fungal ITS composition was more obvious in the northern fen and linked to moisture regime and sample depth. Fungal-specific PLFA increased in the surface peat in the drier regime and decreased in layers below 10 cm in the wet regime after warming. OTUs representing Tomentella and Lactarius were observed in drier regime and Mortierella in wet regime after warming in the northern fen. The ectomycorrhizal fungi responded only to WLD. Interestingly, warming together with WLD decreased archaeal 16S rRNA copy numbers in general, and fungal ITS copy numbers in the northern fen. Expectedly, many results indicated that microbial response on warming may be linked to the moisture regime. Results indicated that microbial community in the northern fen representing Arctic soils would be more sensitive to environmental changes. The response to future climate change clearly may vary even within a habitat type, exemplified here by boreal sedge fen.
PubMed ID
26066028 View in PubMed
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Eighteen Years of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Surveillance: Changes in Seasonality and Hospitalization Rates in southwestern Alaska Native Children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263672
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Jun 10;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-10-2015
Author
Dana Jt Bruden
Rosalyn Singleton
Carolyn S Hawk
Lisa R Bulkow
Stephen Bentley
Larry J Anderson
Leslie Herrmann
Lori Chikoyak
Thomas W Hennessy
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Jun 10;
Date
Jun-10-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Alaska Native (AN) infants from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) experienced respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization rates five times higher and an RSV season twice as long as the general US infant population. We describe trends in hospitalization rates and seasonality during 18 years of continuous RSV surveillance in this population and explore contributions of climate and sociodemographic factors.
We abstracted clinical and RSV test information from computerized medical records at YKD Regional Hospital and Alaska Native Medical Center from 1994-2012 to determine hospitalization rates and RSV season timing. Descriptive village and weather data were acquired through the US Census and Alaska Climate Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, respectively.
During 1994-2012, YKD infant RSV hospitalization rates declined nearly 3-fold, from 177/1,000 infants/year to 65. RSV season onset shifted later, from mid-October to late December, contributing to a significantly decreased season duration, from 30 weeks to 11 weeks. In a multivariate analysis, children from villages with more crowded households and lacking plumbed water had higher rates of RSV hospitalizations (RR 1.17, p=0.0005, and RR 1.45, p=0.0003). No association of temperature or dew point was found with the timing or severity of RSV season.
Although the RSV hospitalization rate decreased 3-fold, YKD infants still experience a hospitalization rate 3-fold higher than the general US infant population. Overcrowding and lack of plumbed water were associated with RSV hospitalization. Dramatic changes occurred in RSV seasonality, not explained by changes in climate.
PubMed ID
26065863 View in PubMed
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Gender specific reproductive strategies of an arctic key species (Boreogadus saida) and implications of climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263870
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98452
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jasmine Nahrgang
Oystein Varpe
Ekaterina Korshunova
Svetlana Murzina
Ingeborg G Hallanger
Ireen Vieweg
Jørgen Berge
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98452
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animal Distribution - physiology
Animals
Arctic Regions
Body Weights and Measures
Climate change
Female
Fertility - physiology
Food chain
Gadiformes - physiology
Gastrointestinal Contents
Geography
Gonads - anatomy & histology
Linear Models
Male
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Sex Characteristics
Sex ratio
Temperature
Abstract
The Arctic climate is changing at an unprecedented rate. What consequences this may have on the Arctic marine ecosystem depends to a large degree on how its species will respond both directly to elevated temperatures and more indirectly through ecological interactions. But despite an alarming recent warming of the Arctic with accompanying sea ice loss, reports evaluating ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic remain sparse. Here, based upon a large-scale field study, we present basic new knowledge regarding the life history traits for one of the most important species in the entire Arctic, the polar cod (Boreogadus saida). Furthermore, by comparing regions of contrasting climatic influence (domains), we present evidence as to how its growth and reproductive success is impaired in the warmer of the two domains. As the future Arctic is predicted to resemble today's Atlantic domains, we forecast changes in growth and life history characteristics of polar cod that will lead to alteration of its role as an Arctic keystone species. This will in turn affect community dynamics and energy transfer in the entire Arctic food chain.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24871481 View in PubMed
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Climatic and biotic extreme events moderate long-term responses of above- and belowground sub-Arctic heathland communities to climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263921
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jun 25;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-25-2015
Author
Stef Bokhorst
Gareth K Phoenix
Matty P Berg
Terry V Callaghan
Christopher Kirby-Lambert
Jarle W Bjerke
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jun 25;
Date
Jun-25-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change impacts are not uniform across the Arctic region because interacting factors causes large variations in local ecosystem change. Extreme climatic events and population cycles of herbivores occur simultaneously against a background of gradual climate warming trends and can redirect ecosystem change along routes that are difficult to predict. Here, we present the results from sub-Arctic heath vegetation and its belowground micro-arthropod community in response to the two main drivers of vegetation damage in this region: extreme winter warming events and subsequent outbreaks of the defoliating autumnal moth caterpillar (Epirrita autumnata). Evergreen dwarf shrub biomass decreased (30%) following extreme winter warming events and again by moth caterpillar grazing. Deciduous shrubs that were previously exposed to an extreme winter warming event were not affected by the moth caterpillar grazing while those that were not exposed to warming events (control plots) showed reduced (23%) biomass from grazing. Cryptogam cover increased irrespective of grazing or winter warming events. Micro-arthropods declined (46%) following winter warming but did not respond to changes in plant community. Extreme winter warming and caterpillar grazing suppressed the CO2 fluxes of the ecosystem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
26111101 View in PubMed
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Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263935
Source
Nat Commun. 2015;6:7535
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Sarah Ineson
Amanda C Maycock
Lesley J Gray
Adam A Scaife
Nick J Dunstone
Jerald W Harder
Jeff R Knight
Mike Lockwood
James C Manners
Richard A Wood
Source
Nat Commun. 2015;6:7535
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Any reduction in global mean near-surface temperature due to a future decline in solar activity is likely to be a small fraction of projected anthropogenic warming. However, variability in ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations, suggesting the potential for larger regional surface climate effects. Here, we explore possible impacts through two experiments designed to bracket uncertainty in ultraviolet irradiance in a scenario in which future solar activity decreases to Maunder Minimum-like conditions by 2050. Both experiments show regional structure in the wintertime response, resembling the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced relative cooling over northern Eurasia and the eastern United States. For a high-end decline in solar ultraviolet irradiance, the impact on winter northern European surface temperatures over the late twenty-first century could be a significant fraction of the difference in climate change between plausible AR5 scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations.
PubMed ID
26102364 View in PubMed
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Is there a possibility of ranking benthic quality assessment indices to select the most responsive to different human pressures?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263937
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2015 Jun 19;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-19-2015
Author
Ángel Borja
Sandra L Marín
Iñigo Muxika
Loreto Pino
José G Rodríguez
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2015 Jun 19;
Date
Jun-19-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Although a plethora of benthic indices exist, there is no agreement on what index or indices should be used by environmental managers to establish benthic quality. The objective of this investigation was to rank 35 benthic quality assessment indices used in different countries to evaluate the impact produced by 15 different human pressures (including multipressure, aquaculture, sewage discharges, eutrophication, physical alteration, chemical pollution, climate change, etc.). The ranking was determined by taking into account the coverage area of biogeographical provinces, number of citations testing a pressure and number of citations with significant correlation with pressure. We analysed 363 references, of which 169 showed quantitative data. Over a potential total score of 100, the highest values were obtained by the following indices: (i) AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI), which scored 77, tested by using 14 pressures in 14 provinces from the Arctic to tropical seas; (ii) multivariate AMBI (M-AMBI), which scored 74, tested with 12 pressures in 13 provinces; (iii) Bentix (BENTIX), which scored 68, tested with nine pressures in six provinces; (iv) Benthic Quality Index (BQI), which scored 66, tested with five pressures in seven provinces; and (v) Benthic Opportunistic Polychaetes Amphipods (BOPA) index, which scored 62, tested with eight pressures in six provinces.
PubMed ID
26099789 View in PubMed
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Low and declining mercury in arctic Russian rivers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264135
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(1):747-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Leandro Castello
Alexander V Zhulidov
Tatiana Yu Gurtovaya
Richard D Robarts
Robert M Holmes
Daniel A Zhulidov
Vladimir S Lysenko
Robert G M Spencer
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(1):747-52
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Environmental monitoring
Gadiformes
Mercury - analysis
Rivers - chemistry
Russia
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) dynamics in the Arctic is receiving increasing attention, but further understanding is limited by a lack of studies in Russia, which encompasses the majority of the pan-Arctic watershed. This study reports Hg concentrations and trends in burbot (Lota lota) from the Lena and Mezen Rivers in the Russian Arctic, and assesses the extent to which they differ from those found in burbot in arctic rivers elsewhere. Mercury concentrations in burbot in the Lena and Mezen Rivers were found to be generally lower than in 23 other locations, most of which are in the Mackenzie River Basin (Canada). Mercury concentrations in burbot in the Lena and Mezen Rivers also were found to have been declining at an annual rate of 2.3% while they have been increasing in the Mackenzie River Basin at annual rates between 2.2 and 5.1% during roughly the same time period. These contrasting patterns in Hg in burbot across the pan-Arctic may be explained by geographic heterogeneity in controlling processes, including riverine particulate material loads, historically changing atmospheric inputs, postdepositional processes, and climate change impacts.
PubMed ID
24358967 View in PubMed
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Climate-sensitive health priorities in Nunatsiavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264176
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):605
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sherilee L Harper
Victoria L Edge
James Ford
Ashlee Cunsolo Willox
Michele Wood
Scott A McEwen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):605
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
This exploratory study used participatory methods to identify, characterize, and rank climate-sensitive health priorities in Nunatsiavut, Labrador, Canada.
A mixed method study design was used and involved collecting both qualitative and quantitative data at regional, community, and individual levels. In-depth interviews with regional health representatives were conducted throughout Nunatsiavut (n?=?11). In addition, three PhotoVoice workshops were held with Rigolet community members (n?=?11), where participants took photos of areas, items, or concepts that expressed how climate change is impacting their health. The workshop groups shared their photographs, discussed the stories and messages behind them, and then grouped photos into re-occurring themes. Two community surveys were administered in Rigolet to capture data on observed climatic and environmental changes in the area, and perceived impacts on health, wellbeing, and lifestyles (n?=?187).
Climate-sensitive health pathways were described in terms of inter-relationships between environmental and social determinants of Inuit health. The climate-sensitive health priorities for the region included food security, water security, mental health and wellbeing, new hazards and safety concerns, and health services and delivery.
The results highlight several climate-sensitive health priorities that are specific to the Nunatsiavut region, and suggest approaching health research and adaptation planning from an EcoHealth perspective.
PubMed ID
26135309 View in PubMed
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Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264314
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Nov;20(11):3530-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Frank Hagedorn
Stepan G Shiyatov
Valeriy S Mazepa
Nadezhda M Devi
Andrey A Grigor'ev
Alexandr A Bartysh
Valeriy V Fomin
Denis S Kapralov
Maxim Terent'ev
Harald Bugman
Andreas Rigling
Pavel A Moiseev
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Nov;20(11):3530-43
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Climate change
Forests
Plant Dispersal
Russia
Seasons
Snow
Temperature
Trees - growth & development
Tundra
Abstract
High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks.
PubMed ID
24756980 View in PubMed
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Decadal warming causes a consistent and persistent shift from heterotrophic to autotrophic respiration in contrasting permafrost ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264357
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jul 7;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-7-2015
Author
Caitlin E Hicks Pries
Richard S P van Logtestjin
Edward A G Schuur
Susan M Natali
Johannes H C Cornelissen
Rein Aerts
Ellen Dorrepaal
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Jul 7;
Date
Jul-7-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Soil carbon in permafrost ecosystems has the potential to become a major positive feedback to climate change if permafrost thaw increases heterotrophic decomposition. However, warming can also stimulate autotrophic production leading to increased ecosystem carbon storage-a negative climate change feedback. Few studies partitioning ecosystem respiration examine decadal warming effects or compare responses among ecosystems. Here, we first examined how 11 years of warming during different seasons affected autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in a bryophyte-dominated peatland in Abisko, Sweden. We used natural abundance radiocarbon to partition ecosystem respiration into autotrophic respiration, associated with production, and heterotrophic decomposition. Summertime warming decreased the age of carbon respired by the ecosystem due to increased proportional contributions from autotrophic and young soil respiration and decreased proportional contributions from old soil. Summertime warming's large effect was due to not only warmer air temperatures during the growing season, but also to warmer deep soils year round. Second, we compared ecosystem respiration responses between two contrasting ecosystems, the Abisko peatland and a tussock-dominated tundra in Healy, Alaska. Each ecosystem had two different timescales of warming (
PubMed ID
26150277 View in PubMed
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Range contraction and increasing isolation of a polar bear subpopulation in an era of sea-ice loss.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289871
Source
Ecol Evol. 2018 Feb; 8(4):2062-2075
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2018
Author
Kristin L Laidre
Erik W Born
Stephen N Atkinson
Øystein Wiig
Liselotte W Andersen
Nicholas J Lunn
Markus Dyck
Eric V Regehr
Richard McGovern
Patrick Heagerty
Author Affiliation
Polar Science CenterApplied Physics LaboratoryUniversity of WashingtonSeattleWAUSA.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2018 Feb; 8(4):2062-2075
Date
Feb-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Climate change is expected to result in range shifts and habitat fragmentation for many species. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice will reduce barriers to dispersal or eliminate movement corridors, resulting in increased connectivity or geographic isolation with sweeping implications for conservation. We used satellite telemetry, data from individually marked animals (research and harvest), and microsatellite genetic data to examine changes in geographic range, emigration, and interpopulation connectivity of the Baffin Bay (BB) polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation over a 25-year period of sea-ice loss. Satellite telemetry collected from n = 43 (1991-1995) and 38 (2009-2015) adult females revealed a significant contraction in subpopulation range size (95% bivariate normal kernel range) in most months and seasons, with the most marked reduction being a 70% decline in summer from 716,000 km2 (SE 58,000) to 211,000 km2 (SE 23,000) (p 
Notes
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PubMed ID
29468025 View in PubMed
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Characterization and Temperature Dependence of Arctic Micromonas polaris Viruses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289926
Source
Viruses. 2017 06 02; 9(6):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-02-2017
Author
Douwe S Maat
Tristan Biggs
Claire Evans
Judith D L van Bleijswijk
Nicole N van der Wel
Bas E Dutilh
Corina P D Brussaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Marine Microbiology and Biogeochemistry, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, and University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. douwe.maat@nioz.nl.
Source
Viruses. 2017 06 02; 9(6):
Date
06-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Chlorophyta - virology
DNA, Viral - genetics
Phycodnaviridae - genetics - physiology - radiation effects
Temperature
Virus Replication - radiation effects
Abstract
Global climate change-induced warming of the Artic seas is predicted to shift the phytoplankton community towards dominance of smaller-sized species due to global warming. Yet, little is known about their viral mortality agents despite the ecological importance of viruses regulating phytoplankton host dynamics and diversity. Here we report the isolation and basic characterization of four prasinoviruses infectious to the common Arctic picophytoplankter Micromonas. We furthermore assessed how temperature influenced viral infectivity and production. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the putative double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) Micromonas polaris viruses (MpoVs) are prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) of approximately 120 nm in particle size. One MpoV showed intrinsic differences to the other three viruses, i.e., larger genome size (205 ± 2 vs. 191 ± 3 Kb), broader host range, and longer latent period (39 vs. 18 h). Temperature increase shortened the latent periods (up to 50%), increased the burst size (up to 40%), and affected viral infectivity. However, the variability in response to temperature was high for the different viruses and host strains assessed, likely affecting the Arctic picoeukaryote community structure both in the short term (seasonal cycles) and long term (global warming).
Notes
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PubMed ID
28574420 View in PubMed
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Waste management in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, Russia: An environmental assessment of alternative development scenarios.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290043
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2018 Apr; 36(4):373-385
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Vlada Starostina
Anders Damgaard
Marie K Eriksen
Thomas H Christensen
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia.
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2018 Apr; 36(4):373-385
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The current waste management system, handling around 500,000?t of household, commercial, and institutional waste annually in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, is based on landfilling in an old landfill with no controls of leachate and gas. Life-cycle assessment modelling of the current system shows that it is a major load on the environment, while the simulation of seven alternative systems results in large savings in many impact categories. With respect to climate change, it is estimated that a saving of about 1200?kg CO2 equivalents is possible per year, per inhabitant, which is a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The best alternatives involve efficient energy recovery from waste and recycling by source separation for commercial and institutional waste, the major waste type in the Irkutsk region. Recycling of household waste seems less attractive, and it is therefore recommended only to consider this option after experience has been gained with the commercial and institutional waste. Sensitivity analysis shows that recovery of energy - in particular electricity, heat, and steam - from waste is crucial to the environmental performance of the waste management system. This relates to the efficiencies of energy recovery as well as what the recovered energy substitutes, that is, the 'dirtier' the off-set energy, the higher the environmental savings for the waste management system. Since recovered energy may be utilised by only a few energy grids or industrial users, it is recommended to perform additional local assessments of the integration of the waste energy into existing systems and facilities.
PubMed ID
29475411 View in PubMed
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Similarities and Differences in Barriers and Opportunities Affecting Climate Change Adaptation Action in Four North American Landscapes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290061
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Dec; 60(6):1076-1089
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Whitney R Lonsdale
Heidi E Kretser
Cheryl-Lesley B Chetkiewicz
Molly S Cross
Author Affiliation
Cornell University, 502N 9th Ave, Bozeman, MT, 59715, USA. whitneylonsdale@gmail.com.
Source
Environ Manage. 2017 Dec; 60(6):1076-1089
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - economics - methods
Decision Making, Organizational
Ecosystem
Environmental Policy - economics - trends
Humans
Natural resources
North America
Organizational Innovation - economics
Planning Techniques
Policy Making
Politics
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Climate change presents a complex set of challenges for natural resource managers across North America. Despite recognition that climate change poses serious threats to species, ecosystems, and human communities, implementation of adaptation measures is not yet happening on a broad scale. Among different regions, a range of climate change trajectories, varying political contexts, and diverse social and ecological systems generate a myriad of factors that can affect progress on climate change adaptation implementation. In order to understand the general versus site-specific nature of barriers and opportunities influencing implementation, we surveyed and interviewed practitioners, decision-makers, and scientists involved in natural resource management in four different North American regions, northern Ontario (Canada), the Adirondack State Park (US), Arctic Alaska (US), and the Transboundary Rocky Mountains (US and Canada). Common barriers among regions related to a lack of political support and financial resources, as well as challenges related to translating complex and interacting effects of climate change into management actions. Opportunities shared among regions related to collaboration, funding, and the presence of strong leadership. These commonalities indicate the importance of cross-site learning about ways to leverage opportunities and address adaptation barriers; however, regional variations also suggest that adaptation efforts will need to be tailored to fit specific ecological, political, social and economic contexts. Comparative findings on the similarities and differences in barriers and opportunities, as well as rankings of barriers and opportunities by region, offers important contextual insights into how to further refine efforts to advance adaptation actions in those regions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28884406 View in PubMed
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Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290127
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 15; 573:131-138
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-15-2016
Author
Sarah Hagel Svendsen
Frida Lindwall
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK -2100 Copenhagen E, Denmark; Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geoscience and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK -1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 15; 573:131-138
Date
Dec-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Ericaceae - growth & development
Greenland
Rosaceae - growth & development
Salix - growth & development
Soil - chemistry
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
Water - analysis
Abstract
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of BVOC emissions from a high arctic soil moisture gradient extending from dry tundra to a wet fen. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were sampled five times in the July-August period using a push-pull enclosure technique, and BVOCs trapped in absorbent cartridges were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species compositions were estimated using the point intercept method. In order to take into account important underlying ecosystem processes, gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production were measured in connection with chamber-based BVOC measurements. Highest emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil moisture, suggesting that high arctic BVOC emissions may affect the climate differently if soil water content and plant cover change.
PubMed ID
27552736 View in PubMed
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Life around the North Water ecosystem: Natural and social drivers of change over a millennium.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290174
Source
Ambio. 2018 Apr; 47(Suppl 2):213-225
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Kirsten Hastrup
Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen
Bjarne Grønnow
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1353, Copenhagen K, Denmark. kirsten.hastrup@anthro.ku.dk.
Source
Ambio. 2018 Apr; 47(Suppl 2):213-225
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The formation of the North Water in Smith Sound about 4500 years ago, as evidenced by the establishment of bird colonies and human presence, also initiated a long-term anthropogenic agent as part of this High Arctic ecosystem. Different epochs have influenced the human occupation in the area: immigration pulses from Canada and Alaska, trade with meteorite iron throughout the Arctic, introduction of new technologies by whalers and explorers, exploitation of resources by foreigners, political sequestration, export of fox and seal skins and later narwhal products, and recently fishing. Physical drivers in terms of weather and climate affecting the northern hemisphere also impact accessibility and productivity of the ecosystem, with cascading effects on social drivers, again acting back on the natural ecologies. Despite its apparent isolation, the ecosystem had and still has wide ranging spatial ramifications that extend beyond the High Arctic, and include human activity. The challenge is to determine what is internal and what is external to an ecosystem.
Notes
Cites: Ambio. 2018 Apr;47(Suppl 2):175-192 PMID 29516438
Cites: Ambio. 2018 Apr;47(Suppl 2):244-264 PMID 29520751
Cites: Ambio. 2018 Apr;47(Suppl 2):193-212 PMID 29516441
Cites: Ambio. 2018 Apr;47(Suppl 2):226-243 PMID 29516440
Cites: Ambio. 2018 Apr;47(Suppl 2):265-280 PMID 29516444
Cites: Ambio. 2018 Apr;47(Suppl 2):162-174 PMID 29516442
PubMed ID
29520750 View in PubMed
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Persistent nitrogen limitation of stream biofilm communities along climate gradients in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290180
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Mar 08; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-08-2018
Author
Maria Myrstener
Gerard Rocher-Ros
Ryan M Burrows
Ann-Kristin Bergström
Reiner Giesler
Ryan A Sponseller
Author Affiliation
Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Mar 08; :
Date
Mar-08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Climate change is rapidly reshaping Arctic landscapes through shifts in vegetation cover and productivity, soil resource mobilization, and hydrological regimes. The implications of these changes for stream ecosystems and food webs is unclear and will depend largely on microbial biofilm responses to concurrent shifts in temperature, light, and resource supply from land. To study those responses, we used nutrient diffusing substrates to manipulate resource supply to biofilm communities along regional gradients in stream temperature, riparian shading, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading in Arctic Sweden. We found strong nitrogen (N) limitation across this gradient for gross primary production, community respiration and chlorophyll-a accumulation. For unamended biofilms, activity and biomass accrual were not closely related to any single physical or chemical driver across this region. However, the magnitude of biofilm response to N addition was: in tundra streams, biofilm response was constrained by thermal regimes, whereas variation in light availability regulated this response in birch and coniferous forest streams. Furthermore, heterotrophic responses to experimental N addition increased across the region with greater stream water concentrations of DOC relative to inorganic N. Thus, future shifts in resource supply to these ecosystems are likely to interact with other concurrent environmental changes to regulate stream productivity. Indeed, our results suggest that in the absence of increased nutrient inputs, Arctic streams will be less sensitive to future changes in other habitat variables such as temperature and DOC loading.
PubMed ID
29516598 View in PubMed
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