BackgroundAdults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Studies have suggested that at least those born smallest eat less healthily. We examined the association between early (
Previous analyses of continuously measured compounds in Fort McKay, an indigenous community in the Athabasca Oil Sands, have detected increasing concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total hydrocarbons (THC), but not of sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), total reduced sulfur compounds (TRS), or particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter
The Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC), the largest component of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), showed a smaller, nonsignificant reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality by systematic prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening compared with the overall ERSPC results. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce inflammation and also PSA elevations due to intraprostatic inflammation.
To explore whether NSAID usage modifies the effects of PSA-based screening on prostate cancer incidence and mortality.
A cohort of 78 165 men from the FinRSPC were linked to a comprehensive national prescription database to obtain information on NSAID reimbursements prior to screening.
Prostate cancer risk and mortality were compared between the FinRSPC screening arm and the control arm among NSAID users and nonusers using an age-adjusted Cox regression model.
Screening increased the detection of Gleason 6 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-1.72 and HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26-1.54) and localized prostate tumors (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32 and HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) more among baseline NSAID nonusers than among users, respectively (p for interaction
Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Clinical Memory Research Unit, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Memory Clinic, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address: Oskar.Hansson@med.lu.se.
It is hypothesized that cerebral hypoperfusion promotes the development of Alzheimer pathology. We therefore studied whether longstanding cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with Alzheimer pathology in nondemented humans.
Cerebral blood flow and amyloid ß (18F-Flutemetamol) positron emission tomography retention were assessed in eleven patients with unilateral occlusion of precerebral arteries resulting in chronic and uneven hypoperfusion. A subset of patients underwent tau (18F-AV-1451) positron emission tomography.
The blood flow was significantly reduced on the affected side of the brain in patients with unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery or stenosis of the middle cerebral artery. However, the cortical uptake of 18F-Flutemetamol or 18F-AV-1451 was not altered.
Our results suggest that longstanding cerebral hypoperfusion in humans does not result in accumulation of amyloid ß fibrils or tau aggregates.
Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dementia may be associated with discontinuation of regular dental checkups, which in turn results in poorer oral health.
We investigated the trend of change in dental care utilization and the number of teeth before and after being diagnosed with dementia. Longitudinal cognitive- and dental health-related information were merged using data on 58,037 newly diagnosed individuals from the Swedish Dementia Registry and Swedish Dental Health Register during 2007 to 2015.
Following dementia diagnosis, rate of dental care visits significantly declined. Individuals with mixed dementia, dementia with parkinsonism, and those with more severe and faster cognitive impairment had significantly higher rate of decline in dental care utilization. Vascular dementia and lower baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score were significant predictors of faster loss of teeth.
Dental care utilization markedly declines following dementia diagnosis. The reduction is more prominent in those with rapid progressive cognitive impairment and the ones with extra frailty burden.
The CLARIFY register (The prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) combined data of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) from 45 countries including Russia. Purpose of this publication was to analyze dynamics of stable angina during 5 years of follow up in the Russian CLARIFY cohort compared with cohorts of patients from European and non-European countries.
Number of patients recruited in Russia was 2249.
During 5 years of observation proportion of angina decreased by 65.5, 39.5 and 37.0% in Russia, European and non-European countries, respectively. Proportion of patients with heart rate (HR)
to compare and discuss causes of differences between standardized mortality rates (SMR) from diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) among men and women older than 50 years in Russia and USA.
Data on mortality rate in the USA were taken from WHO mortality database (WHO MD), those on the USA population by 5-years age bands from Human Mortality Database (HMD). Information on mortality rates in Russia was obtained from Rosstat. In analysis we used age-adjusted death rates and SMR for DCS or ages more or equal 50 years. For standardization of mortality rates we used data of the European Standard Population 2013.
By 23 3-digit codes mortality rates among men in USA were higher than in Russia (in the structure of mortality among women there were 28 such codes). Portion of such deaths in Russia in total number of DCS deaths was 6.5% both for men and women, while figures for USA were 36.8 and 40%, respectively. About 99% of differences in SMR from DCS between countries were determined by 8 and 6 groups of causes in men and women, respectively. Analysis of 4-digit ICD codes showed that almost 40% of DSC class deaths both in Russia and USA had the forth digit of ICD-10 code 8 or 9 and were accompanied by wording "other" or "unspecified" or formulation of diseases which were not used in clinical practice and were absent in both guidelines issued by Russian or American professional societies. Despite existence of ICD rules the conducted analysis allows to state that those rules could be interpreted differently in various countries. This resulted in obtaining noncomparable data.
Comparison of mortality rates in USA and Russia based on existing ICD coding rules cannot be correctly performed. Therefore, this comparison does not allow to assess contribution of financing and organization of medical service in differences in mortality rates between two countries.
A few previous studies have reported an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children born preterm, but this has not been investigated in a cohort study. The impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on IPD incidence rates in preterm children is unknown.
Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (2002-2010) were linked to other national registries. In total, 628,138 children were included in our study and followed until 2 years of age. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with Poisson regression.
We identified 411 cases of IPD. We observed higher rates of IPD in preterm than in full-term children for the intervals 0-23, 0-5 and 6-23 months of age, IRRs = 1.83 (95 % CI: 1.36-2.47), 2.95 (95% CI: 1.44-6.06) and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.22-2.34), respectively. The risk for IPD was reduced in the PCV7-period (2007-2010) compared with that of the pre PCV7-period (2002-2005) for children 6-23 months of age, IRRs = 0.20 (95% CI: 0.08-0.53) for preterm children and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.21-0.38) for full-term children, but not for those 0-5 months of age, IRRs = 1.94 (95% CI: 0.48-7.80) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.38-1.33).
Preterm children had an increased risk of IPD. After introduction of PCV7, the rate of IPD was reduced among preterm and full-term children from 6 months of age.
The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has become an issue of concern during the past decades. The DBPs pose health risks and are suspected to cause various cancer forms, be genotoxic, and have negative developmental effects. The vast chemical diversity of DBPs makes comprehensive monitoring challenging. Only few of the DBPs are regulated and included in analytical protocols. In this study, a method for simultaneous measurement of 20 DBPs from five different structural classes (both regulated and non-regulated) was investigated and further developed for 11 DBPs using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a halogen-specific detector (XSD). The XSD was highly selective towards halogenated DBPs, providing chromatograms with little noise. The method allowed detection down to 0.05 µg L-1 and showed promising results for the simultaneous determination of a range of neutral DBP classes. Compounds from two classes of emerging DBPs, more cytotoxic than the "traditional" regulated DBPs, were successfully determined using this method. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs) should be analyzed separately as some HAA methyl esters may degrade giving false positives of trihalomethanes (THMs). The method was tested on real water samples from two municipal waterworks where the target DBP concentrations were found below the regulatory limits of Sweden.
Our goal was to validate the Swedish Cardiac Surgery Registry by reviewing the reported cardiac operations to assess the completeness and quality of the registered data and the EuroSCORE II variables.
A total of 5837 cardiac operations were reported to the Swedish Cardiac Surgery Registry in Sweden during 2015. A randomly selected sample of 753 patient records (13%) was scrutinized by 3 surgeons at all 8 units in Sweden performing open cardiac surgery in adults.
Coverage was excellent with 99% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98-99%] of the performed procedures found in the registry. Reported waiting times for surgery were correct in 78% (95% CI 76-79%) of the cases. The main procedural code was correctly reported in 96% (95% CI 95-97%) of the cases. The correlation between reported and monitored logistic EuroSCORE II had a coefficient of 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.82), and the median difference in EuroSCORE II was 0% (interquartile range -0.4% to 0.4%). The majority of EuroSCORE II variables had good agreement and coherence; however, New York Heart Association functional class, preoperative renal dysfunction, left ventricular ejection fraction, Canadian Cardiovascular Society Class IV angina and poor mobility were less robust. Postoperative complications were rare and in general had a high degree of completeness and agreement.
The reliability of the variables in the national Swedish Cardiac Surgery Registry was excellent. Thus, the registry is a valuable source of data for quality studies and research. Some EuroSCORE II variables require improved and stricter definitions to obtain uniform reporting and high validity.
Although Chlamydia trachomatis infection is common in pregnant women, such infections are rarely encountered in infants. To clarify the recognition of C. trachomatis infections in infants, we analyzed symptoms and signs of perinatally acquired chlamydial infection, together with its long-term prognosis in a large population-based patient series.
A search through 2 national health registries covering 1996-2011, a cohort of 933,823 births, yielded 124 children with a microbiologically confirmed C. trachomatis infection. We then reviewed copies of the children's medical records up to 16 years of age.
One-third of the infants with chlamydial conjunctivitis (33/110) had spontaneous blood-stained discharge from the infected eye. The infants with C. trachomatis lower respiratory tract infection were mostly afebrile (30/32), and 15/32 of them had wheezing. Staccato cough was not recorded in any of the infants. The median diagnostic delay from the onset of the symptoms was 13 (range 4-374) days for conjunctivitis and 25 (range 10-149) days for lower respiratory tract infection. One neglected child developed bilateral corneal scars because of an untreated C. trachomatis infection.
Blood-stained discharge was a typical finding in C. trachomatis conjunctivitis. The C. trachomatis-infected infants had severe and prolonged symptoms, but long-term consequences were rare. The diagnostic delay was long, especially among the infants with a C. trachomatis lower respiratory tract infection.
CommentIn: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Aug;37(8):835 PMID 30001294
CommentIn: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Aug;37(8):835-836 PMID 30001295
A genome is a mosaic of chromosome fragments from ancestors who existed some arbitrary number of generations earlier. Here, we reconstruct the genome of Hans Jonatan (HJ), born in the Caribbean in 1784 to an enslaved African mother and European father. HJ migrated to Iceland in 1802, married and had two children. We genotyped 182 of his 788 descendants using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips and whole-genome sequenced (WGS) 20 of them. Using these data, we reconstructed 38% of HJ's maternal genome and inferred that his mother was from the region spanned by Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon.
In a prospective cohort of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined the rate of and characteristics associated with bronchiolitis relapse. Bronchiolitis relapse was documented in 22 (6%) of 391 children, and median time to relapse was 2 (interquartile range, 1-7) days. Relapse occurred more often in males. Prenatal smoking and smoke exposure in the home were also associated with relapse.
We have identified a variant in ADCY3 (encoding adenylate cyclase 3) associated with markedly increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the Greenlandic population. The variant disrupts a splice acceptor site, and carriers have decreased ADCY3 RNA expression. Additionally, we observe an enrichment of rare ADCY3 loss-of-function variants among individuals with type 2 diabetes in trans-ancestry cohorts. These findings provide new information on disease etiology relevant for future treatment strategies.
The purpose was to elucidate the interplay between current smoking, anthropometric measurements, and endogenous hormone levels in women?=?40 years. Questionnaires on lifestyle and reproductive factors were completed by 269 healthy women from high-risk breast cancer families between 1996 and 2006 in Sweden. Blood samples for analyses of plasma testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin, and body measurements were obtained 5-10 days before predicted onset of the next menstrual period. Women without smoking status, who were currently breastfeeding, or using hormonal contraception other than combined oral contraceptives (OCs) were excluded (n?=?27). Current smokers (n?=?57) had larger waist circumference (adjp?=?0.004) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (adjp?=?0.007) than non-smokers (n?=?185). In non-OC users, adjusted mean androstenedione levels were higher in current smokers compared with non-smokers (10.3 vs. 8.6 nmol/L; adjp?=?0.0002). While in current OC users estradiol levels were higher in smokers compared with non-smokers (22.5 vs. 17.4 pg/mL; adjp?=?0.012). In multivariable models, WHR was associated with both current smoking (adjp?=?0.016) and higher levels of androstenedione (adjp?=?0.05) or bioavailable testosterone (adjp?=?0.001). Among non-OC users, a more androgenic profile was observed in current smokers compared with non-smokers, but not in current OC users. Irrespective of OC use, current smoking was associated with increased waist circumference.
We present a single-centre experience of procedural complications suffered by patients undergoing endovascular treatment for a ruptured saccular intracranial aneurysm at Tampere University Hospital, Finland, between 2000 and 2014.
From 2000 to 2014, we treated 1,253 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, 491 of whom received endovascular treatment. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from the hospital's aneurysm database. A procedural complication was defined as having occurred whenever there was a documented new event in the patient's medical records or a note of a technical complication written by an interventionist after endovascular treatment. Procedural complications could be with or without clinical symptoms.
Nearly 40% (491/1253) of the patients were treated with the endovascular method. Procedural complications occurred in 11.4% (56/491) of cases. The morbidity rate was 4.5% (22/491) and the mortality rate was 0.2% (1/491). Of the 56 complications, ischaemic complications occurred in 52% (29/56), haemorrhagic complications occurred in 27% (15/56) and technical complications occurred in 21% (12/56) of cases. In 61% (34/56) of the cases, the procedural complication did not cause any clinical symptoms.
The total risk for procedural complications leading to postoperative disability or death at our institute was 4.7%. The complication frequency is in accordance with previous reports. Endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms is a safe treatment method when patient selection is carefully performed.