Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used in large quantities. They are persistent and found in measurable levels in human serum around the world. They have been associated with developmental, hepatic, and carcinogenic effects in animal studies. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of PFCs in serum among Inuits from Greenland and inhabitants from Warsaw, Poland and Kharkiv, Ukraine. Furthermore, the aim was to define social- and lifestyle related determinants of exposure for these compounds. Serum levels of seven PFCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were the highest of all PFCs in all three populations with a total amount of almost 90% of the PFCs. The mean levels of PFOS and PFOA were in the Greenlandic Inuits 52 and 4.8 ng mL(-1), in Poland 19 and 5.2 ng mL(-1), and in Ukraine 8.1 and 1.9 ng mL(-1), respectively. Thus, levels of PFCs in the serum of Inuits on Greenland were among the highest described in a general population whereas the levels in Poland were similar to other industrialized countries. The exposure in Ukraine was rather low. In the Greenlandic Inuit population, intake of seafood, tea, age and area of living were significant determinants of PFOS concentrations and explained about 22% of the variation. For the other populations no strong determinants were found.
BACKGROUND: In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse.
OBJECTIVE: We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5-9 years of age.
METHODS: Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002-2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010-2012) using generalized linear models.
RESULTS: Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2-5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8-73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1-ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight.
BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality.
METHODS: PFCs were measured in serum from 588 partners of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine who provided a semen sample, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) could be detected in >97% of the samples. The associations between levels of these compounds and semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility and morphology were assessed.
RESULTS: Across countries, sperm concentration, total sperm count and semen volume were not consistently associated with PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS or PFNA levels. The proportion of morphologically normal cells was 35% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): 4-66%) for the third tertile of PFOS exposure as compared with the first. A similar reduction was found in relation to increasing PFHxS levels. At the third PFOA exposure tertile, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 19% (95% CI: 1 to 39%) higher than in the first.
CONCLUSIONS: The most robust finding in the present study was the negative associations between PFOS exposure and sperm morphology suggesting adverse effects of PFOS on semen quality, possibly due to interference with the endocrine activity or sperm membrane function. It cannot be excluded that this association and the positive association between PFOA and semen motility, which was not consistent across countries, might represent a chance finding due to the multiple statistical tests being performed.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy and estimated postnatal serum concentrations of the organochlorines 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in 5- to 9-year-old children.
METHODS: Maternal sera from the INUENDO birth cohort (2002-2004) comprising mother-child pairs (N=1109) from Greenland, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analysed for CB-153 and p,p'-DDE, using gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry, and were grouped into tertiles for statistical analyses. A toxicokinetic model was used to estimate the first 12 months cumulative exposure to the compounds. Associations between these compounds and child age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated at follow-up (2010-2012), using multiple linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: No clear associations between pregnancy CB-153 and p,p'-DDE and child BMI were observed (the pooled differences in BMI z-score (95% confidence interval) comparing 3rd tertile to 1st tertile were -0.07 (-0.32 to 0.18) and -0.10 (-0.30 to 0.10)??kg?m(-2), respectively). For postnatal CB-153 and p,p'-DDE and BMI, the overall differences in BMI z-score comparing 3rd tertile to 1st tertile were 0.12 (-0.15 to 0.39) and -0.03 (-0.20 to 0.27)?kg?m(-2), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This follow-up study of Greenlandic, Polish and Ukrainian populations showed no clear association between pregnancy and postnatal exposure to p,p'-DDE and CB-153 and BMI at the age of 5-9 years.
Serum lipids were measured in the men who made two ski crosses in the Far North during polar night. The first trip, which was to train the athletes, took 17 days and the second took 38 days. In both studies, lipid mobilization and utilization increased, which led to changes in the lipid spectrum: decrease of the concentration of LDL and, in the second trip, of VLDL and HDL3, and increase of the concentration of HDL2 and cholesterol HDL. In the second trip, lipids were most intensively utilized: lipolysis enhanced and free fatty acids declined. This was also indicated by an increase of the capillary-venous difference in terms of the total fraction of LDL and VLDL as well as free fatty acids. At the end of the second trip, the positive capillary-venous difference in terms of LDL and VLDL and, accordingly, the negative capillary-venous difference in terms of HDL2 and HDL3 increased. At the end of both trips the synthesis of transport lipids grew; in the most strenuous second trip, their active utilization in the working organs was stronger.