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Association between short birth intervals and schizophrenia in the offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61538
Source
Schizophr Res. 2004 Sep 1;70(1):49-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
Luc Smits
Carsten Pedersen
Preben Mortensen
Jim van Os
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Universiteit Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. luc.smits@epid.unimaas.nl
Source
Schizophr Res. 2004 Sep 1;70(1):49-56
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth Intervals - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Female
Folic Acid Deficiency - metabolism
Humans
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vitamin B 6 Deficiency - metabolism
Abstract
Pregnancy burdens maternal folate reserves. Postpartum restoration to normal folate values may take up to 1 year. Maternal folate deficiency during early pregnancy has been hypothesized as a cause of schizophrenia in the offspring. We investigated whether the risk of schizophrenia is increased in persons conceived shortly after another birth. A population-based cohort was established of 1.43 million persons born in Denmark between 1950 and 1983, yielding 17.6 million person-years of follow-up. Schizophrenia in cohort members (5095 cases) and their siblings and parents was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. Relative risks of schizophrenia were estimated by use of log-linear Poisson regression. As compared to intervals of 45 months and longer, the schizophrenia risk ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.35) for interbirth intervals of up to 15 months, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.56) for intervals of 15 to 17 months, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), for intervals of 18 to 20 months and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.29) for intervals of 21 to 26 months. Relative risks did not essentially change after adjustment for age, sex, calendar year of diagnosis, maternal and paternal age, history of mental illness in a parent or sibling, sibship size, place of birth, and distance to younger sibling. These results show an association between short birth intervals and schizophrenia in the offspring. Although maternal folate depletion may play a role in this association, we cannot rule out other explanations such as maternal stress during pregnancy and childhood infections.
PubMed ID
15246463 View in PubMed
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The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273409
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep;41(5):1084-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Pia Jeppesen
Janne Tidselbak Larsen
Lars Clemmensen
Anja Munkholm
Martin Kristian Rimvall
Charlotte Ulrikka Rask
Jim van Os
Liselotte Petersen
Anne Mette Skovgaard
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep;41(5):1084-94
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Delusions - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hallucinations - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Humans
Male
Pedigree
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Registries
Risk
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Abstract
Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25452427 View in PubMed
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Confirmation of synergy between urbanicity and familial liability in the causation of psychosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70840
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;161(12):2312-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Jim van Os
Carsten B Pedersen
Preben B Mortensen
Author Affiliation
Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands. j.vanos@sp.unimaas.nl
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;161(12):2312-4
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Causality
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Family Health
Female
Genetic markers
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Social Environment
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study replicated a previous report that there may be substantial synergism between urbanicity (a proxy environmental risk factor) and familial clustering of psychotic disorder (a proxy genetic risk factor). METHOD: The amount of synergism was estimated from the additive statistical interaction between urbanicity of place of birth and family history of schizophrenia or family history of any severe mental disorder in a population-based Danish cohort of 1,020,063 individuals. RESULTS: There was significant interaction between urbanicity and family history; between 20% and 35% of individuals who had been exposed to both of these risk factors had schizophrenia possibly because of their synergistic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a substantial proportion of the population morbidity force of schizophrenia may be the result of gene-environment interactions associated with urbanicity.
PubMed ID
15569906 View in PubMed
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National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291605
Source
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 09; 27(9):892-899
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
09-2017
Author
Jean-Baptiste Hazo
Coralie Gandré
Marion Leboyer
Carla Obradors-Tarragó
Stefano Belli
David McDaid
A-La Park
Maria Victoria Maliandi
Kristian Wahlbeck
Til Wykes
Jim van Os
Josep Maria Haro
Karine Chevreul
Author Affiliation
ECEVE, UMRS 1123, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM, Paris, France; AP-HP, URC-Eco, DHU Pepsy, F-75004 Paris, France; Foundation FondaMental, French National Science Foundation, Créteil, France. Electronic address: jeanbaptiste.hazo@urc-eco.fr.
Source
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 09; 27(9):892-899
Date
09-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Biomedical Research - economics
Charities - economics
Finland
France
Humans
Mental Health - economics
Spain
United Kingdom
Abstract
As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders.
PubMed ID
28647453 View in PubMed
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Psychotic experiences co-occur with sleep problems, negative affect and mental disorders in preadolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269346
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 May;56(5):558-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Pia Jeppesen
Lars Clemmensen
Anja Munkholm
Martin K Rimvall
Charlotte U Rask
Torben Jørgensen
Janne T Larsen
Liselotte Petersen
Jim van Os
Anne M Skovgaard
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 May;56(5):558-65
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology
Child
Comorbidity
Delusions - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hallucinations - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology
Sleep Wake Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Knowledge on the significance of childhood psychotic symptoms and experiences (PE) is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of PE in preadolescent children from the general population by use of in-depth psychopathological interviews and comprehensive diagnostic assessments.
We investigated 1,632 children from the general population-based Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. PE were measured by semistructured interviews using the K-SADS-PL-items on psychotic and affective symptoms, each symptom scored as not present versus likely or definitely present. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) was used independently to diagnose DSM-IV-mental disorders. Puberty development and sleep disturbance were self-reported. The associations between PE (any lifetime hallucination and/or delusion) and various mental problems and disorders were examined by multivariable binomial regression analyses, adjusting for gender and onset of puberty.
The weighted life time prevalence of PE at age 11-12 years was 10.9% (CI 9.1-12.7). The majority of children with PE (n = 172) either had a diagnosable DSM-IV-mental disorder (31.4%) or self-reported mental health difficulties in absence of a diagnosis (31.4%). The risk of delusions increased with onset of puberty. The risk of PE increased with emotional and neurodevelopmental disorders, subthreshold depressive symptoms, sleep problems and lack of sleep, regardless of whether PE were expressed as hallucinations and/or delusions. The highest correlations were seen for emotional and multiple disorders.
Psychotic experiences are particularly prevalent in the context of affective dysregulation and sleep disturbance, increase with onset of puberty and represent a trans-diagnostic marker of psychopathology.
PubMed ID
25156482 View in PubMed
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