Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.
The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA) and first-time diagnosis of hip OA in consecutive patients presenting to chiropractic practices in Denmark and to report the components of the initial treatment rendered by the chiropractic practitioner.
A total of 2000 patient records and 1000 radiographs were reviewed retrospectively in 20 chiropractic clinics throughout Denmark. Information obtained included patients' primary complaint, physical examination and radiographic findings of hip OA, and treatment. Subsequently, the 20 clinics participated in a prospective survey where they collected equivalent information over a 2-week period.
Retrospective review of records revealed that 1.4% of patients in Danish chiropractic practice had signs of clinical hip OA. Of these, 59% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA. Prospective data collection revealed that 3.4% of new patients had signs of clinical hip OA. Fifty-four percent of these demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA, and of these 70% were diagnosed as having OA of the hip for the first time. Initial treatment involved manual treatment and advice on over-the-counter pain medication and/or supplements. Of all 1000 retrospectively reviewed radiographs in patients 40 years or older, 19.2% demonstrated radiographic signs of hip OA.
Osteoarthritis of the hip is diagnosed and managed in primary care chiropractic practice in Denmark; however, it is likely underdiagnosed. In those newly presenting to chiropractic practitioners, first-time diagnosis with clinical and radiographic signs of hip OA appears to be common.
Smokers are often incorrect in their assessment of the relative risk of snus and cigarettes. We have studied how perception of risks of snus compared with cigarettes was associated with the willingness of trying snus as a quit-smoking method.
Fourteen thousand seven hundred and forty-four Norwegian men aged 20-50 years were selected at random from a national representative web panel and sent a questionnaire by e-mail. Of the 7,170 (48.6%) who responded, there were 1,155 former daily smokers who reported method for quitting smoking and 1,213 current daily smokers who stated their willingness to try different methods for quitting smoking. They were also asked to assess the relative risk between daily use of snus and cigarettes.
Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for reporting willingness to try snus in future quit attempts was significantly higher (AOR = 4.82, p
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To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) 20 years after one vaginal delivery or one caesarean section.
Registry-based national cohort study.
Women who returned postal questionnaires (response rate 65.2%) in 2008.
Singleton primiparae who delivered in the period 1985-1988 with no further births (n = 5236).
The Swedish Pregnancy, Obesity and Pelvic Floor (SWEPOP) study linked Medical Birth Register (MBR) data to a questionnaire about UI.
Prevalence of UI and UI for more than 10 years (UI > 10 years) were assessed 20 years after childbirth.
The prevalence of UI (40.3 versus 28.8%; OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.45-1.92) and UI > 10 years (10.1 versus 3.9%; OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.02-3.75) was higher in women after vaginal delivery than after caesarean section. There was no difference in the prevalence of UI or UI > 10 years after an acute caesarean section or an elective caesarean section. We found an 8% increased risk of UI per current body mass index (BMI) unit, and age at delivery increased the UI risk by 3% annually.
Two decades after one birth, vaginal delivery was associated with a 67% increased risk of UI, and UI > 10 years increased by 275% compared with caesarean section. Our data indicate that it is necessary to perform eight or nine caesarean sections to avoid one case of UI. Weight control is an important prophylactic measure to reduce UI. Current BMI was the most important BMI-determinant for UI, which is important, as BMI is modifiable.
In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH) in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE) Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight.
In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010.
In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province.
These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.
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The objectives of this study were to classify and analyze perioperative complications following free flap reconstruction in the head and neck and investigate potential predictors of these complications.
A retrospective chart analysis of 304 consecutive free flap reconstructions for defects in the head and neck were examined. Patient and operative characteristics as well as complications were recorded prospectively and analyzed using ordinal logistic regression.
The overall complication rate was 32.6% with a perioperative mortality rate of 0.3%. The flap loss rate was 2.0% and the partial flap necrosis rate was 1.0%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between perioperative complication and tumor stage as well as reconstruction site.
The rate and grade of complications with free flap reconstruction in the head and neck were found to be low. Higher tumor stage and pharyngoesophageal reconstruction were found to be associated with increased complication grades, whereas preoperative radiation alone and chemoradiation were not. Smoking and alcohol use, age, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and preoperative myocardial infarction as well as preoperative cerebrovascular accident were not found to be associated with increased complications. No statistically significant difference in complication grades was found with different flap types or indications for reconstruction.
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are common viruses mainly infecting young children. Most infections are mild, but HPeV3 causes severe CNS infections in new-born infants.
The aim was to study the epidemiology of HPeVs in Finnish general population in the period 1996-2007, with special emphasis on the different types circulating in Finland.
A total of 2236 stool specimens were collected from 200 healthy Finnish children in a prospective birth cohort study, most before the age of 2 years. Samples were tested for the presence of HPeV RNA using a specific RT-PCR. The genotype of HPeV was determined by sequencing the VP1 genomic region.
HPeV RNA was detected in 144 (6.4%) specimens from 78 (39%) children. The dominant type was HPeV1 (93% of the type-identified 105 samples), although types 3 and 6 were also identified. HPeV was found sequentially in more than one sample in 43 infections lasting up to 93 days. The positive findings were distributed equally in young ages and declined towards the age of 2 years. Infections clustered around the autumn months with no obvious change between years. No significant differences were seen between boys and girls.
HPeV is a common virus infecting Finnish children under 2 years of age. HPeVs circulate throughout the year with clear accumulation on autumn, also seen in individual years over the 11-year study period. The virus deserves increased attention and should be included in the test panel of clinical virus laboratories.
Left ventricular systolic function is a key determinant of outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to study speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) for early risk evaluation in STEMI and compare it with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), wall motion score index (WMSI), and end-systolic volume index (ESVI).
Five-hundred seventy-six patients underwent echocardiography =24 hours after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI. The end point was the composite of death, hospitalization with reinfarction, congestive heart failure, or stroke. Associations with outcome were assessed by multivariate Cox regression with adjustment for clinical parameters. Hazard ratios (HRs) for events within the first year are reported per absolute percentage GLS increase.
During a median follow-up period of 24 months, 162 patients experienced at least one event. GLS was associated with the composite end point (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.29) and also when controlling for LVEF (adjusted HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.29) and ESVI (adjusted HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.28). Although WMSI was significantly associated with outcome beyond any association accounted for by GLS, a borderline significant association was found after controlling for WMSI (adjusted HR for GLS, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). When GLS or WMSI was known, there was no significant association between LVEF or ESVI and outcome.
In a large population of patients with STEMI, GLS and WMSI were comparable and both superior for early risk assessment compared with volume-based left ventricular function indicators such as LVEF and ESVI. Compared with WMSI, the advantage of GLS is the provision of a semiautomated quantitative measure.
Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) predict cardiovascular mortality among several adult populations. Increased arrhythmia prevalence has been reported during controlled magnesium (Mg) depletion studies in adults. We thus hypothesized that serum magnesium (sMg) concentrations are inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in adults at high cardiovascular risk.
Anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed in 750 Cree adults, aged > 18 yrs, who participated in an age-stratified, cross-sectional health survey in Quebec, Canada. Holter electrocardiograms recorded heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmias for two consecutive hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between sMg and PVC.
PVC prevalence in adults with hypomagnesemia (sMg = 0.70 mmol/L) was more than twice that of adults without hypomagnesemia (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.015); results were similar when adults with cardiovascular disease history were excluded. All hypomagnesemic adults with PVC had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prevalence of PVC declined across the sMg concentration gradient in adults with T2DM only (p 0.70 mmol/L was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06-0.98) p = 0.046 compared to those with sMg = 0.70 mmol/L.
sMg concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in patients with T2DM in a dose response manner, indicating that suboptimal sMg may be a contributor to arrhythmias among patients with T2DM.
Cites: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Aug;38(2):364-7011499725