The aim of the study was to introduce an individual tooth wear index and to use this index to investigate factors correlated to occlusal wear. The material consisted of 585 randomly selected dentate individuals from the community of Jönköping, Sweden, who in 1983 reached the age of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, or 80 years. The degree of incisal and occlusal wear was evaluated for each single tooth in accordance with criteria presented earlier. An individual tooth wear index, which made it possible to rank individuals in accordance with incisal and occlusal wear, was used as dependent variable to investigate factors related to incisal and occlusal wear. Of all factors analyzed, the following were found to correlate significantly with increased incisal and occlusal wear: number of existing teeth, age, sex, occurrence of bruxism, use of snuff, and saliva buffer capacity. Stepwise multiple regression analysis gave a total explanation factor of R2 = 0.41. It was also possible to distinguish well between groups of individuals with and without tooth wear by means of these factors.
Infantile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (CLN1) is the form of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL) with the earliest onset of symptoms. The locus of the most common form of these disorders, juvenile NCL (CLN3), has been mapped to chromosome 16. We report here linkage data of the same region in Finnish CLN1 families. Our results indicate that CLN1 is not allelic with CLN3 but represents a different locus, which is not located within about 70 cM in chromosome 16.
Differences in oral health status between independent and institutionalized adults have been difficult to interpret because the latter population is typically older and has a higher proportion of women, confounding any association between institutionalization and disease levels. We undertook an analysis of oral disease amongst institutionalized (n = 149) and non-institutionalized (n = 246) samples of older adults randomly selected from the population in East York, Ontario. When the confounding effects of age and gender were controlled by constructing 67 matched pairs, institutionalized people were more than twice as likely to be edentulous (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.09-4.29). This association was confirmed using data from all subjects in a logistic regression model. Analysis of covariance of data from dentate subjects revealed that the institutionalized seniors had fewer filled teeth (P less than 0.05, controlling for age and sex), but there were no statistically significant differences in the number of teeth which were missing, decayed, or requiring extraction. These findings suggest that antecedent, sociodemographic factors prior to institutionalization are responsible for the higher probability of oral disease in this group of older adults.
In 718 Swedish patients, equally divided into four age groups (19-25, 26-45, 46-60, greater than 60 yr), salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, saliva secretion rate, and DMFS were registered. No significant differences were found between the various age groups either in salivary factors or in caries (D). Number of missing (M) and filled (F) surfaces increased with age. Prevalence of root caries, which increased with age, was significantly correlated to number of exposed root surfaces independent of age. Of the total study group, 50% had greater than or equal to 10(6) mutans streptococci and 40% had greater than or equal to 10(5) lactobacilli per mL saliva. Three percent had a saliva secretion rate of less than or equal to 0.5 mL/min. Correlation analyses showed that both mutans streptococci and lactobacilli significantly correlated to the caries prevalence but the r-value never exceeded 0.34.
The epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan in 1951 and 1952 was studied in order to determine origins of outbreaks and methods of spread. The epidemic was initially considered to be vesicular stomatitis and foot-and-mouth disease was not recognized until February 1952, three months after the initial infection. The reports prepared at that time were reviewed in order to obtain details of the numbers of animals infected and the source and date of infection for the outbreaks. Methods of spread were rated according to their likelihood. The introduction of infection by an immigrant through his clothes as well as by sausage was possible. The sequence of events from the first outbreak to the spread from a feedlot/packing plant and from a dairy farm, which failed to report the disease, were clarified. Methods of spread included movement of animals, animal products and people and the airborne route. Milk delivery and artificial insemination did not result in spread of infection. The quarantine of affected farms reduced spread by animals and deterred visits by people. The original diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis was due to misinterpretation of a lesion in an inoculated horse. Laboratory tests established the presence of foot-and-mouth disease. The limited extent of the epidemic, despite the delay in diagnosis, is attributed to (i) the low density of cattle, (ii) few infected pigs and hence less airborne virus and (iii) absence of waste food feeding and milk collection in addition to the limited quarantine imposed.
This study was designed to test the concurrent validity of the revised Task-Oriented Assessment (TOA) component of the Bay Area Functional Performance Evaluation (BaFPE) (Bloomer & Williams, 1979) with Part 1 of the American Association on Mental Deficiency Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) (Nihira, Foster, Shellhaas, & Leland, 1969, 1974) and to develop a means of interpretation for the numeric scores on the TOA. Both measures were administered to 67 psychiatric inpatients within the first 14 days of admission. Low to moderate correlations were found between the TOA tasks and functional parameters and the ABS domains. Because the TOA shows low concurrent validity with the ABS, only limited interpretive descriptions for TOA scores could be developed.
Epidemiology and aetiology of acute non-tuberculous salpingitis. A comparison between the early 1970s and the early 1980s with special reference to gonorrhoea and use of intrauterine contraceptive device.
More patients were hospitalised for acute salpingitis at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Orebro Medical Centre, Orebro, Sweden, during the 5 year period 1970-1974 (period I) as compared with that of 1980-1984 (period II), 666 patients and 524 respectively, a decrease of 22%. The majority of cases, 92% in period I and 85% in period II, occurred among women 15-34 years of age, that is a relative increase of patients aged over 34 from 8% in period I to 15% in period II. Concomitant urogenital gonorrhoea occurred in 26.2% of the patients in period I compared with 12.0% in period II, a highly significant decrease (p less than 0.001) mainly confined to the age group 15-24, whereas there was no relative difference for the two periods in the age group 25-34 years. The number of patients using intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) was 96/666 (14.4%) in period I compared with 113/524 (21.6%) in period II (p less than 0.001). There were also relatively more IUCD users among the patients with gonorrhoea and acute salpingitis in period II (15.5%) compared with period I (10.4%) but this difference was not statistically significant. From 1981 to 1984 370/424 patients were cultured for Chlamydia trachomatis and 27.8% (103/370) were positive. Thus Chlamydia trachomatis is at present, at least in the Orebro area, the most frequently isolated STD agent among acute salpingitis patients while gonorrhoea is of much less importance.