Zinc may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), because it is involved in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the role of zinc in the etiology of T2D has been poorly investigated. This study was conducted to study the association of serum zinc on T2D risk in middle-aged and older Finnish men.
This was a 20-year prospective follow-up study on 2220 Finnish men from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) who were 42 to 60 years old at baseline in 1984-1989. The main outcome was incident T2D. Serum zinc, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and, in a subset of 751 participants, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), were measured. Also, the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was used to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta-cell function (HOMA-ß) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS).
At baseline, serum zinc was associated with higher BMI, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß and IGFBP-1 and lower HOMA-IS. During the average follow-up of 19.3 years, 416 men developed T2D. Men in the highest quartile of serum zinc had 60% higher risk (95% CI 20-113%; P-trend
Motor complications may become major challenges in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease. In this study, we sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, evolution, and treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in a population-representative, incident Parkinson's disease cohort.
In this prospective population-based 5-year longitudinal study, we followed 189 incident and initially drug-naïve Parkinson's disease patients biannually for detailed examination of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations as defined by the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses to assess cumulative incidence and risk factors of these motor complications.
The 5-year cumulative incidence of motor complications was 52.4%. Motor fluctuations occurred in 42.9% and dyskinesias in 24.3%. Besides higher motor severity predicting both motor fluctuations (p = 0.016) and dyskinesias (p 0.1) independently predicted development of motor complications. Motor fluctuations reversed in 37% and dyskinesias in 49% of patients on oral treatment and remained generally mild in those with persistent complications. No patients received device-aided therapies during the study.
More than 50% in the general Parkinson's disease population develop motor complications within 5 years of diagnosis. However, they remain mild in the vast majority and are reversible in a substantial proportion of patients.
We investigated whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was predictor of suicidal behavior even when adjusting for comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other salient risk factors. To study this, we randomly selected 308 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of suicide risk. Baseline interviews were performed within the first days of the stay. Information concerning the number of self-harm admissions to general hospitals over the subsequent 6 months was retrieved through linkage with the regional hospital registers. A censored regression analysis of hospital admissions for self-harm indicated significant associations with both PTSD (? = .21, p
We analyzed the association between light-to-moderate alcohol intake and the risk of heart failure (HF).
We studied 60,665 individuals free of HF who provided information on alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort study conducted in 1995-97 in Norway. Sociodemographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors and common chronic disorders were assessed by questionnaires and/or by a clinical examination. The cohort was followed for a first HF event for an average of 11.2 ± 3.0 years. Mean alcohol consumption was 2.95 ± 4.5 g/day; 1588 HF cases occurred during follow-up. The quantity of alcohol consumption was inversely associated with incident HF in this low-drinking population. The risk was lowest for consumption over three but less than six drinks/week; the multivariate hazard ratio when comparing this category to non-drinkers was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92). Among problem drinkers based on CAGE questionnaires, total consumption showed no favorable association with HF, even when overall consumption was otherwise moderate. Excluding former drinkers and controlling for common chronic diseases had minimal effect on these associations. Frequent alcohol consumption, i.e. more than five times/month, was associated with the lowest HF risk; the adjusted hazard ratio comparing this group to alcohol intake less than once/month was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.68-1.03). We found no evidence for a differential effect according to beverage type, nor that the competing risks of death from other causes modified the association.
Frequent light-to-moderate alcohol consumption without problem drinking was associated with a lower HF risk in this population characterized by a low average alcohol intake.
Hypericum perforatum (HP; also known as St. John's Wort) is one of the most commonly used herbal therapies in the management of depressive illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential side effects of HP during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome. Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), we investigated outcomes among 38 HP exposed pregnancies compared to a group of 90,128 women. Associations between HP use and gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight, malformations and Apgar scores were investigated. Preterm birth did not differ across the groups. While the prevalence of malformations in the HP exposed group was slightly higher (8.1%) than observed in the control groups (3.3%; p=0.13), this was based on only three cases and was not of any specific pattern.
The known monogenic forms of stroke are rare. The aim of this study was to analyze pedigrees of young stroke patients regarding possible monogenic cerebrovascular disease and to evaluate the possibility of genetic stroke in these families. This may contribute to a better understanding of disease mechanism in stroke.
Lund Stroke Register includes consecutive patients with first-ever stroke from a defined geographical area in southern Sweden. Early-onset (=55 years) stroke patients were systematically screened with regard to family history (FHx), and families with stroke aggregation were compiled. Participants provided information in a questionnaire on occurrence of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in their families. Information on cardiovascular risk factors (VRFs) and clinical stroke subtype was collected. FHx for stroke was considered positive when the patient reported either =1 first-degree relative with stroke/TIA, or no first-degree relative but =3 second- or third-degree relatives with stroke/TIA in a distribution compatible with monogenic inheritance.
Of 4103 stroke patients registered, 426 (10%) had first-ever stroke at =55 years and 338 (79%) of these answered the questionnaire. Of them, 159 (47%) reported a positive FHx. Twenty-eight (18%) of the probands with positive FHx had no known VRFs. Thirty-two families with =4 members with stroke were identified. In all these larger families the affected individuals with stroke were present in more than one generation.
Aggregation of stroke in families of early-onset stroke patients is not uncommon. Genetic factors with impact on stroke risk, including monogenic causes, need to be evaluated in future stroke studies.
Only few studies exist regarding the risk of a teratogenic effect of tramadol when used in early pregnancy. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, women (deliveries in 1997-2013) who had reported the use of tramadol in early pregnancy were identified. Maternal characteristics and concomitant drug use were analyzed. Among 1,682,846 women (1,797,678 infants), 1751 (1776 infants) had used tramadol, 96 of the infants had a congenital malformation and 70 of them were relatively severe. The adjusted odds ratio for a relatively severe malformation was 1.33 (95% CI 1.05-1.70). The odds ratios for cardiovascular defects (1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.29) and for pes equinovarus (3.63, 95% CI 1.61-6.89) were significantly increased. The study suggests a teratogenic effect of tramadol but the risk increase is moderate.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, frequently managed by general practitioners and gastroenterologists. It is a complex condition, characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits, and it affects 11% of the population worldwide. It has a profound effect on quality of life for many patients and poses a substantial cost to society. Due to the complexity and diversity of IBS, diagnosis and treatment can be challenging. Common drawbacks in diagnosing and treating this disorder include unnecessary tests, failure to establish trust in the physician-patient relationship and difficulties in explaining the diagnosis. Research in recent years has however refined the diagnostic criteria and improved our ability to safely identify IBS with a limited number of investigations. A concise diagnostic evaluation, guided adequate information, prompt initiation of symptom-guided treatment and consistency in the patient-doctor relationship can help relieve the suffering experienced by patients with IBS. For patients with mild symptoms, reassurance, education, lifestyle changes and dietary advice are often sufficient. Patients with moderate to severe symptoms might need symptom modifying drugs, and psychological treatments such as CBT or hypnotherapy may be offered at this stage. For patients with severe and incapacitating symptoms, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended and psychotropic drugs are often used. This clinical review offers suggestions for a diagnostic approach as well as a treatment strategy, based on the current evidence on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment in IBS.
Vascular access complications after coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are known to increase morbidity, prolong hospitalization and raise hospital costs. Therefore, risk factor identification and improvement of safety strategies for vascular management are important. We aimed to assess the incidence of major vascular complications related to femoral access, and to identify potential risk factors.
Over a period of six years, 23,870 index procedures (CAG) were performed in two centres, prospectively entered in the database and retrospectively analysed. Data was obtained from the Eastern Danish Heart Registry and cross-matched with data from the Danish Vascular Registry. Index procedures were defined as the first trans-femoral procedure. Demographic, procedural and mortality data, as well as information on access complications requiring surgery within 30 days were collected. Mortality data were collected for minimum 12 months.
We identified 130 (0.54%) access complications requiring surgery; 65 pseudoaneurysms (0.28%), 46 arterial occlusions (0.19%), 15 hematomas (nine groin and six retroperitoneal hematomas) (0.06%), and 4 arterial dissections (0.02%). Risk factors for complications were left sided femoral access (OR 4.11 [2.29-7.37] p
Valid estimation of the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) among lymphoma patients has been limited by small studies focused on selected lymphoma subtypes and failure to account for death as a competing risk. Using a nationwide cohort of Danish lymphoma patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2010, we examined the incidence and risk factors for VTE and evaluated the transient impact of cancer treatments on VTE risk.
Medical databases contained cancer, comorbidity, treatment, and VTE information. We computed VTE incidence rates (IRs) per 1000 person-years and 1- and 2-year incidence accounting for competing risks. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we identified factors associated with VTE risk. In a nested self-controlled design, we evaluated the transient effect of chemotherapy, radiation, central venous catheter use and rituximab on VTE risk using logistic regression models and adjusted odds ratios (aORs).
VTE IRs were >40/1000 person-years within 180 days post-diagnosis, decreasing to 8/1000 person-years in year two. VTE risk was 2.9% and 3.5% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Lymphoma subtype, central nervous system involvement, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase were associated with VTE risk. Central venous catheter use increased the transient odds of VTE (aOR=6.7 (1.2, 28.1)).
We report a lower VTE incidence among lymphoma patients compared with prior studies. Lymphoma aggressiveness was the main driver of baseline VTE risk, whereas central venous catheter use increased transient risks. These accurate estimates may improve the identification of lymphoma subgroups at highest VTE risk, for whom future targeted prevention interventions may be beneficial.