The frequencies of four mutations in the BRCA1 gene (185delAG, T300G, 4153delA, and 5382insC) were estimated in the Russian population. The mutations were analyzed in 7920 DNA samples obtained from randomly selected Novosibirsk citizens and 570 samples from breast cancer patients at Siberian hospitals. The mutations were detected by allele-specific real-time PCR. The mutation analysis was performed with pooled DNA samples to reduce the cost of the study. The 5382insC mutation was found in 20 of 7920 (0.25%) population DNA samples and in 14 of 570 (2.46%) breast cancer samples; the T300G mutation was detected in 4 population samples (0.05%) and in 2 breast cancer samples (0.35%); the 185delAG or 4153delA mutations were not identified in any of the 7920 samples and were detected in 1 (0.18%) breast cancer case each.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) indicates tubular kidney damage, neutrophil activation and possibly atherogenesis, however the prospective association between urinary NGAL (u-NGAL) and cardiovascular death in the community is not known.
This study evaluates the association between urinary and serum NGAL and mortality in a Swedish population of 597 men aged 78 years. During the study (median follow-up 8.1 years) 261 men died, 90 of cardiovascular causes.
U-NGAL was associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.0 for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 95% CI 1.0-4.0, P
Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma adiponectin has been associated with increased mortality and an increasing number of major adverse CV events (MACE). Because of these conflicting results, the true role of adiponectin remains to be elucidated. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we prospectively followed up 5,624 randomly selected men and women from the community without CV disease. Plasma adiponectin was measured at the beginning of the study. The median follow-up time was 7.8 years (interquartile range 7.3 to 8.3). The end point was all-cause mortality (n = 801), and the combined end point was MACE, consisting of CV mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of concern in Arctic populations since these contaminants accumulate in fish and marine mammals, which is an important part of the traditional diet of these populations. Epidemiological and experimental studies have reported significant associations between POPs and increased blood pressure (BP) in populations with different degrees of exposure.
We aimed to assess the risk of hypertension related to increasing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides.
Fifteen PCBs and 11 OC pesticides or their metabolites were determined in plasma of 1614 Inuit adults = 18 years living in 9 towns and 13 villages in Greenland. BP was measured using a standardized protocol. The risk of hypertension was estimated through logistic regression using POPs as continuous variables (log-transformed). Hypertension was defined as systolic BP = 140 mm Hg, diastolic BP = 90 mm Hg and/or antihypertensive treatment.
Overall, the odd ratios (ORs) of hypertension were not statistically significant for dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and OC pesticides after adjusting for confounders. Once the analyses were stratified by age category (18-39 and = 40 years), increased risk of hypertension was observed for total dioxin-like PCBs among the youngest [OR: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.03-1.74)] while a borderline protective effect was observed for total non-dioxin-like PCBs [OR: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66-0.99)] among the oldest. Higher risk of hypertension was also associated with increasing p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) concentrations among the youngest [OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.85)].
Overall, no significant associations were observed between PCBs, OC pesticides and blood pressure in this highly exposed population although the associations differed by age category.
The objectives of the present study were to examine whether living with an individual who suffered from epilepsy was a potentially traumatizing event and to identify predictive risk factors in developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Six hundred fourteen respondents completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Crisis Support Scale, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. In addition, demographic variables were included in order to identify factors that might predict PTSD.
The percentage of the participants that fulfilled the symptom criteria of PTSD was 7.7%, and an additional 43.9% reported a subclinical level of PTSD. Clinical and subclinical anxiety was unveiled in 9.3% of the respondents.
Partners were at risk of PTSD when living with a patient with epilepsy. Identified variables that explained PTSD were frequency and types of seizures medication, side effects, and objective and subjective epilepsy severity, anxiety, and depression. High level of social support decreased the level of traumatic stress.
To analyse the associations between unemployment and suboptimal self-rated health as well as high alcohol consumption, and to examine the role of possible mediating factors explaining the associations from a gender perspective.
The sample, from a 14-year longitudinal study with a 96.4% response rate, consisted of 386 women and 478 men who were either employed or unemployed at 30 years of age.
The health outcomes studied were suboptimal self-rated health and high alcohol consumption at 30 years of age. Logistic regression was used for analysis, and the relational theory of gender was used to discuss the findings.
A strong relationship was found between unemployment and suboptimal self-rated health among women, and unemployment and high alcohol consumption among men, even after controlling for health-related selection, potential mediators and background factors. All mediating factors in the model were attributable to suboptimal self-rated health among unemployed women. Two mediating factors were also substantially related to high alcohol consumption among unemployed men.
Long-term unemployment at a young age could have various health effects in men and women. At present, the mechanisms behind the health consequences are better understood among women. Research would benefit from developing theories in order to explain how youth unemployment leads to gendered health consequences.
There are limited data on length of stay (LOS) following liver transplantation (LT), yet this is an important health services metric that directly correlates with early post-LT health care costs. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and LOS after LT. The secondary objective was to identify additional recipient, donor, and operative factors associated with LOS.
Adult patients undergoing primary LT over a 32-month period were prospectively examined at a single center. Subjects fulfilling standard criteria for EAD were compared with those not meeting the definition. Variables associated with increased LOS on ordinal logistic regression were identified.
Subjects with EAD had longer mean hospital LOS than those without (42.5 ± 38.9 days vs 27.4 ± 31 days; P = .003). Subjects with EAD also had longer mean intensive care LOS (8.61 ± 10.28 days vs 5.45 ± 11.6 days; P = .048). Additional factors significantly associated with LOS included Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, recipient location before LT, and postoperative surgical complications.
EAD is associated with longer hospitalization after LT. MELD score, preoperative recipient location, and postoperative complications were significantly associated with LOS. From a cost-containment perspective, these findings have implications on resource allocation.
Epithelial Function and Development Group, Department of Functional and Comparative Genomics, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZJ, UK. email@example.com
Glucose transport across the enterocyte brush border membrane by sodium/glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1, coded by Slc5a1) is the rate-limiting step for intestinal glucose transport. The relevance of SGLT1 expression in predisposition to diabetes mellitus and to obesity was investigated in dogs. Cultured Caco-2/TC7 cells were shown to express SGLT1 in vitro. A 2-kbp fragment of the Slc5a1 5' flanking region was cloned from canine genomic DNA, ligated into reporter gene plasmids, and shown to drive reporter gene expression in these cells above control (P
Leukocyte telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cellular aging and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether leukocyte telomere length is independently associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general population. Telomere length was measured using a polymerase chain reaction method for participants enrolled in the 1995 Nova Scotia Health Survey (NSHS95; n = 1,917). The primary end point was the first occurrence of a fatal or nonfatal CHD event. During a mean follow-up period of 8.7 years, 164 fatal or nonfatal CHD events occurred. Compared with participants in the longest tertile of telomere length, those in the middle and shortest tertiles had increased incidence of CHD events (6.2, 11.2, and 12.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively). After adjustment for demographics, traditional risk factors, and inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, those in the middle tertile had significantly elevated risk for incident CHD (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.51, p = 0.02) compared with the longest tertile, whereas the risk for those in the shortest tertile was nonsignificantly elevated (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.90, p = 0.30). In conclusion, these findings do not support a linear association between leukocyte telomere length and incident CHD risk in the general population.
Cites: Lancet. 2003 Feb 1;361(9355):393-512573379
Cites: Clin Chem. 1972 Jun;18(6):499-5024337382
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Sep;108(3):161-75707484
Cites: Circulation. 1998 May 12;97(18):1837-479603539
Cites: Aging Cell. 2005 Dec;4(6):287-9016300480
Cites: Epidemiology. 2006 Mar;17(2):190-416477260
Cites: Circulation. 2006 May 16;113(19):2335-6216702488
Cites: Ann Neurol. 2006 Aug;60(2):181-716807921
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jan 1;165(1):14-2117043079
Cites: Lancet. 2007 Jan 13;369(9556):107-1417223473
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Dec;35(6):1424-916997848
Cites: Am J Cardiol. 2009 Mar 15;103(6):755-6119268727
The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.