We explored the psychometric features of the French Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a 602-subject community sample (263 men and 339 women), representative of the French population. The factor structures of the temperament and character dimensions, explored separately, were in agreement with the hypothesized constructs, except for the scales Novelty Seeking NS1 (exploratory excitability), Persistence, and Self-Directedness SD4 (self-acceptance). The internal consistency of the main dimensions was good (Cronbach alpha coefficients between 0.68 and 0.82), but weak for Persistence (0.49). The mean scores of the temperament dimensions were notably different from those published in other normative data - especially lower for Novelty Seeking (16.4+/-5.6) and higher for Harm Avoidance (16.1+/-7.2) when compared with US data - suggesting cross-cultural differences in personality assessment, and the necessity to use specific normative values with each translated instrument.
French population policy developments since 1945 are reviewed and compared to events in other developed countries. The author notes that the original objectives of French policy were to ensure a certain standard of living to children in families, regardless of the size of the family. However, over the course of time, the right not to have more children than parents wanted became another policy objective. He also notes that the level of support for families has declined in real terms over time and that France has now been overtaken by other Western countries, such as Sweden and the United Kingdom.
International systems are frequently offered as models for health care reform. This study, focusing on preventive services for children and pregnant women in six industrialized countries, finds that a broad range of preventive services can be provided through health care systems with divergent financing and cost containment, utilizing multiple entry points into the health care system, and employing targeted programs for high-risk patients. Despite variability in form and financing, health outcomes are not compromised, suggesting that health care reformers in this country need not be restricted to any single model to strengthen preventive health care for children and pregnant women.
Data from prospective studies clearly demonstrate the efficacy of prophylactic treatment of haemophilia in reducing joint- or life-threatening bleeding and the associated consequences for quality of life. Debate remains, however, regarding the optimal implementation of prophylaxis. Our aim in this review was to identify a best practice approach to factor replacement prophylaxis in boys with haemophilia. We evaluate prophylactic treatment regimens currently used in Swedish, Canadian and French centres and highlight key issues, including the optimal age for starting prophylaxis, the optimal treatment dosage/schedule and patient compliance.
OBJECTIVE: The Worksafe Project aims at increasing access to and use of the large amount of data related to the broad sector of health protection of workers and workplace safety recognising the key role of the communication and dissemination of the research results with particular reference to cancer. PARTICIPANTS: Four scientific institutes: National Institute for Research on Cancer, Genoa (IST); Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki; Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, and two technological partners (Softeco Sismat, Genoa; Fundacion Robotiker, Bilbao). RESULTS: The creation of the Worksafe portal, a web based infrastructure that allows knowledge sharing on top of a distributed digital data collection and provides web accessed services addressing a broad interested audience including biomedicine companies universities, research institutions, local and national public organisations and private users.
Prospective validation study of a crosscultural adaptation of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ).
To provide a French-Canadian version of the SAQ.
The SAQ is widely used for the assessment of appearance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.
French translation/back-translation of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire-French version (SAQ-fv) was done by an expert committee. Its reliability was measured using the intradomain correlation coefficient, concurrent validity by using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Outcomes Questionnaire, and discriminant validity using analysis of variance, on 182 consecutive patients attending a scoliosis clinic.
Intradomain correlations were weak to excellent (? = 0.34-0.76, P
To compare 12-month and lifetime service use for common mental disorders in 4 francophone subsamples using data from national mental health surveys in Canada, Quebec, France, and Belgium. This is the second article in a 2-part series comparing mental disorders and service use prevalence of French-speaking populations.
Comparable World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interviews (WMH-CIDI) were administered to representative samples of adults (aged 18 years and older) in Canada during 2002 and in France and Belgium from 2001 to 2003. Two groups of francophone adults in Canada, in Quebec (n = 7571) and outside Quebec (n = 500), and respondents in Belgium (n = 389) and France (n = 1436) completed the French version of the population survey. Prevalence rates of common mental health service use were examined for major depressive episodes and specific anxiety disorders (that is, agoraphobia, social phobia, and panic disorder).
Overall, most francophones with mental disorders do not seek treatment. Canadians consulted more mental health professionals than their European counterparts, with the exception of psychiatrists.
Patterns of service use are similar among francophone populations. Variations that exist may be accounted for by differences in health care resources, health care systems, and health insurance coverage.
To compare the 12-month prevalence of common mental disorders among francophones in Canada, France, and Belgium. This is the first article in a 2-part series comparing mental disorders and service use prevalence of French-speaking populations.
This is a secondary analysis of data from the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (CCHS 1.2) in 2002 and the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders-Mental Health Disability (ESEMeD) from 2001 to 2003, where comparable questionnaires were administered to representative samples of adults in Canada, France, and Belgium. In Canada, francophone respondents living in Quebec (n = 7571) and outside Quebec (n = 500) completed the French version of the CCHS 1.2 questionnaire. Francophone respondents in Belgium (n = 389) and in France (n = 1436) completed the French version of the ESEMeD population survey questionnaire. Major depressive episodes (MDEs), specific anxiety disorders (ADs), and alcohol abuse and (or) dependence disorders' rates were assessed.
The overall prevalence rate for the presence of any MDE, AD, or alcohol abuse and (or) dependence was similar in all francophone populations studied in Canada and Europe and averaged 8.5%.
Mental disorders were equally distributed in all francophone populations studied. Cross-national comparisons continue to be instrumental in providing information useful for the creation of appropriate policies and programs for specific subsets of populations.