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Drug abuse-associated mortality across the lifespan: a population-based longitudinal cohort and co-relative analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289928
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017 07; 52(7):877-886
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Date
07-2017
Author
Kenneth S Kendler
Henrik Ohlsson
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980126, Richmond, VA, 23298-0126, USA. kenneth.kendler@vcuhealth.org.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017 07; 52(7):877-886
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Nationwide data have been lacking on drug abuse (DA)-associated mortality. We do not know the degree to which this excess mortality results from the characteristics of drug-abusing individuals or from the effects of DA itself.
DA was assessed from medical, criminal, and prescribed drug registries. Relative pairs discordant for DA were obtained from the Multi-Generation and Twin Registers. Mortality was obtained from the Swedish Mortality registry.
We examined all individuals born in Sweden 1955-1980 (n = 2,696,253), 75,061 of whom developed DA. The mortality hazard ratio (mHR) (95% CIs) for DA was 11.36 (95% CIs, 11.07-11.66), substantially higher in non-medical (18.15, 17.51-18.82) than medical causes (8.05, 7.77-8.35) and stronger in women (12.13, 11.52-12.77) than in men (11.14, 10.82-11.47). Comorbid smoking and alcohol use disorder explained only a small proportion of the excess DA-associated mortality. Co-relative analyses demonstrated substantial familial confounding in the DA-mortality association with the strongest direct effects seen in middle and late-middle ages. The mHR was highest for opiate abusers (24.57, 23.46-25.73), followed by sedatives (14.19, 13.11-15.36), cocaine/stimulants (12.01, 11.36-12.69), and cannabis (10.93, 9.94-12.03).
The association between registry-ascertained DA and premature mortality is very strong and results from both non-medical and medical causes. This excess mortality arises both indirectly-from characteristics of drug-abusing persons-and directly from the effects of DA. Excess mortality of opiate abuse was substantially higher than that observed for all other drug classes. These results have implications for interventions seeking to reduce the large burden of DA-associated premature mortality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28550519 View in PubMed
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Is vaginal breech delivery associated with higher risk for perinatal death and cerebral palsy compared with vaginal cephalic birth? Registry-based cohort study in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289935
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 05 04; 7(4):e014979
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-04-2017
Author
Solveig Bjellmo
Guro L Andersen
Marit Petra Martinussen
Pål Richard Romundstad
Sissel Hjelle
Dag Moster
Torstein Vik
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helse More og Romsdal HF, Alesund, Norway.
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 05 04; 7(4):e014979
Date
05-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Breech Presentation - epidemiology - therapy
Cerebral Palsy - epidemiology - etiology
Cesarean Section
Child, Preschool
Delivery, Obstetric
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Perinatal Death - etiology
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
This paper aims to study if vaginal breech delivery is associated with increased risk for neonatal mortality (NNM) or cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway where vaginal delivery accounts for 1/3 of all breech deliveries.
Cohort study using information from the national Medical BirthRegister and Cerebral Palsy Register.
Births in Norway 1999-2009.
520 047 term-born singletons without congenital malformations.
NNM, CP and a composite outcome of these and death during birth.
Compared with cephalic births, breech births had substantially increased risk for NNM but not for CP. Vaginal delivery was planned for 7917 of 16?700 fetuses in breech, while 5561 actually delivered vaginally. Among these, NNM was 0.9 per 1000 compared with 0.3 per 1000 in vaginal cephalic delivery, and 0.8 per 1000 in those actually born by caesarean delivery (CD) in breech. Compared with planned cephalic delivery, planned vaginal delivery was associated with excess risk for NNM (OR 2.4; 95%?CI 1.2 to 4.9), while the OR associated with planned breech CD was 1.6 (95% CI 0.7 to 3.7). These risks were attenuated when NNM was substituted by the composite outcome. Vaginal breech delivery was not associated with excess risk for CP compared with vaginal cephalic delivery.
Vaginal breech delivery, regardless of whether planned or actual, and actual breech CD were associated with excess risk for NNM compared with vaginal cephalic delivery, but not with CP. The risk for NNM and CP in planned breech CD did not differ significantly from planned vaginal cephalic delivery. However, the absolute risk for these outcomes was low, and taking into consideration potential long-term adverse consequences of CD for the child and later deliveries, we therefore conclude that vaginal breech delivery may be recommended, provided competent obstetric care and strict criteria for selection to vaginal delivery.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28473516 View in PubMed
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Young adulthood cognitive ability predicts statin adherence in middle-aged men after first myocardial infarction: A Swedish National Registry study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289950
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017 04; 24(6):639-646
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2017
Author
John Wallert
Claudia Lissåker
Guy Madison
Claes Held
Erik Olsson
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017 04; 24(6):639-646
Date
04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Cognition
Dyslipidemias - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Logistic Models
Male
Medication Adherence
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Background Cognitive ability (CA) is positively related to later health, health literacy, health behaviours and longevity. Accordingly, a lower CA is expected to be associated with poorer adherence to medication. We investigated the long-term role of CA in adherence to prescribed statins in male patients after a first myocardial infarction (MI). Methods CA was estimated at 18-20 years of age from Military Conscript Register data for first MI male patients (=60 years) and was related to the one- and two-year post-MI statin adherence on average 30 years later. Background and clinical data were retrieved through register linkage with the unselected national quality register SWEDEHEART for acute coronary events (Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions) and secondary prevention (Secondary Prevention after Heart Intensive Care Admission). Previous and present statin prescription data were obtained from the Prescribed Drug Register and adherence was calculated as =80% of prescribed dispensations assuming standard dosage. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted associations. The primary analyses used 2613 complete cases and imputing incomplete cases rendered a sample of 4061 cases for use in secondary (replicated) analyses. Results One standard deviation increase in CA was positively associated with both one-year (OR 1.15 (CI 1.01-1.31), P??20 covariates. Imputed and complete case analyses yielded very similar results. Conclusions CA estimated on average 30 years earlier in young adulthood is a risk indicator for statin adherence in first MI male patients aged =60 years. Future research should include older and female patients and more socioeconomic variables.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28195516 View in PubMed
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Gastrointestinal Disorders in the Danish Population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289958
Source
Epidemiology. 2017 05; 28(3):354-360
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Date
05-2017
Author
Jaimie L Gradus
Dóra Körmendiné Farkas
Elisabeth Svensson
Vera Ehrenstein
Timothy L Lash
Henrik Toft Sørensen
Author Affiliation
From the aNational Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA; bDepartments of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, Boston University, Boston, MA; cDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; and dDepartment of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
Source
Epidemiology. 2017 05; 28(3):354-360
Date
05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Evidence for the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders is mixed, owing in part to methodologic differences across studies. Furthermore, studies which have combined GI disorders or symptoms for examination as one overall category may potentially obscure associations between PTSD and individual GI diagnoses.
This nationwide cohort study examined the incidence of all major nonmalignant GI disorders in patients with a prior PTSD diagnosis (n = 4,076), compared with the general population incidence from 1995 to 2013, using Danish medical registry data. We examined differences by sex, age, marital status, psychiatric and somatic comorbidity, and follow-up time. Risks, standardized incidence rates (SIRs), and confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.
Risk of any GI disorder among PTSD patients was 25% (95% CI: 21%, 29%); the SIR for any GI disorder was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7, 2.0). Risk and SIRs varied by disorder (e.g., no association with diverticula of the intestines [SIR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.5]; stronger association with peptic ulcer, site unspecified [SIR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.8, 5.5]). Stratified analyses revealed that some associations were stronger for persons ages 16-39 or unmarried at PTSD diagnosis, persons with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and in the year following PTSD diagnosis.
This study documents associations between clinician-diagnosed PTSD and all major nonmalignant GI disorders in an unselected nationwide cohort with long follow-up. Differences in associations across GI disorders and important modifiers may account for previous conflicting research findings.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28099266 View in PubMed
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Trends in long-term prognosis after acute coronary syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289966
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017 02; 24(3):274-280
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2017
Author
Marjo Piironen
Olavi Ukkola
Heikki Huikuri
Aki S Havulinna
Heli Koukkunen
Juha Mustonen
Matti Ketonen
Seppo Lehto
Juhani Airaksinen
Y Antero Kesäniemi
Veikko Salomaa
Author Affiliation
1 Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Centre Oulu, Finland.
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017 02; 24(3):274-280
Date
02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cause of Death
Disease Progression
Disease-Free Survival
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Abstract
Background Coronary heart disease incidence, mortality and short-term case-fatality have improved substantially during the past decades. Recent changes in the long-term prognosis among survivors of acute coronary syndrome are less well known. Our aim was to investigate the long-term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome. Design An observational myocardial infarction register study. Methods Data was derived from the population based Finnish Myocardial Infarction register. Patients aged 35 or higher, who had their first acute coronary syndrome during 1993-2011 and survived the first 28 days, were included in the analysis ( n?=?13,336). Endpoints were fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality at one year and three years after the index event. We also compared the prognosis of acute coronary syndrome survivors with the prognosis of an apparently healthy population with the same age, sex and area of residence, derived from the FINRISK study. Results Significant declines over time were observed in the risk of a new cardiovascular disease event. At three year follow-up the age- and study area-adjusted hazard ratio per calendar year was 0.969 (95% confidence interval 0.960-0.977, p?=?4.63?×?10-13) among men and 0.969 (95% confidence interval 0.961-0.978, p?=?1.01?×?10-11) among women. Despite the improvement in prognosis, the age-standardized three year cardiovascular disease free survival of acute coronary syndrome patients was significantly lower than in the FINRISK control group (for men p?=?6.64?×?10-27 and for women p?=?2.11?×?10-15). Conclusion The prognosis of acute coronary syndrome survivors has improved during the 18-year period but is still much worse than the prognosis of comparable general population.
PubMed ID
27856805 View in PubMed
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Risk of future microvascular and macrovascular disease in people with Type 1 diabetes of very long duration: a national study with 10-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289977
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 03; 34(3):411-418
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2017
Author
S Adamsson Eryd
A-M Svensson
S Franzén
B Eliasson
P M Nilsson
S Gudbjörnsdottir
Author Affiliation
National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 03; 34(3):411-418
Date
03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aging
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - complications - physiopathology - therapy
Diabetic Angiopathies - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis
Humans
Hyperglycemia - prevention & control
Incidence
Male
Microvessels - physiopathology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To describe factors associated with prevalence or absence of microvascular and macrovascular complications in people with Type 1 diabetes of very long duration and to investigate the risk factors associated with the incidence of such complications.
We included individuals with Type 1 diabetes who had been entered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register between 2002 and 2004 (n = 18 450). First, risk factor distribution in people with diabetes duration of = 50 years was compared between people with and without complications. Second, the incidence of complications during a 10-year follow-up period was studied in all individuals who had no complications at baseline.
Among people with a diabetes duration of = 50 years (n = 1023), 453 (44%) had macrovascular disease, 534 (52%) had microvascular disease and 319 (31%) did not have either of the diagnoses. Factors that differed significantly between people with and without macrovascular disease were gender, age, HbA1c , BMI, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, antihypertensive medication and lipid-lowering medication. The same factors differed significantly between people with and without microvascular disease, with the exception of gender and HDL cholesterol. During the follow-up period, 6.1% of the study cohort were diagnosed with macrovascular disease and 19.6% with microvascular disease. Incidence of macrovascular disease was significantly associated with HbA1c levels. Hazard ratios decreased with longer diabetes duration.
People with Type 1 diabetes who have survived = 50 years without complications are significantly younger, and have significantly lower HbA1c levels, BMI and triglyceride levels than survivors with complications. HbA1c level is a predictor of macrovascular disease, independently of diabetes duration.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27647178 View in PubMed
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Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289978
Source
Epidemiology. 2017 05; 28(3):346-353
Publication Type
Journal Article
Video-Audio Media
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2017
Author
Bertel T Hansen
Kim M Sønderskov
Ida Hageman
Peter T Dinesen
Søren D Østergaard
Author Affiliation
From the aDepartment of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; bDepartment of Political Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; cDepartment of Political Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; dPsychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; eDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; and fPsychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark.
Source
Epidemiology. 2017 05; 28(3):346-353
Date
05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Video-Audio Media
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Circadian Rhythm
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Registries
Seasons
Time
Abstract
Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes.
Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted trend in the incidence rate.
The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes that dissipated over approximately 10 weeks. The transition from standard time to summer time was not associated with a parallel change in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes.
This study shows that the transition from summer time to standard time was associated with an increase in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Distress associated with the sudden advancement of sunset, marking the coming of a long period of short days, may explain this finding. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B179.
Notes
CommentIn: BMJ. 2016 Oct 31;355:i5857 PMID 27803014
PubMed ID
27775953 View in PubMed
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Diabetes and depression in Denmark 1996-2010: national data stratified by occupational status and annual income.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289985
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 01; 34(1):108-114
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2017
Author
B Cleal
U H Panton
I Willaing
R I G Holt
Author Affiliation
Steno Health Promotion Research, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 01; 34(1):108-114
Date
01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Depression - drug therapy - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder, Major - drug therapy - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology - psychology
Drug Prescriptions
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Occupations
Poverty
Registries
Risk
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - drug therapy - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To assess the socio-economic distribution of comorbid depression and diabetes among the Danish workforce using national registry data.
Using national registers, all eligible Danish adults aged 18-59 years on 1 January 1996 were followed until 31 December 2010. Diabetes status was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register and information on purchase of prescription antidepressants from the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. Data were also obtained on people's occupational status and gross annual income. The people included in the study were stratified according to their highest occupational group during the study period. Annual incomes were adjusted to 2013 levels and, using the distribution of the study population's incomes, we stratified participants into income quintiles.
A total of 3 434 420 individuals met the inclusion criteria at baseline, with 98 006 developing diabetes during follow-up. There were 603 498 new prescriptions of antidepressants during follow-up; 19 849 (20.3%) among people with diabetes and 583 649 (17.5%) among those without. People with diabetes in all income quintiles (risk ratio 1.65; 95% CI 1.62-1.67) and all occupational groups (risk ratio 1.70; 95% CI 1.68- 1.73) had a significantly elevated risk compared with the general population. Risk ratios were significantly higher among the lowest occupational groups and income quintiles.
Our results provide robust data underlining the associations between diabetes, depression and socio-economic status. They highlight and encourage further focus on the issue of comorbid diabetes and depression, particularly among the most disadvantaged.
PubMed ID
27425221 View in PubMed
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Increased mortality in a Danish cohort of young people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus followed for 24 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290005
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 03; 34(3):380-386
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2017
Author
K Sandahl
L B Nielsen
J Svensson
J Johannesen
F Pociot
H B Mortensen
P Hougaard
R Broe
M L Rasmussen
J Grauslund
T Peto
B S Olsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 03; 34(3):380-386
Date
03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Biomarkers - blood
Child
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Complications - mortality - physiopathology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - complications - mortality - physiopathology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis
Humans
Male
Mortality
Prospective Studies
Registries
Survival Analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
To determine the mortality rate in a Danish cohort of children and adolescents diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with the general population.
In 1987 and 1989 we included 884 children and 1020 adolescents aged 20 years and under, corresponding to 75% of all Danish children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, in two nationwide studies in Denmark. Those who had participated in both investigations (n = 720) were followed until 1 January 2014, using the Danish Civil Registration System on death certificates and emigration. We derived the expected number of deaths in the cohort, using population data values from Statistics Denmark to calculate the standardized mortality ratio. Survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model.
During the 24 years of follow-up, 49 (6.8%) patients died, resulting in a standardized mortality ratio of 4.8 (95% confidence interval 3.5, 6.2) compared with the age-standardized general population. A 1% increase in baseline HbA1c (1989), available in 718 of 720 patients, was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval 1.2, 1.6; P
PubMed ID
27027777 View in PubMed
Less detail

Causes of death in childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290006
Source
Diabet Med. 2017 01; 34(1):56-63
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2017

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