Only one telehealth readiness assessment tool, that of Jennett et al., covers all types of telehealth projects, regardless of health-care provision context. However, this instrument is only available in English and has not undergone psychometric evaluation. We developed a French-Canadian version of the Practitioner Telehealth Readiness Assessment Tool and the Organizational Telehealth Readiness Assessment Tool. Transcultural validity was assessed by nine practitioners and 12 clinical project co-ordinators or administrators. For practitioners and managers, there was no significant difference between the scores of the English and the French versions of the questionnaires. The results showed that the telehealth readiness of co-ordinators or administrators was greater than that of practitioners when the range in scores was taken into account. The French-Canadian versions of the two questionnaires make it possible to assess telehealth readiness among French speakers. However, other studies involving patients will be necessary to validate the Patient-Public Telehealth Readiness Assessment Tool.
To examine the prognosis and incidence of social fears and phobia in an elderly population sample followed for 5 years.
A general population sample (N = 612) of non-demented men (baseline age 70) and women (baseline age 70 and 78-86) was investigated in 2000-2001 and in 2005-2006 with semi-structured psychiatric examinations including the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Social phobia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria.
Among nine individuals with DSM-IV social phobia in 2000, 5 (55.6%) had no social fears in 2005, and 1 (11.1%) still met the criteria for DSM-IV social phobia. Among individuals without DSM-IV social phobia in 2000 (N = 603), 12 (2.0%) had DSM-IV social phobia in 2005.
These findings challenge the notion that social phobia is a chronic disorder with rare occurrence in old age.
To determine which work arrangements, physical working conditions, and psychosocial working conditions are important risk factors for sickness absence.
Survey data on working conditions collected among the employees of the City of Helsinki during 2000 to 2002 (N = 6503, response rate 67%) were linked to the employer's sickness absence records for the subsequent 3 years. First occurrences of short-term (1-3 days), intermediate (4-14 days), and long-term (15 days or more) sickness absence episodes were examined by the use of proportional hazards models with Bayesian model averaging.
Working overtime decreased the risk of short-term sickness absence by 19%. Heavy physical work load and hazardous exposures were consistently associated with increased sickness absence episodes of all lengths. The risk of intermediate and long-term absence episodes was increased by 24% to 28% per one standard deviation increase in physical work load. Low job control in women and job dissatisfaction in men increased the risk of sickness absence episodes of all lengths.
Heavy physical work load and hazardous exposures had the strongest associations with sickness absence. Furthermore, low job control in women and job dissatisfaction in men were consistently associated with increased risk of sickness absence. Systematic differences in risk factors for absence episodes of different lengths were not found.
The multifactorial model of delirium was developed to explain the interrelationship between predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium. Although validated among hospitalized patients, this model has never been tested among long-term care residents with dementia. We undertook this secondary data analysis to investigate the combined effect of predisposing and precipitating factors on the likelihood of having delirium among this population. Delirium was defined as meeting the Confusion Assessment Method criteria for definite or probable delirium. Risk factors considered in the study were those found significantly associated with delirium in the original study. Participants (N=155) were classified into risk groups. Prevalence of delirium for the low, moderate, and high predisposing risk groups were 32%, 78.4%, and 98.1%, respectively, and 37.9%, 67.2%, and 86.8% for the precipitating factors risk groups. When both variables were included in the same model, only predisposing factors remained statistically associated with delirium. Predisposing factors play a key role in the likelihood of having delirium among this population. Increased awareness of these factors among nurses could improve the care of these residents by targeting modifiable risk factors.
Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented
The original English language version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context and distributed by e-mail. The survey was carried out on a national basis, covering all 870 Swedish community pharmacies. In total, 7,244 questionnaires were distributed. Scale psychometrics were analysed using Cronbach alphas and intercorrelations among the scales. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted.
SAQ data from 828 community pharmacies in Sweden, including 4,090 (60.22%) pharmacy personnel out of 6,683 eligible respondents, were received. There were 252 (28.97%) pharmacies that met the inclusion criteria of having at least 5 respondents and a minimum response rate of 60% within that pharmacy.The coefficient alpha value for each of the SAQ scales ranged from .72 to .89. The internal consistency results, in conjunction with the confirmatory factor analysis results, demonstrate that the Swedish translation of the SAQ has acceptable to good psychometric properties. Perceptions of the pharmacy (Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions) were moderately to highly correlated with one another whereas attitudes about stress (Stress Recognition) had only low correlations with other factors. Perceptions of management showed the most variability across pharmacies (SD = 26.66), whereas Stress Recognition showed the least (SD = 18.58). There was substantial variability ranging from 0% to 100% in the percent of positive scores for each of the factors across the 252 pharmacies.
The Swedish translation of the SAQ demonstrates acceptable construct validity, for capturing the frontline perspective of safety culture of community pharmacy staff. The psychometric results reported here met or exceeded standard guidelines, which is consistent with previous studies using the SAQ in other healthcare settings and other languages.
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To understand, prevent, and manage weight-related health issues, researchers and clinicians rely on the ability to identify those at risk. Prevention and management strategies may also rely on accurate self-perception of weight and body composition in the general population.
We analyzed data from The Tomorrow Project (n = 7,436), a prospective cohort study enrolling adults aged 35-69 years, in Alberta, Canada. Weight perception accuracy was defined based on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and a combined (BMI and WC) risk profile.
The majority of participants correctly perceived themselves as overweight. Women were more accurate than men in identifying themselves as overweight. In terms of inaccuracy, more normal-weight women than men perceived themselves to be overweight, while more overweight men than women perceived themselves as about the right weight. When using the combined risk profile, all men with normal weight (BMI) but higher risk WC perceived their weight as about right whereas just under half of men who were overweight (BMI) but lower risk WC perceived their weight as about right. For women, a much higher proportion recognized their weight status as overweight when only BMI was elevated compared to when only WC indicated higher risk.
Adults in our sample showed reasonable accuracy in weight perception. Gender differences reveal that women were more accurate than men in identifying themselves as overweight. Incongruence between weight status indicators was noted, indicating the importance of using both BMI and waist circumference as health status measures.
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 2010 Jul-Aug;101(4):345; author reply 34521033552
Many measurement scales for interprofessional collaboration are developed for one health professional group, typically nurses. Evaluating interprofessional collaborative relationships can benefit from employing a measurement scale suitable for multiple health provider groups, including physicians and other health professionals. To this end, the paper begins development of a new interprofessional collaboration measurement scale designed for use with nurses, physicians, and other professionals practicing in contemporary acute care settings. The paper investigates validity and reliability of data from nurses evaluating interprofessional collaboration of physicians and shows initial results for other rater/target combinations.
Items from a published scale originally designed for nurses were adapted to a round robin proxy report format appropriate for multiple health provider groups. Registered nurses, physicians, and allied health professionals practicing in inpatient wards/services of 15 community and academic hospitals in Toronto, Canada completed the adapted scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the adapted scale examined dimensionality, construct and concurrent validity, and reliability of nurses' response data. Correlations between the adapted scale, the nurse-physician relations subscale of the Nursing Work Index, and the Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale were calculated. Differences of mean scores on the Nursing Work Index and the interprofessional collaboration scale were compared between hospitals.
Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors in the adapted interprofessional collaboration scale - labeled Communication, Accommodation, and Isolation - which were subsequently corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. Nurses' scale responses about physician collaboration had convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity, and acceptable reliability.
The new scale is suitable for use with nurses assessing physicians. The scale may yield valid and reliable data from physicians and others, but measurement equivalence and other properties of the scale should be investigated before it is used with multiple health professional groups.
To assess quality of life (QoL) in two groups of patients with long-term musculoskeletal pain with and without psychiatric co-morbidity and to compare them with a reference group of normative controls. The patients in both study groups were sick-listed full or part time for 3 months or more.
The patients were recruited from a company health service and consulting psychiatry. A generic QoL questionnaire, the SF-36, was used to assess QoL. Each group was compared with age- and gender-matched normative controls.
Both groups reported a pronounced impairment of QoL (p
Self-report questionnaires have facilitated attachment research, and validation of these instruments in different languages and cultures has become of importance. The Experiences in Close Relationships measure (ECR) is a well-established and suitable tool for cross-cultural comparisons of adult attachment.
The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the ECR and to develop a shorter version. We also investigated the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and attachment styles as measured by the ECR on the anxiety and avoidance subscales.
Data were anonymously collected by a mailed questionnaire to young adults aged 30, 40 and 45 years. With a response rate of 29%, 437 individuals were included. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and confirmatory factor analysis was done by structural equation modelling.
The psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the ECR were satisfying and comparable with the properties reported by other translations. Individuals who scored low on both avoidance and anxiety scales were more likely to live in paired relations, have paid work, rate themselves with good health and in general be more satisfied with their lives. A new 12 item short version of the ECR showed good psychometric properties and similar associations to socio-demographic variables. Taking into account its brevity and feasibility further research on attachment style with ECR in clinical samples should be performed.
The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between alexithymia and anxiety in a non-clinical sample of late adolescents.
The questionnaire was sent to 935 adolescents of whom 729 (78%) responded, thus forming the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The Finnish versions of the following scales were used: the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used to assess alexithymia, and anxiety symptoms were measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and depression symptoms were evaluated using the short form of the Beck Depression Inventory, as modified by Raitasalo (RBDI).
The prevalence of alexithymia in the sample was 8.2%, with no statistically significant gender difference. The alexithymic subjects had significantly (p