Fish consumption may promote cardiovascular health. The role of major food contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) common in fatty fish, is unclear. We assessed the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction taking into account the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids.
In the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, 33,446 middle-aged and elderly women, free from cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes at baseline (1997) were followed-up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and intake of fish fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; EPA-DHA) were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline.
During follow-up 1386 incident cases of myocardial infarction were ascertained through register-linkage. Women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 286 ng/day) had a multivariable-adjusted RR of myocardial infarction of 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.45) compared to the lowest quartile (median 101 ng/day) before, and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.25) after adjusting for EPA-DHA. Stratification by low and high EPA-DHA intake, resulted in RRs 2.20 (95% CI, 1.18-4.12) and 1.73 (95% CI, 0.81-3.69), respectively comparing highest PCB tertile with lowest. The intake of dietary EPA-DHA was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction after but not before adjusting for dietary PCB.
Exposure to PCBs was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, while some beneficial effect was associated with increasing EPA and DHA intake. To increase the net benefits of fish consumption, PCB contamination should be reduced to a minimum.
Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry.
To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (?BW) or change in WC (?WC).
Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ~5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ?BW or ?WC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses.
When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ?BW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3]) or ?WC (
Cites: Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Jun 15;17(12):1803-1318325910
The study assessed the effects of a counselling intervention on lifestyle changes in certain-aged people at risk of cardiovascular disease.
This was an intervention study at baseline and six- and 12-month follow-ups. The participants were 40 years old (n= 53 at baseline, n=33 at six months and n=34 at 12 months). The main outcomes were cardiovascular health parameters, such as weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein), blood glucose, and self-assessed and reported lifestyle and adherence to lifestyle changes. The counselling intervention was Internet-based and carried out via Skype or face-to-face in small groups (on average, six participants).
There were statistically significant differences between the baseline and the 12-month follow-up with respect to the consumption of fat and snacks. Some positive cardiovascular health improvements were detected between baseline and six months, but not as clearly between baseline and 12 months. The participants reported having a healthier diet at 12 months than at baseline. At 12 months, BMI measurements indicated that all participants were overweight (mean BMI 29.8), but according to the self-assessed data, only 25% considered themselves to be so.
Changes in lifestyle were detected as a result of the intervention. These lifestyle changes may improve cardiovascular health in the long term. Discrepancies were found between the measured indicators of cardiovascular health and information obtained from questionnaires and diary records. In order to achieve sustainable lifestyle changes, long-term support is required.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in self-rated physical activity and diet during a type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention program were associated with changes in estimated 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in people at high risk for T2D.
Individuals were identified and offered lifestyle counseling as part of the Finnish diabetes prevention program. Ten-year risk for estimated CVD events and mortality were calculated with Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) formula. FRS was available for 774 men and 1474 women and SCORE for 961 men and 1766 women.
During the one-year follow-up, 9.6% of the men reported both an increase in physical activity and improved dietary pattern, 4.1% an increase in physical activity, 39.3% an increase in improved dietary pattern, while 47.0% reported no lifestyle changes. Corresponding numbers for women were 14.2%, 3.8%, 39.2% and 42.7%. Estimated 10-year risk for CVD events decreased 3.5% in men and 1.5% in women reporting an increase in physical activity and improvement in diet, compared to an increase of 0.15% in men (p
In the context of a European project, 12 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined in 14 food items collected in four European countries representing northern, southern, eastern and western Europe. This study presents the results of PFAAs measured in fruit, cereals, sweets and salt. Out of the 12 PFAAs, 10 PFAAs were detected in 67% of the samples. Overall, PFOA was the most abundant compound and the highest concentrations were found for PFOS but all were less than 1ngg(-1). When comparing the four countries, highest levels and detection frequencies were observed in Belgium (Western Europe), followed by the Czech Republic (Eastern Europe), Italy (Southern Europe) and finally Norway (Northern Europe). Comparison of profiles and levels is difficult due to variations in constitution of the food categories in the investigated countries and countries of origin of the food items. Dietary intake assessments for PFOS and PFOA show that the daily intake of PFAAs is far below the existing tolerable levels. However, they contribute to the total dietary intake and should therefore be included in future dietary exposure assessments.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether adolescents attending vocational high school programs in Sweden show unhealthy or risky behaviors to a higher extent than those attending theoretical programs, and whether there were gender differences. METHODS: All eligible adolescents 16-18 years old, after exclusion of first- and second-generation immigrants, attending high school (1,332 pupils) in a medium-sized town in Sweden completed a validated in-depth questionnaire (Q90) with 165 questions in the classroom. In comparisons, adjustments were made for socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: A significant difference was found for the variable having at least one parent with university education (odds ratio (OR 0.28) for those attending vocational programs). In girls: have bullied (OR 2.01), eat breakfast all school days (OR 0.31), have shoplifted (OR 3.46), smoking (OR 5.69), and have had more than five sexual partners (OR 4.74) all differed significantly. Some variables with significant differences in boys were; eat fruit or vegetables every day (OR 0.55), feeling depressed (OR 0.62), sports activity at least once a week (OR 0.56), vandalizing (OR 2.11), regular alcohol use (OR 1.44), and contraceptive use at latest sexual intercourse (OR 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that preventive interventional strategies, aimed at improving health maintenance among adolescents should take into consideration the differences between students in vocational and theoretical programs, including the cluster and accumulation of health-risk behaviors.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) patients crave and eat more carbohydrates (CHO) in fall-winter when depressed, especially in the evenings, and feel energetic thereafter. Evening CHO-rich meals can phase delay circadian rhythms, and glucose increases retinal response to light. We studied timed CHO- or protein-rich (PROT) diet as a putative therapy for SAD. Unmedicated, DSM-IV-diagnosed depressed women with SAD (n=22, 19-63 yrs) in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (present in 19) were randomized to nine days of eating approximately 1600 kcal of either CHO before 12:00 h (n=9), CHO after 18:00 h (n=6), or PROT after 18:00 h (n=7); only water was allowed for the rest of the day. Measurements included the depression questionnaire SIGH-SAD (with 21-item Hamilton depression subscale), Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), percentage fat (by bioimpedancemetry), clinical biochemistry (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, TSH, T4, cortisol), and electroretinogram (ERG). No differential effects of diet were found on any of the studied parameters (except DEBQ). Clinically, participants improved slightly; the 21-HDRS score (mean+/-SD) decreased from 19.6+/-6.4 to 14.4+/-7.4 (p=.004). Percent change correlated significantly with menstrual day at diet onset (mood improved the first week after menstruation onset), change in available sunshine (more sunlight, better mood), and initial percentage fat (fatter patients improved more). Scotopic ERG amplitude was diminished after treatment (p=.025, three groups combined), probably due to greater exposure to sunshine in 14/22 subjects (partial correlation analysis significant). Keeping in mind the limitations of this ambulatory study (i.e., inability to control outdoor light exposure, small number of participants, and briefness of intervention), it is suggested that the 25% clinical improvement (of the order of magnitude of placebo) is not related to nutrient diet or its timing, but rather to natural changes during the menstrual cycle, available sunshine, and ease of dieting for fatter patients.
BACKGROUND: Plant sterols are bioactive compounds, found in all vegetable foods, which inhibit cholesterol absorption. Little is known about the effect of habitual natural dietary intake of plant sterols. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between plant sterol density (in mg/MJ) and serum concentrations of cholesterol in men and women in northern Sweden. DESIGN: The analysis included 37 150 men and 40 502 women aged 29-61 y, all participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program. RESULTS: Higher plant sterol density was associated with lower serum total cholesterol in both sexes and with lower LDL cholesterol in women. After adjustment for age, body mass index (in kg/m(2)), and (in women) menopausal status, men with high plant sterol density (quintile 5) had 0.15 mmol/L (2.6%) lower total serum cholesterol (P for trend = 0.001) and 0.13 mmol/L (3.1%) lower LDL cholesterol (P = 0.062) than did men with low plant sterol density (quintile 1). The corresponding figures for women were 0.20 mmol/L (3.5%) lower total serum cholesterol (P for trend
An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of this information to the general public), on the chemistry and biological and physiological functions of these "superfoods" are necessary.
INTRODUCTION: Thiazolidinediones are increasingly used drugs for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. The individual response to thiazolidinedione therapy, ranging from the variable degree of metabolic improvement to harmful side-effects, is empirical, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In order to assess the pharmacogenomic component of thiazolidinediones' metabolic action, we compared the effect of rosiglitazone in two genetically defined models of metabolic syndrome, polydactylous (PD) and BN.SHR4 inbred rat strains, with their insulin-sensitive, normolipidemic counterpart, the Brown Norway (BN) rat. MATERIALS & METHODS: 5-month-old male rats were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, and the experimental groups received rosiglitazone (0.4 mg/100 g body weight) during the last 2 weeks of high-fat diet feeding. We assessed metabolic and morphometric profiles, oxidative stress parameters and gene expression in white adipose tissue. RESULTS: In many followed parameters, we observed genetic background-specific effects of rosiglitazone administration. The mass and the sensitivity of visceral adipose tissue to insulin-stimulated lipogenesis increased with rosiglitazone treatment only in PD, correlating with a PD-specific significant increase in expression of prostaglandin D2 synthase. The glucose tolerance was enhanced in all strains, although fasting plasma glucose was increased by rosiglitazone in BN and BN.SHR4. Among the markers of lipid peroxidation, we observed the rosiglitazone-driven increase of plasma-conjugated dienes only in BN.SHR4. The genes with genotype-specific expression change included ADAM metallopeptidase domain 7, aquaporin 9, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, caveolin 1, catechol-O-methyl transferase, leptin and prostaglandin D2 synthase 2. CONCLUSION: Rosiglitazone's effects on lipid deposition and insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues are largely dependent on the genetic background it acts upon.