Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence.
We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1?072?882 children and adolescents aged 0-16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders).
17?238 (2%) offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56?330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4-15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6·0-6·1) in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2·5 [95% CI 2·3-2·7] for mother homeless, 2·3 [2·2-2·5] for father homeless, and 2·8 [2·4-3·2] for both parents homeless, after adjustment for year and offspring characteristics). This risk remained elevated after additional adjustment for factors including parental psychiatric disorders. IRRs in offspring were increased for most specific psychiatric disorders, with the highest risk for attachment disorder when both parents had a history of homelessness (IRR 32·5 [95% CI 24·6-42·9]) and substance use disorder when only the mother had a history of homelessness (6·9 [4·9-9·7]). In offspring whose mothers had a history of both homelessness and a psychiatric disorder, 35·9% (95% CI 27·1-44·8) had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder by the age of 15 years.
Parental homelessness was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring during childhood and adolescence. These findings have important implications for public health and policy because they suggest a need for improvement in the support of socially marginalised families to help prevent psychiatric illness in offspring.
University of Copenhagen, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrated Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH).
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often comorbid. It is not understood how genetic risk factors for these disorders relate to each other over time and to what degree they are stable. Age-dependent characteristics of the disorders indicate that different genetic factors could be relevant at different stages of life, and MDD may become increasingly correlated with AUD over time. DSM-IV diagnoses of AUD and MDD were assessed by interviews of 2,801 young adult twins between 1999 and 2004 (T1) and 2,284 of the same twins between 2010 and 2011 (T2). Stability, change, and covariation were investigated in longitudinal biometric models. New genetic factors explained 56.4% of the genetic variance in AUD at T2. For MDD, there was full overlap between genetic influences at T1 and T2. Genetic risk factors for MDD were related to AUD, but their association with AUD did not increase over time. Thus, genetic risk factors for AUD, but not MDD, vary with age, suggesting that AUD has age-dependent heritable etiologies. Molecular genetic studies of AUD may therefore benefit from stratifying by age. The new genetic factors in AUD were not related to MDD. Environmental influences on the 2 disorders were correlated in middle, but not in young adulthood. The environmental components for AUD correlated over time (r = .27), but not for MDD. Environmental influences on AUD can have long-lasting effects, and the effects of preventive efforts may be enduring. Environment influences seem to be largely transient. (PsycINFO Database Record
Background Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia have increased cardiovascular disease mortality but the magnitude of the increased risk is uncertain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate all causes of death and place and manner of deaths in a large sample of genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Design, methods and results In this registry study data on 5518 patients with genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry during 1992-2013. Standardized mortality ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. There were in total 189 deaths. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death (42.3%). Mean age at cardiovascular disease death was 64.5 years (range 33-91). Cardiovascular disease mortality including all cardiovascular disease deaths mentioning any place on the death certificate was significantly higher in familial hypercholesterolemia patients compared to the general Norwegian population under 70 years of age. Standardized mortality ratio (95% CI) was highest in the 20-39 years age group; 4.12 (1.85-9.18) decreasing to 0.77 (0.50-1.19) for those over 80 years. For total cardiovascular disease deaths occurring out of hospital, standardized mortality ratio was 12.35 (5.14-29.70) for those aged 20-39 years. Conclusion Familial hypercholesterolemia patients under 70 years of age have significantly higher cardiovascular disease mortality compared to the general Norwegian population. For those aged 20-39 years the risk of cardiovascular disease deaths occurring out of hospital was increased 12-fold. In spite of genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia and premature cardiovascular disease deaths, the majority of all death certificates did not include familial hypercholesterolemia among any of the contributing causes of death.
aCenter for Primary Health Care Research, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Region Skåne, Sweden bSchool of Medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
Alcohol consumption is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, but little is known about whether alcohol consumption is associated with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cancer, which we attempt to clarify in this study. Individuals with alcohol use disorders were identified from the nation-wide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios of esophageal and gastric cancers using those without alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as a reference. A total of 14?518 and 73?504 patients were diagnosed with esophageal and gastric cancers, separately, during the study period. The risk of esophageal cancer was significantly increased, with a standardized incidence ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval 2.08-2.41) among individuals with AUDs. Both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were increased (2.89 for squamous cell carcinoma and 1.20 for adenocarcinoma). The incidence of gastric cancer was significantly decreased and the decrease was even more prominant for corpus cancer compared with cardia cancer (0.57 vs. 0.82). In this retrospective cohort study, we found that AUDs were associated with an increased risk of both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, whereas individuals with AUDs had a lower risk of gastric cancer, especially for corpus cancer, which may be related to the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the underlying mechanisms need to be explored in future studies.
The potential non-specific effects of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination, with reported reduction of infectious disease morbidity among vaccinated children, in addition to the protective effect against tuberculosis (TB), are highly debated. In Greenland, BCG vaccination was introduced in 1955, but temporarily discontinued from 1991 to 1996 due to nationwide policy changes. Using the transient vaccination stop, we aimed to investigate possible non-specific effects of BCG vaccination by measuring nation-wide hospitalization rates due to infectious diseases other than TB among vaccinated and unvaccinated children.
A retrospective cohort study including all children born in Greenland aged 3 months to 3 years from 1989 to 2004. A personal identification number assigned at birth allowed for follow-up through national registers. Information on hospitalization due to infectious diseases was obtained from the Greenlandic inpatient register using ICD-8 and ICD-10 codes. Participants with notified TB were censored. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression.
Overall, 19 363 children, hereof 66% BCG-vaccinated, were followed for 44 065 person-years and had 2069 hospitalizations due to infectious diseases. IRRs of hospitalization in BCG-vaccinated as compared with BCG-unvaccinated children were 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.20] for infectious diseases overall, and specifically 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.24) for respiratory tract infections. Among BCG-vaccinated children aged 3 to 11 months, the IRR of hospitalization due to infectious diseases was 1.00 (95% CI 0.84-1.19) as compared with BCG-unvaccinated children.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that neonatal BCG vaccination reduces morbidity in children caused by infectious diseases other than TB.
CommentIn: Int J Epidemiol. 2016 Dec 1;45(6):2131-2133 PMID 27856606
To evaluate liver cancer incidence rates and risk factor correlations in non-Hispanic AI/AN populations for the years 1999-2009.
We linked data from 51 central cancer registries with the Indian Health Service patient registration databases to improve identification of the AI/AN population. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic persons living in Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties. We compared age-adjusted liver cancer incidence rates (per 100,000) for AI/AN to white populations using rate ratios. Annual percent changes (APCs) and trends were estimated using joinpoint regression analyses. We evaluated correlations between regional liver cancer incidence rates and risk factors using Pearson correlation coefficients.
AI/AN persons had higher liver cancer incidence rates than whites overall (11.5 versus 4.8, RR?=?2.4, 95% CI 2.3-2.6). Rate ratios ranged from 1.6 (Southwest) to 3.4 (Northern Plains and Alaska). We observed an increasing trend among AI/AN persons (APC 1999-2009?=?5%). Rates of distant disease were higher in the AI/AN versus white population for all regions except Alaska. Alcohol use (r?=?0.84) and obesity (r?=?0.79) were correlated with liver cancer incidence by region.
Findings highlight disparities in liver cancer incidence between AI/AN and white populations and emphasize opportunities to decrease liver cancer risk factor prevalence.
Our purpose was to explore major vascular and bleeding outcomes in relation to risk and severity scores (ABCD2 or NIHSS) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS).
This nationwide observational study was based on data from 4 national registries. Outcomes were assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses.
The total cohort comprised 21 268 patients (median age 73 years, 47.6% females). Based on ABCD2-score, the TIA-population (n = 10 174) was divided into low-risk (0-3 p, n = 3463) and high-risk (4-7 p, n = 6711). Based on NIHSS-score, the AIS-population (n = 11 454) was divided into minor (0-5 p, n = 8596), moderate (6-10 p, n = 1630) and severe (=11 p, n = 1228). During follow-up (mean 1.7 years), the composite endpoint of stroke, myocardial infarction or death occurred in 3572 (16.5%) of all the patients, and major bleeding in 668 (3.1%) patients. Using low-risk TIA as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% CI) of the composite endpoint were 1.41 (1.23-1.62) for high-risk TIA, 1.94 (1.70-2.22) for minor, 2.86 (2.45-3.34) for moderate and 4.18 (3.57-4.90) for severe stroke. When analyzed separately, the association with increased risk remained significant for stroke and death, but not for myocardial infarction. The HR of major bleeding were 1.31 (0.99-1.73) for high-risk TIA, 1.49 (1.13-1.95) for minor, 1.54 (1.08-2.21) for moderate and 2.10 (1.44-3.05) for severe stroke.
This study confirms the association between severity of the index ischemic stroke and risk of future major vascular and bleeding events, and highlights the increased risk also for patients with high-risk TIA.
Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are slow-growing primary brain tumors that typically affect young adults. Advanced age is widely recognized as a poor prognostic factor in LGG. The impact of age on postoperative outcome in this patient group has not been systemically studied.
We performed a nationwide register-based study with data from the Swedish Brain Tumor Registry (SBTR) for all adults diagnosed with a supratentorial LGG (WHO grade II astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, or oligodendroglioma) during 2005-2015. Patient- and tumor-related characteristics, postoperative complications, and survival were compared between three different age groups (18-39 years, 40-59 years, and =60 years).
We identified 548 patients; 204 patients (37.2%) aged 18-39 years, 227 patients (41.4%) aged 40-59 years, and 117 patients (21.4%) =60 years of age. Unfavorable preoperative prognostic factors (eg, functional status and neurological deficit) were more common with increased age (P
Off-label use of rituximab to treat MS patients in Sweden is high, and the need for long-term safety data may not be met. Our objectives were to assess the rate of rituximab prescription in patients with multiple sclerosis in Sweden and, in addition, to evaluate the safety of rituximab in a single centre for patients with multiple sclerosis.
Review of the Swedish MS register was performed to study the number of MS patients treated with rituximab during the last 6 years. Investigation also included a retrospective review of medical files in search for possible side effects/adverse events in all adult patients with MS treated with rituximab at Uppsala University Hospital.
Presently, in Sweden the rate of rituximab prescriptions in relation to other annually started of disease- modifying drugs in MS is 53.5%.
The share of MS patients in Sweden who are treated with rituximab is very high, and also rapidly increasing. Taken into account the off-label use, cases with adverse medical conditions that could possibly be related to rituximab use should be reported thoroughly.
While vitamin D has been associated with improved overall cancer survival in some investigations, few have prospectively evaluated organ-specific survival. We examined the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and cancer survival in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Of 4616 cancer cases with measured serum 25(OH)D, 2884 died of their cancer during 28 years of follow-up and 1732 survived or died of other causes. Proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D and overall and site-specific survival. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower among cases who subsequently died from their malignancy compared with those who did not (medians 34.7 vs. 36.5 nmol/L, respectively; p?=?0.01). Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower overall cancer mortality (HR?=?0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.85 for highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend?
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