To describe and compare dietary intake and prevalence of overweight in a sample of adults in 2 Ojibwe communities in Mille Lacs, Minn, and Lac Courte Oreilles, Wis.
Cross-sectional survey based on interviews that included a 24-hour recall, food frequency questionnaire, and a sociocultural questionnaire.
One hundred four adult Band (tribe) members were selected randomly from current housing lists; pregnant and lactating women were excluded.
Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine differences in absolute nutrient intakes where normality could not be assumed. Two-tailed t tests were conducted to test for differences between nutrient densities. A significance level of alpha = .05 was used; procedurewise adjustments were made using the Bonferroni method when adjusting for multiple comparisons.
The importance of the traditional food system was evident: at least 50% of respondents engaged in hunting and fishing practices. Prevalence of overweight was 47%. Mean nutrient intakes were below the Recommended Dietary Allowance for women for vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc and for men for vitamin A and calcium, despite energy intakes that met the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Nutrient densities were lower than those in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for women for carbohydrate, vitamin C, folate, calcium, and dietary fiber and for men for folate and dietary fiber. Fat contributed 37% (for men) and 40% (for women) of energy intake.
Areas of focus for culturally relevant education programs (eg, promotion of traditional foods that provide nutrients of low intake status and low-fat traditional food preparation methods) and research needs are suggested to reduce risks for nutrition-related chronic disease among Native Americans.
Chronic metal toxicity is a concern in the Canadian Arctic because of the findings of high metal levels in wildlife animals and the fact that traditional food constitutes a major component of the diet of indigenous peoples. We examined exposure to trace metals through traditional food resources for Inuit living in the community of Qikiqtarjuaq on Baffin Island in the eastern Arctic. Mercury, cadmium, and lead were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Elevated concentrations of mercury ( > 50 micrograms/100 g) were found in ringed seal liver, narwhal mattak, beluga meat, and beluga mattak, and relatively high concentrations of cadmium and lead ( > 100 micrograms/100 g) were found in ringed seal liver, mussels, and kelp. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by adult men and women ( > 20 years old) and children (3-12 years old). Based on traditional food consumption, the average daily intake levels of total mercury for both adults (65 micrograms for women and 97 micrograms for men) and children (38 micrograms) were higher than the Canadian average value (16 micrograms). The average weekly intake of mercury for all age groups exceeded the intake guidelines (5.0 micrograms/kg/day) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants. The primary foods that contributed to metal intake for the Baffin Inuit were ringed seal meat, caribou meat, and kelp. We review the superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items and implications for monitoring metal contents of food, clinical symptoms, and food use.
The low mortality from cardiovascular disease in Greenland Eskimos has been attributed to their consumption of diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids are found in fish and marine mammal lipids. Whereas the fatty acid composition of several fish species has been documented, information is more limited on the mammals which feature significantly in the diets of many Arctic populations. This study investigated the fatty acid composition of commonly eaten marine mammals, as well as the polar bear and caribou. The tissue fatty acid composition was species-dependent, probably reflecting to some degree differences in feeding habits. The marine mammals and the amphibious polar bear, but not the caribou, contained substantial quantities of long chain omega-3 fatty acids. These studies further document the transfer of omega-3 fatty acids through the food chain to man and suggest that marine mammal and polar bear lipids are significant sources of omega-3 fatty acids.
The continued expansion of food assistance programs makes it important to examine the sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional profiles of people relying on this service. The authors undertook such a study in a large urban centre.
A total of 490 food bank users were randomly selected from a stratified random sample of 57 urban food banks in Montreal. A questionnaire and a dietary recall interview were given by a dietitian-interviewer to determine socioeconomic, demographic and cultural characteristics and macronutrient intake. These data were compared with national and provincial data.
The mean age of the participants (256 men and 234 women) was 41 years; 204 (41.6%) were living alone and most (409 [83.5%]) were receiving social assistance benefits. These food bank users were well educated (190 [38.8%] had completed technical school or had a college or university education), and the sample included few elderly or disabled people. The median body mass index was greater than 24, which indicated that energy intake, although below recommended levels, was not a chronic problem. The people using the food banks had a monthly shortfall in their food budget of between $43 and $46.
Food banks are used regularly, primarily by young healthy adults. They are though of as a necessary community resource.
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of food source (traditional or market), season (six seasons), and age (five age groups) on dietary nutrient patterns of Inuit living in Baffin Island, Canada. DESIGN: Twenty-four-hour recall interviews of all residents who had lived > or = 3 years in this one community in each of six seasons. Foods that were recalled were divided by source. SETTING/SUBJECTS: The study took place in the Inuit community of Qikiqtarjuaq, which harvests the highest quantity of wildlife per capita of all Baffin communities. Three hundred sixty-six residents contributed a total of 1,410 recalls: 401 from nonpregnant, nonlactating adult women, 74 from pregnant women, 301 from adult men, 451 from children aged 3 to 12 years, and 183 from teenagers aged 13 to 19 years. Participation was voluntary and averaged 65% to 75% of residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Energy, total dry weight of food, and dietary nutrients (ie, carbohydrate, protein, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, vitamin A, iron, copper, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium) were measured by food source, season, and age. Nutrient density (nutrient per 1,000 kcal) was calculated in traditional and market food sources. Selected nutrients were computed in total diets, and compared with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Tests for normality of the distribution of nutrient intakes (ie, Shapiro-Wilk statistic) were performed followed by nonparametric analyses (ie, Wilcoxon paired-sample t test, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, and adjustment for Bonferroni inequalities resulting from multiple comparisons). RESULTS: Most nutrient intakes were significantly different by food source (P
Indigenous Peoples globally are part of the nutrition transition. They may be among the most extreme for the extent of dietary change experienced in the last few decades. In this paper, we report survey data from 44 representative communities from 3 large cultural areas of the Canadian Arctic: the Yukon First Nations, Dene/Métis, and Inuit communities. Dietary change was represented in 2 ways: 1) considering the current proportion of traditional food (TF) in contrast to the precontact period (100% TF); and 2) the amount of TF consumed by older vs. younger generations. Total diet, TF, and BMI data from adults were investigated. On days when TF was consumed, there was significantly less (P 40 y old consistently consumed more (P or = 30 kg/m(2)) of Arctic adults exceeded all-Canadian rates. Measures to improve nutrient-dense market food (MF) availability and use are called for, as are ways to maintain or increase TF use.
There has been long-standing concern with exposure to radioactivity through the consumption of caribou, particularly in indigenous populations in the western Northwest Territories, Canada, who are traditionally high consumers. We conducted a dietary survey in this region in 1994 to estimate population exposure levels. Dietary information was collected from 1012 individuals in sixteen communities (1012 days of 24-hour dietary recalls, 1012 food frequency questionnaires) and radionuclide levels in caribou flesh, liver and kidneys were measured. Monte Carlo statistical methods were employed to integrate these data sets and estimate the distribution of radiation exposure for people in five regions (Gwich'in, SahtÃ???Ã??Ã?Âº, Dogrib, Deh-Cho, South Slave). The exposure levels were highest in the South Slave region and in older males (40+ years), and lowest in the Gwich'in region and in younger females (20-40 years). Median exposure level ranged from 0.95 to 5.31 mSv per year (mean of medians = 2.96 mSv/y). In each group the 95th percentile of exposure was 2-3 times greater than the median. These exposure levels are comparable to exposure levels in Alaskan Eskimos and Marshall Island residents, and are much higher than European or American urban populations. Caribou meat is a very nutritious food. We conclude that, although there is some radiation exposure from consuming caribou, the associated health risks are low and are outweighed by the physical, social and cultural benefits derived from hunting and eating caribou.
Environmental contaminants such as organochlorines and heavy metals have been reported to bioaccumulate in Arctic and subarctic wildlife. The Indigenous Peoples in northern and Arctic Canada rely on local wildlife as an important food source, and it is thus hypothesized that they may have high intakes of these contaminants. Herein, an assessment of dietary exposure to selected organochlorines and heavy metals for Indigenous Peoples of the western Northwest Territories (NWT) is presented. Dietary data were collected from 1012 adults with 24-h recalls in 16 communities in the western NWT (Denendeh). A comprehensive survey of the literature, as well as in-house analysis, formed the basis of a large traditional food-contaminant database. By combining the dietary and contaminant data, dietary exposure to 11 chemical contaminants was calculated. Dietary exposure to chemical contaminants in Denendeh is generally low and there is little, if any, associated health risk. However there are specific contaminants in certain communities for which exposure on a single day approaches the tolerable daily intake levels. These situations are detailed and monitoring needs are described.