Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales across Belgian and Danish data samples.
The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O'Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model clearly supports the efforts to organize future personality disorder description in a four-factor framework by corroborating four domains that were predominant in dimensional models (Widiger & Simonsen, 2005): Factor 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively corresponded to emotional dysregulation versus stability, antagonism versus compliance, extraversion versus introversion, and constraint versus impulsivity.
Studies examining the effect of alcohol treatment among patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and co-morbid depression and/or anxiety are few and show inconsistent, but mainly negative drinking outcomes.
To describe the prevalence of anxiety and depression among Danish patients seeking treatment for an AUD, and to investigate the influence of psychiatric co-morbidity on the course and effect of treatment.
A consecutive sample of 363 outpatients with an AUD diagnosis according to the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research was assessed by the means of the Addiction Severity Index at treatment start and 276 (76%) followed up after 1 year.
15.7% of the patients suffered from depression and 12.7% from anxiety at baseline. Both patients with or without co-morbidity had improved on drinking outcome measures at follow-up with medium to large effect sizes. No difference was found between patients with and without co-morbidity.
In contrast to the majority of prior studies, this study provides evidence that depression and anxiety do not have an effect on alcohol treatment. However, because of the naturalistic setting, a number of limitations should be taken into consideration interpreting the results.
This article describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a clinical pathway system in a two-cohort quasi-experimental study before and after implementation, controlling for confounders. The main outcome measures were retention in care and sensible alcohol use (defined as abstinent or drinking no more than 21 standard drinks per week). Patients with harmful alcohol use or dependence as their primary problem who were seeking psychosocial treatment at one of four alcohol clinics in Denmark participated in the study. After implementation of the clinical pathway system, which incorporated a structured intake, a referral and independent follow-up system, checklists, audit, and feedback, there was no change in length of stay, but significantly more patients had a good clinical outcome (stopped or moderated their consumption) at the end of treatment (OR = 1.9; 1.2-3.1). The study documents the feasibility of using a clinical pathway framework, incorporating a local monitoring system, checklists, audit, and feedback to enhance treatment quality and improve outcomes for alcohol use disorders.
Mechanical restraints and forced procedures in psychiatric wards are of major concern in Denmark and there is a desire to reduce these procedures to a minimum. So far, focus has primarily been on identifying and changing internal (intramural) factors when seeking to reduce coercion.
To identify possible external (extramural) factors that may increase the risk of coercion during admission to a closed psychiatric ward.
Using a retrospective case-controlled design, 235 patients admitted to a closed ward during 2011-2013 were randomly selected. Coercion comprised belt restraint, physical restraint, and forced medication. The data source was the electronic patient records, which include statutory information on all forced measures. Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to calculate the risk (odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval)) of forced measures being used.
Out of the 235 patients, 66 (28%) were subject to coercion. The time of forced procedures was predominately during the first hours after admission. The risk of forced measures being applied was significantly higher if patients were involuntarily admitted (OR?=?6.4 (3.4-11.9)), or were acutely intoxicated by substances at the time of admission (OR?=?3.7 (1.7-8.2)).
Extramural factors should be included when mental health authorities plan efforts to reduce coercion during admission to psychiatric wards. A reduced threshold for admission and improved integrated effort between mental health services and treatment for substance abuse could improve the course of disease for this group of patients and reduce the need for involuntary admissions and subsequently coercion.
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US. The RESCueH programme comprises 5 randomized controlled trials, and the studies can be expected to result in (1) more patients starting treatment in specialized outpatient clinics, (2) a greater number of elderly patients being treated, (3) increased patient motivation for treatment and thus improved adherence, (4) more patients with stable positive outcomes after treatment and (5) fewer patients relapsing into harmful drinking. The aim of this paper is to discuss the rationale for the RESCueH programme, to present the studies and expected results.
Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a porcine adapted serovar which may cause serious outbreaks in pigs. Here we describe outbreaks of salmonellosis due to S. Choleraesuis in four Danish pig farms in 2012-2013 by clinic, serology, and microbiology and compare the isolates to those of a previous outbreak in 1999-2000. The infection was in some herds associated with high mortality and a moderate to high sero-prevalence was found. In 2012-2013 the disease contributed to increased mortality but occurred concomitant with other disease problems in the herds, which likely delayed the diagnosis by up to several months. Nine isolates from the four farms in 2012-2013 and 14 isolates obtained from the outbreak in Denmark in 1999-2000 were subjected to typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS). The PFGE results of 23 isolates displayed five different profiles. The isolates from 2012 to 2013 revealed two distinct profiles, both different from the isolates recovered in 1999-2000. Two of the 2012-2013 farms shared PFGE profiles and had also transported pigs between them. The profile found in the two other 2012-2013 farms was indistinguishable but no epidemiological connection between these farms was found. Analysis of the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the WGS data indicated that the isolates from the farms in 2012-2013 were more closely related to each other than to isolates from the outbreak in 1999. It was therefore concluded that the infection was a new introduction and not a persistent infection since the outbreak in 1999. It may further be suggested that there were two or three independent rather than a single introduction. The re-introduction of S. Choleraesuis in Denmark emphasizes the importance of strict hygiene measures in the herds. Further investigations using WGS are now in progress on a larger collection of isolates to study clonality at European level and trace the origin of the infections.
Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) is unwanted in products for human consumption due to its antibiotic resistance and ability to cause disease. We intended to set up an improved monitoring and management program to aid in deciding when to use pork contaminated with DT104 for production of sausages without jeopardizing consumer safety. We started by carrying out two assessments of the risk for human health associated with consumption of sausages produced by: (1) Danish pork from average slaughter days; (2) imported pork (IMP) with average prevalence of DT104. The assessments showed that, if Salmonella is present, it is usually in lower numbers (