The aim of this population-based study was to assess the association between objectively recorded physical activity (PA) in early gestation and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) identified at 28 weeks of gestation in a multi-ethnic cohort of healthy pregnant women in Oslo, Norway. In total, 759 women were included. In early gestation (
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) causes considerable morbidity. The long-term prognosis is of obvious interest to both patients and physicians. We conducted this study to determine the prognosis and risk factors in patients diagnosed with HS.
To describe the long-term prognosis and the clinical course of HS and its association to known risk factors.
A postal follow-up survey with uncomplicated factual questions was conducted. As all of the patients were well acquainted with their long-standing disease, this was thought to be sufficient for meaningful results. All cases were diagnosed by a dermatologist. Overall, 212 patients diagnosed with HS between 1981 and 2001 were studied after a median follow-up period of 22 years (range 12-32).
The overall response rate was 71.2%, with 60.8% (129/212) valid (fully completed) questionnaires. Remission was reported by 39.4% (50/127) and improvement by 31.5% (40/127). Unchanged severity was reported by 20.5% (26/127), and 8.7% (11/127) experienced worsening disease. Tobacco smoking was reported by 92.2% (119/129). Among nonsmokers, 40% (35/88) reported remission vs. 29% (17/59) of active smokers. A higher proportion of nonobese patients (45%) reported remission than obese patients (23%).
We found that 39.4% of the sample reported remission of HS. Suspected risk factors appeared to influence the prognosis. Smoking and obesity were significantly linked to a lower rate of self-reported remission. The notion that lifestyle factors play a role in HS appears to be supported by this survey.
The frequencies of social anxiety symptoms in a mental health clinical and a community sample of adolescents are compared. Also, we explore if adolescents can be classified in subgroups based on social anxiety symptoms. Associations between social anxiety symptoms and coexisting problems and sociodemographic characteristics are examined.
Adolescent participants, aged 13-18, in two large Norwegian studies, consisting of a clinical (n = 694, 42.1% participation rate, 55% girls, mean age = 15.6) and a community (n = 7,694, 73.1% participation rate, 51% girls, mean age = 15.8) sample completed identical self-report questionnaires measuring social anxiety and related variables.
Median sum scores (interquartile range) of social anxiety symptoms were higher among girls than boys and in the clinical [girls = 16 (12-22); boys = 12 (9-16)] compared to the community sample [girls = 12 (9-15); boys = 10 (7-12)] (p
This study examined the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent psychotropic medication, reflecting mental health.
Postal baseline surveys among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland, were collected in 2000-2002 (N = 6,227, response rate 67%, 78% women) and longitudinally linked with national register data on prescribed reimbursed medication. Insomnia symptoms at baseline comprised difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, and non-restorative sleep. All purchased psychotropic medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline was included. Outcomes were any psychotropic medication; antidepressants; and anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives. Covariates included socio-demographic and work-related factors, health behaviors, lifetime mental disorders, and prior psychotropic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Insomnia symptoms were associated with higher frequency of subsequent psychotropic medication prescriptions. The associations were strongest for frequent insomnia symptoms (women OR 3.55, 95% CI 2.64-4.77; men OR 4.64, 95% CI 2.49-8.66, adjusted for age and prior medication), but also rare and occasional symptoms were associated with psychotropic medication. Further adjustments had negligible effects.
Insomnia symptoms were associated with prescribed psychotropic medication during follow-up in a dose-response manner. Attention should be given to the prevention of insomnia symptoms to curb subsequent mental problems.
A large number of studies have provided clear evidence for a link between the risk of coronary heart disease and psychological risk factors. Much less attention has been given to the potential protective effect of psychological resources.
The major aim of this study was to investigate the independent association between psychological resources and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in an 8-year follow-up study of a Swedish community-based cohort.
The cohort consisted of 484 men and 497 women, aged 45-69?years at baseline. The incidence of first-time major event of CHD was analysed in relation to baseline levels of psychological resources, including mastery, self-esteem, and sense of coherence as well as psychological risk factors including cynicism and hostile affect, vital exhaustion, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms. In Cox proportional hazard models, adjustments were made for age, sex, eight traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and depressive symptoms.
A total of 56 CHD events had occurred after the 8-year follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, and eight traditional risk factors, a significantly decreased risk of CHD was found for mastery (HR 0.62 per SD, p?=?0.003), self-esteem (HR 0.64, p?=?0.004), and sense of coherence (HR 0.70, p?=?0.031). An increased risk of CHD was found for vital exhaustion (HR 1.46, p?=?0.014), hopelessness (HR 1.59, p?=?0.003), and depressive symptoms (HR 1.45, p?=?0.009). After further adjustment for depressive symptoms, significant associations remained for mastery (HR 0.67, p?=?0.034), self-esteem (HR 0.69, p?=?0.048), and hopelessness (HR 1.48, p?=?0.023).
The psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem, showed robust protective effects on CHD, also after adjustment for established risk factors as well as depressive symptoms. In parallel, hopelessness was an independent risk factor for CHD. The results may have implications for novel approaches in preventive efforts.
Cites: Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2009 Jan;2(1):25-3220031809
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and signs of atherosclerosis are present in all large arteries already in adolescence. We investigated the association between high physical fitness in late adolescence and myocardial infarction (MI) later in life.
The study cohort comprised 743 498 Swedish men examined at the age of 18 years during conscription 1969-84. Aerobic fitness (Wmax) and muscle strength at conscription were measured using standardized methods. Myocardial infarctions occurring in the cohort were tracked through national registers. During a median follow-up period of 34 years, 11 526 MIs were registered in the cohort. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), diseases, education, blood pressure, and socio-economic factors, one standard deviation increase in the level of physical fitness (Wmax) was associated with an 18% decreased risk of later MI [hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.85]. The beneficial effects of Wmax were significant across all recognized BMI groups, ranging from lean (BMI 30) (P 30) in the highest fourth of Wmax had a higher risk of MI than did lean men (BMI
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important contributor to the cancer burden among Alaska Native people. CRC is the leading incident cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality among Alaska Native people. Completing recommended CRC screening procedures has the potential to reduce both CRC incidence and mortality. "Taking Action Colorectal Health," a multidimensional audiovisual, interactive CD-ROM, incorporates adult education learning principles to provide Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners with timely, medically accurate, and culturally relevant CRC place-based education. Providing this resource on CD-ROM empowers learning within communities and places where people live or choose to learn. The dynamic process of developing, implementing, and evaluating this CRC CD-ROM was informed by a sociocultural approach to share health messages. Within this approach, cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors are affirmed as a place of wisdom and resilience and built upon to provide context and meaning for health messaging. Alaska Native values that honor family, relationships, the land, storytelling, and humor were included in CD-ROM content. Between January and May 2012, 20 interviews were conducted with individuals who had used the CD-ROM. Four categorical themes emerged from analysis of interview transcripts: likeability, utilization, helpfulness, and behavior change. As a result of self-paced learning through stories, movies, and interactive games, respondents reported healthy behavior changes they were making for themselves, with their families and in their patient care practices. This CD-ROM is a culturally based practical course that increased knowledge and activities around colorectal cancer screening by Community Health Aides/Practitioners in Alaska.
To estimate the prognostic value of risk factors for cardiovascular events and target organ damages tor the occurrence of resistant hypertension (RH).
The 2008-2013 survey covered 7959 members of locomotive crews of the Transbaikal Railway whose medical expert examination revealed risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and target organ damages.
During the survey, a group of 7959 people with final outcomes included 21 RH cases to be statistically analyzed. Atherosclerotic plaques in the carotids arteries, proteinuria, creatininemia, overweight, left ventricular hypertrophy, a family history of early cardiovascular diseases, and stress were the major predictors of RH.
The association of the established predictors must be considered in the treatment of patients with RH.
The paper presents cases of surgery of brachiocephalic atherosclerotic lesions with asymptomatic stenosis in civilian pilots reviewed by a Flight Certification Board. Cerebrovascular diseases varying in their clinical presentation (syncopes, transitory ischemic attacks or strokes) may culminate in acute conditions and, consequently, threaten flight safety. There is an exigent need of law-guided regulations for flight certification boards on how to manage cases of pilots with a history of cerebrovascular disease.
To determine the effectiveness of plaque radiation therapy for anterior uveal melanomas and to evaluate the risk and frequency of complications at different time intervals after the treatment.
During 2010-2013 a total of 30 patients (10 male, 20 female) aged 11-73 (50 years on the average) with iris or iridociliary melanomas were treated with Ru-106 and Sr-90 ophthalmic plaques. In 8 patients the brachytherapy was preceded by local tumor excision. Morphological diagnosis was verified in 10 patients (8 iridectomies, 2 enucleations), of them 8 cases turned out to be spindle cell melanomas and the other 2--mixed cell melanomas. Follow-up period ranged from 1 to 54 months with the median of 13,5 months.
Tumor regression was achieved in all cases. Enucleation had to be performed in 2 patients due to cornea and sclera necrosis. In the early post-brachytherapy period (up to 1 month) the most frequent radiation-related complications were keratopathy and uveitis (8 and 6 patients correspondingly). In patients observed for up to 3 months (28 patients) these were keratopathy and cataract (8 and 5 patients correspondingly). In the long-term (over 6 months) cataract predominated (17 patients). At the end of the study all patients were alive. Metastatic disease was diagnosed in one patient 30 months after the treatment.
The results of the present clinical study confirm the effectiveness of brachytherapy for iris and iridociliary melanomas, which implies that tumor is well locally controlled and radiation-related complications are moderate and curable. This method of local tumor destruction can be another alternative to enucleation in cases when local tumor excision cannot be performed.