Smoking and alcohol use impair post-operative outcomes. However, no studies include fast-track surgery, which is a multimodal-enhanced recovery programme demonstrated to improve outcome. We hypothesised that outcome is similar in smokers and alcohol users as in non-users after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty.
Prospective questionnaires on co-morbidity and smoking/alcohol use were cross-referenced with the Danish National Health Registry to investigate relationship between smoking/alcohol use and length of stay of > 4 days and readmissions = 90 days after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty.
In 3041 consecutive patients, 458 reported smoking and 216 drinking > 2 drinks a day, of which 66 did both. Smokers/alcohol users were younger than non-users (mean age: 64.3 vs. 68.0 years, P 4 days and smoking (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], P) (1.34 [0.92-1.95], 0.127) or alcohol use (0.59 [0.30-1.16], 0.127). Thirty- and ninety-day readmission rate was 6.6% (n = 201) and 9.4% (n = 285). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an increased risk of readmissions in smokers at 30 (1.60 [1.05-2.44], 0.028) but not 90-day follow-up (1.17 [0.80-1.73], 0.419). No increased risk of readmissions was found in alcohol users at 30 (0.94 [0.50-1.76], 0.838) or 90-day follow-up (0.83 [0.47-1.49], 0.532). No increased risk of specific readmissions (i.e. wound infections or pneumonia) typically related to smoking/alcohol use was found in smokers (1.56 [0.93-2.62], 0.091) or alcohol users (1.00 [0.47-2.15], 0.999) at 90-day follow-up.
Influence of smoking or alcohol use may be less pronounced in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty compared with data with conventional care programmes.
It is estimated that some hundreds of Canadian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have journeyed abroad to avail themselves of 'liberation therapy' (venoplasty) following the initial report by Zamboni et al in 2009. That study also led to public pressure upon Departments of Health in Canadian Provinces to fund the procedure. The present study was done in order to advise the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador as to whether or not it should do so.
We conducted an observational study of 30 MS subjects who had submitted to venoplasty, using objective, semi-objective and subjective measures.
Significant subjective improvement was reported by half of the subjects at three months, although the degree of perceived improvement was less at 12 months. The objective and semi-objective tests employed did not indicate improvement in any area over the one-year follow-up period. Seven of the 29 subjects in whom CT venography was performed at the end of the study year were found to have uni- or bilateral occlusion or >50% stenosis of at least one cervical draining vein, but they showed no deterioration in their clinical status compared to those in whom no venous occlusion nor stenosis was found.
No objective improvement was found at one year in thirty MS subjects who had undergone venoplasty, although many reported a degree of subjective benefit.
Comment In: Can J Neurol Sci. 2013 Mar;40(2):141-323419560
Despite the clinical importance of substance-induced psychosis (SIP), few studies have examined the course of this condition after its acute manifestation.
To investigate the rate of SIP conversion to a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and the length of follow-up needed to catch the majority of these patients whose diagnoses change. In addition to the conversion rate and pattern, we wanted to look for possible related factors.
Using the nationwide Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, we followed all patients (N = 18,478) since their first inpatient hospital admission with a diagnosis of SIP (codes 2921 and 2928 in DSM-III-R and codes F10-F19 in ICD-10 with a third digit of 4, 5, or 7) between January 1987 and December 2003 in Finland. Patients (mean age = 43.7 years, standard deviation = 13.5 years) were followed until first occurrence of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, death, or the end of December 2003, whichever took place first. Conversions of discharge diagnoses into schizophrenia spectrum disorders (codes 2951-2959 and 2971 in DSM-III-R and codes F20, F22, and F23 in ICD-10) were recorded at follow-up.
Eight-year cumulative risk to receive a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was 46% (95% CI, 35%-57%) for persons with a diagnosis of cannabis-induced psychosis and 30% (95% CI, 14%-46%) for those with an amphetamine-induced psychosis. Although alcohol-induced psychosis was the most common type of SIP, 8-year cumulative risk for subsequent schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was only 5.0% (95% CI, 4.6%-5.5%). No differences were detected with regard to gender, except for amphetamine-induced psychosis, which converted into a schizophrenia spectrum disorder significantly more often in men (P = .04). The majority of conversions to a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis occurred during the first 3 years following the index treatment period, especially for cannabis-induced psychosis.
Substance-induced psychotic disorders predict schizophrenia spectrum disorders to a greater extent than previously thought. The intensity of clinical attention focused on substance-induced psychotic disorders should be increased.
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2013 Aug;16(3):6523708315
In adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pharmacotherapy is a recommended treatment option. However, research on long-term outcome with such treatment has been scarce.
A questionnaire survey was completed by adults with ADHD, diagnosed according to ICD-10/DSM-IV criteria and approved for pharmacotherapy during 2003 to 2005, living in southeastern Norway. The questionnaire was conducted from November 2008 to April 2009. Of an eligible number of 1,096 subjects, 1,080 remained at follow-up; 371 subjects (34.4%) agreed to participate, and 368 of these reported having ever been treated with ADHD medication. Baseline characteristics and self-reported outcome were studied by time on psychopharmacologic treatment. Primary outcome measures were the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale version 1.1 (ASRS) Screener and the Mental Health Index-5 (MHI-5). Based on cutoff scores for these instruments, 2 groups (favorable outcome vs others) were created to study possible predictors of outcome status.
Self-reported baseline ADHD symptoms and impairment did not differ between participants and nonparticipants. Mean observation time was 4.5 years (range, 3.5-6.0 years). At follow-up, mean age was 36.5 years. Altogether, 270 patients (73.4%) had been treated for more than 24 months. They reported better outcome on all measures compared to those treated for 24 months or less (mean values: ASRS Screener score: 12.8 vs 15.3; MHI-5 score: 63.7 vs 57. 7). The favorable outcome group consisted of 79 participants (21.5%). Comorbidity at baseline predicted poorer outcome than did no comorbid illness.
In adults with ADHD, pharmacologic treatment for more than 2 years was associated with better functioning than treatment for 2 years or less. Comorbidity at baseline predicted poorer outcome.
To measure adherence to annual follow-up among women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
Prospective, population-based, register study.
All women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with conization.
Treated women were routinely recommended to have follow-up with annual smears for at least 5 years.
Using individually linked nationwide register data on conizations and follow-up tests (smears and biopsies), we calculated the cumulative proportion of treated women undergoing the recommended follow-up. We measured this cumulative proportion conservatively in 15-month intervals for 5 years.
Adherence to annual follow-up among 45,984 treated women decreased gradually. In total, 90% of these women obtained at least one smear in the first post-treatment year, but only 40% obtained the recommended tests for 5 years. Five-year adherence was substantially better outside the capital area, for example, the odds ratio for women from Jutland compared with women from the capital area was 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.60-1.82).
Adherence to follow-up after conization was poor in Denmark. Our findings suggest that because of this poor adherence, recommendations for long-term annual follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia may not be highly effective. Shorter follow-up schedules using highly sensitive tests appear attractive.
To investigate whether poststroke dementia (PSD) diagnosed after ischaemic stroke predicts recurrent ischaemic stroke in long-term follow-up.
We included 486 consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke (388 with first-ever stroke) admitted to Helsinki University Central Hospital who were followed-up for 12 years. Dementia was diagnosed in 115 patients using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) criteria. The effects of risk factors and PSD on survival free of recurrent stroke were estimated using Kaplan-Meier log-rank analyses, and the HRs for stroke recurrence were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models.
In the entire cohort, patients with PSD had a shorter mean time to recurrent stroke (7.13 years, 95% CI 6.20 to 8.06) than patients without dementia (9.41 years, 8.89 to 9.92; log rank p
Whether a patient has urothelial carcinoma located within the renal pelvis or ureter remains a controversial prognostic indicator in clinical urology. We wished to evaluate whether tumor location is associated with recurrence in patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial cancer in a large volume patient cohort.
We created a retrospective database of patients from 7 academic centers throughout Canada who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Patient demographics as well as pathologic and surgical factors were analyzed to evaluate any statistical association between tumor location and overall survival, disease-free survival, and disease-specific survival.
A total of 1,029 patients had data available for analysis with a mean follow up of 3.2 years. Kaplan Meier 5-year disease-free survivals (DFS) were 46%, 37%, and 19% for renal pelvis tumors, ureteric tumors, and multifocal tumors respectively. There was no association between the location of the tumor and the DFS, however, disease involving both the ureter and renal pelvis was associated with lower DFS and overall survival (OS) (P
The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on child motor function at age 5.
We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment.
There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking.
In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function at age 5.
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet) is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment.
A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12?years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n?=?103) and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n?=?483) answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL.
The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3%) compared to referent boys (18.8%) (Adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.73).
The findings of this study suggest that adolescents with unrecognized CD experience similar HRQoL as their peers without CD, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, except for boys in the dimension of pain at follow-up.
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