Previous small studies have indicated that commonly prescribed drugs may be associated with microscopic colitis (MC). With an increasing incidence of MC, it is important to explore the association between exposure to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and MC in a larger setting.
Case-control study based on nationwide Danish registries. The study included all patients with MC diagnosis during the period 2005 to 2011. One hundred sex- and age-matched controls per case were randomly selected among the Danish population. Prescriptions were recorded in a Prescription Register in the year before the first recorded MC diagnosis. Effect measure is the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) according to prescriptions of PPIs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Within the control group, we identified a subgroup with MC-free colonic biopsies.
We identified 3474 patients with CC and 2277 with LC and found a positive association between redemption of prescriptions for PPIs and both CC (OR = 7.04; 95% confidence interval, 6.55-7.56) and LC (OR = 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-3.69). Among patients with MC-free colon biopsies in the control group, the association between PPIs and CC was strongly positive (OR = 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-3.89). Adding this parameter to the model attenuated all of the associations, but they remained positive for PPIs versus CC and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus LC.
We found positive associations between exposure to all 4 medication classes and MC. Variations in endoscopic frequency by drug category indicate a potential impact of bias.
Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark.
The study was based on a quasi-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years only.
Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P
Do teenage girls with a history of menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels in adolescence exhibit an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and/or infertility later on in adulthood?
Our results suggest that menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels at 16 years are still associated with symptoms of PCOS at 26 years as well as infertility problems at 26 years but not with decreased pregnancy or delivery rates at 26 years.
Hyperandrogenaemia is associated with menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, acne and potentially higher risk for PCOS, but there are few follow-up studies investigating whether adolescent hyperandrogenaemia and/or menstrual irregularity are an early sign of PCOS.
A prospective population-based cohort study was conducted using two postal questionnaires targeting girls in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986, n = 4567). The NFBC1986 comprises all expected births from the year 1986 in the two northernmost provinces of Finland. Collection of the database was performed at the age of 16 and 26. The 16-year and 26-year questionnaires included one question about the regularity and length of the menstrual cycle. The 26-year questionnaire also included questions about symptoms of PCOS, reproduction and infertility problems.
The response rates for the questionnaires were 80% (n = 3669) at 16 years and 50% (n = 2270) at 26 years. At 15-16 years, of 2448 girls, 709 (29%) girls reported menstrual irregularity (symptomatic girls) and 1739 (71%) had regular periods (non-symptomatic girls). After combining data from the two questionnaires a total of 2033 girls were included in the analyses. The ?(2) and Student's t-test was used to compare reproductive outcome and prevalence of clinical hyperandrogenaemia, PCOS and infertility at 26 years between the study groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were employed to estimate the association of menstrual irregularity at 16 years with clinical hyperandrogenaemia, PCOS and infertility at 26 years.
At follow-up, the proportion of symptomatic girls who had conceived at least once (68.0 versus 67.9%) and had delivered at least one child (25.7 versus 28.1%) was similar to the non-symptomatic women and the groups had similar miscarriage rates (11.6 versus 12.1%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that menstrual irregularity at 16 years was associated with an increased risk of menstrual irregularity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.88, P = 0.050], PCOS (adjusted OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.74-4.84, P
Half of adult liver transplantation (LT) recipients develop metabolic syndrome, but the prevalence after childhood LT remains unknown. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of all living patients who had undergone LT between 1987 and 2007 at an age less than 18 years. We gathered information on blood pressure, body composition, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, and histological liver fat content. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association and the International Diabetes Federation were used. After a median post-LT follow-up time of 12 years, half of all patients had no components of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 24%. Serum triglycerides were high in 9%, and high-density lipoprotein levels were low in 23%. Fasting glucose levels were impaired in 14%, but none had diabetes. Altogether, 9 patients (14%) had metabolic syndrome. Moderate liver steatosis found in protocol liver biopsy samples was associated with the accumulation of metabolic syndrome features (P?=?0.01). No significant associations were found between immunosuppressive medications and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome after childhood LT is similar to the prevalence in the general population of the same age. Guidelines for the general population, therefore, seem valid for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome after pediatric LT as well.
The literature regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in geriatric depression is sparse. The aim of this study was to examine associations between CSF interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and depression in a population-based sample of older women who were followed for 17 years.
86 dementia-free women aged 70-84 years who participated in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden took part in a lumbar puncture in 1992-3. CSF IL-6 and CSF IL-8 were measured. Psychiatric symptoms were rated with the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale at baseline and at three subsequent face-to-face examinations. Depression (major or minor) was diagnosed in accordance with DSM-IV/DSM-IV research criteria.
At baseline, women with ongoing major (n=10) or minor depression (n=9) had higher levels of CSF IL-6 (p=0.008) and CSF IL-8 (p=0.007) compared with those without depression (n=67). Higher CSF IL-8 was related to higher MADRS score (p=0.003). New cases of depression were observed in 9 women during follow-ups. No associations between CSF cytokine levels and future depression could be shown in women without depression at baseline.
Higher levels of CSF IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with current depression in this population-based sample. CSF IL-6 and CSF IL-8 may play a role in depression in late life.
To assess whether sense of coherence (SOC) predicts the 4-year incidence of periodontal disease in adults.
Data from 848 adults who participated in both the Health 2000 Survey and the Follow-Up Study of Finnish Adults' Oral Health were analysed. At baseline, participants provided information on demographic characteristics, education level, the SOC scale, pre-existing diabetes and dental behaviours. The outcome measure was the change in number of teeth with pocketing = 4 mm over 4 years over 4 years. Two separate sets of longitudinal analyses were conducted. The first set was conducted with all the 848 subjects who participated in both surveys and the second set was conducted with the 305 subjects who had no pocketing = 4 mm at baseline.
In the full sample, baseline SOC was not associated with change in number of teeth with pocketing over 4 years (coefficient from linear regression: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.74 to 0.18). Similarly, baseline SOC was not associated with number of teeth with pocketing after 4 years (Rate Ratio: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.80 to 1.11) among those with no pocketing at baseline.
This 4-year prospective study suggests that SOC measured in adulthood does not explain change in the number of teeth with periodontal pocketing = 4 mm.
The association between passive smoking exposure in childhood and adverse cardiovascular health in adulthood is not well understood. Using a 26-year follow-up study, we examined whether childhood exposure to passive smoking was associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque in young adults.
Participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n=2448). Information on childhood exposure to parental smoking was collected in 1980 and 1983. Carotid ultrasound data were collected in adulthood in 2001 or 2007. Childhood serum cotinine levels from 1980 were measured from frozen samples in 2014 (n=1578). The proportion of children with nondetectable cotinine levels was highest among households in which neither parent smoked (84%), was decreased in households in which 1 parent smoked (62%), and was lowest among households in which both parents smoked (43%). Regardless of adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, the relative risk of developing carotid plaque in adulthood increased among those children with 1 or both parents who smoked (relative risk, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.8; P=0.04). Although children whose parents exercised good "smoking hygiene" (smoking parents whose children had nondetectable cotinine levels) had increased risk of carotid plaque compared with children with nonsmoking parents (relative risk, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-4.0; P=0.34), children of smoking parents with poor smoking hygiene (smoking parents whose children had detectable serum cotinine levels) had substantially increased risk of plaque as adults (relative risk, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-9.8; P=0.002).
Children of parents who smoke have increased risk of developing carotid atherosclerotic plaque in adulthood. However, parents who exercise good smoking hygiene can lessen their child's risk of developing plaque.
We studied if late preterm birth (34 weeks 0 days-36 weeks 6 days of gestation) is associated with performance on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) in late adulthood and if maximum attained lifetime education moderated these associations.
Participants were 919 Finnish men and women born between 1934 and 1944, who participated in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. They underwent the CERAD-NB at a mean age of 68.1 years. Data regarding gestational age (late preterm versus term) were extracted from hospital birth records, and educational attainment data were gathered from Statistics Finland.
After adjustment for major confounders, those born late preterm scored lower on word list recognition (mean difference: -0.33 SD; P = .03) than those born at term. Among those who had attained a basic or upper secondary education, late preterm birth was associated with lower scores on word list recognition, constructional praxis, constructional praxis recall, clock drawing, Mini-Mental State Examination, and memory total and CERAD total 2 compound scores (mean differences: >0.40 SD; P values
Noise has been found to be associated with endocrine changes and cardiovascular disease. Increased cortisol levels and chronic sleep problems due to noise may increase the risk of obesity.
We investigated the relationship between road traffic noise and obesity markers. Furthermore, we explored the modifying role of noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and sleep disturbances.
We used data from a population-based study, HUBRO (N=15,085), and its follow-up study HELMILO (N=8410) conducted in Oslo, Norway. Measurements were used to define body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and these binary outcomes: BMI=30kg/m(2), WC=102cm (men)/88cm (women), and WHR=0.90 (men)/0.85 (women). Modelled levels of road traffic noise (Lden) were assigned to each participant's home address. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations.
The results indicated no significant associations between road traffic noise and obesity markers in the total populations. However, in highly noise sensitive women (n=1106) a 10dB increase in noise level was associated with a slope (=beta) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03) for BMI, 1.01 (CI: 1.00, 1.02) for WC, and an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (CI: 1.01, 1.53) for WHR =0.85. The associations appeared weaker in highly noise sensitive men. We found no effect modification of noise annoyance or sleep disturbances. In a sub-population with bedroom facing a road, the associations increased in men (e.g. an OR of 1.25 (CI: 0.88, 1.78) for BMI =30kg/m(2)), but not in women. Among long-term residents the associations increased for BMI =30kg/m(2) (OR of 1.07 (CI: 0.93, 1.24) in men and 1.10 (CI: 0.97, 1.26) in women), but not for the other outcomes.
In an adult urban Scandinavian population, road traffic noise was positively associated with obesity markers among highly noise sensitive women. The associations appeared stronger among men with bedroom facing a street, representing a population with more accurately assigned exposure.
Cysteine could potentially lower the risk of stroke through antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to evaluate the hypothesis that cysteine intake is inversely associated with stroke incidence.
We used data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective cohort of 34 250 women who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire about diet and other risk factors for stroke in the autumn of 1997. Stroke cases were identified by linkage of the study population with the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression model.
We ascertained 1751 incident cases of stroke during 10.4 years of follow-up. Dietary cysteine intake (mean, 635 mg/d) was inversely associated with stroke risk. The multivariable RR of total stroke comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of cysteine intake was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.97; P for trend=0.04). The corresponding RR was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.03; P for trend=0.12) for cerebral infarction and 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-1.03; P for trend=0.08) for intracerebral hemorrhage. Dietary intake of other amino acids showed no independent (after adjustment for cysteine intake) association with stroke risk.
These findings suggest that dietary cysteine intake may be inversely associated with risk of stroke.