The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Stollery Children's Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pediatric heart failure (HF) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. This article presents guidelines for the recognition, diagnosis, and early medical management of HF in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The guidelines are intended to assist practitioners in office-based or emergency room practice, who encounter children with undiagnosed heart disease and symptoms of possible HF, rather than those who have already received surgical palliation. The guidelines have been developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and are accompanied by practical Recommendations for their application in the clinical setting, supplemented by online material. This work does not include Recommendations for advanced management involving ventricular assist devices, or other device therapies.
To provide guidelines for health-care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
Overall efficacy of cited contraceptive methods, assessing reduction in pregnancy rate, risk of infection, safety, ease of use, and side effects; the effect of cited contraceptive methods on sexual health and general well-being; and the cost and availability of cited contraceptive methods in Canada.
Medline and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles in English on subjects related to contraception, sexuality, and sexual health from January 1988 to March 2003, in order to update the Report of the Consensus Committee on Contraception published in May-July 1998. Relevant Canadian Government publications and position papers from appropriate health and family planning organizations were also reviewed.
The quality of the evidence is rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations for practice are ranked according to the method described in this Report.
The various major American and European guidelines for the treatment of depression provide similar basic principles of treatment, which include individualizing the treatment plan, preparing the patient for potential long-term treatment, providing measurement-based care, and treating to remission. While the guidelines are all evidence-based, certain factors can influence differences in specific recommendations, such as the consensus group's composition, underlying mandates, and cultural attitudes. The similarities and differences among 6 sets of guidelines from Europe and the Americas published in the past decade are reviewed here (American Psychiatric Association, British Association for Psychopharmacology, Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Texas Medication Algorithm Project, and World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry). In the guidelines, mild depression has the most variance in treatment recommendations; some, but not all, guidelines suggest that it may resolve with exercise or watchful waiting, but psychotherapy or antidepressants could be used if initial efforts fail. Moderate and severe major depression carry broadly similar recommendations among the guidelines. First-line treatment recommendations for moderate major depressive disorder include antidepressant monotherapy, psychotherapy, and the combination of both. Severe depression may require the combination of an antidepressant and an antipsychotic, electroconvulsive therapy, or the combination of an antidepressant and psychotherapy. Benzodiazepines play a very limited role in the treatment of depression; if the patient has catatonic depression, acutely suicidal depression, or depression with symptoms of anxiety, agitation, or insomnia, benzodiazepines are recommended by some guidelines for short-term treatment only.
The National Tobacco Control Best Practices Working Group convened a two-day workshop to support best practices in evaluation of comprehensive tobacco control strategies. A Better Practices Model, aimed at developing a self-correcting system for best practices, guided the workshop content and process. Organizers intended to identify a common surveillance and monitoring framework for tobacco control strategies in Canada by first building strong working relationships between 44 decision-makers, practitioners and researchers from 12 Canadian jurisdictions. Participants identified needs and recommendations related to increased understanding and use of uniform evaluation strategies, building capacity, and recognition of the complexity of the task of evaluating comprehensive tobacco control strategies. The workshop highlighted the need for increased communication to facilitate understanding across the different sectors of participants. It also identified the potential benefits of harmonization in evaluation of tobacco control strategies across jurisdictions. Priority actions include forming a national team to agree on a model for evaluation, conducting an environmental scan for indicators, planning evaluation / monitoring and research agendas and determining roles for various stakeholders.
There is an abundance of evidence from recent randomized clinical trials showing that lowering the IOP is beneficial to the optic nerve and visual field. Setting and achieving a target IOP range is in keeping with evidence-based medicine. The benefits of reaching this target must be weighed against the risks of the treatment itself. Target IOP is a dynamic concept, needing constant reevaluation. What is lacking are established guidelines for determining the target IOP range that can be used in general ophthalmology practice.
The management of mild to moderate dementia presents complex and evolving challenges. Practising physicians are often uncertain about the appropriate approaches to issues such as the disclosure of the diagnosis, driving and caregiver support. In this article, we provide practical guidance on management based on recommendations from the Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia.
We developed evidence-based guidelines using systematic literature searches, with specific criteria for the selection and quality assessment of articles, and a clear and transparent decision-making process. We selected articles published from January 1996 to December 2005 that dealt with the management of mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer disease and other forms of dementia. Recommendations based on the literature review were drafted and voted on. Consensus required 80% or more agreement by participants. Subsequent to the conference, we searched for additional articles published from January 2006 to April 2008 using the same major keywords and secondary search terms. We graded the strength of evidence using the criteria of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.
We identified 1615 articles, of which 954 were selected for further study. From a synthesis of the evidence in these studies, we made 48 recommendations for the management of mild to moderate dementia (28) and dementia with a cerebrovascular component (8) as well as recommendations for addressing ethical issues (e.g., disclosure of the diagnosis) (12). The updated literature review did not change these recommendations. In brief, patients and their families should be informed of the diagnosis. Although the specifics of managing comorbid conditions might require modification, standards of care and treatment targets would not change because of a mild dementia. The use of medications with anticholinergic effects should be minimized. There should be proactive planning for driving cessation, since this will be required at some point in the course of progressive dementia. The patient's ability to drive should be determined primarily on the basis of his or her functional abilities. An important aspect of care is supporting the patient's primary caregiver.
Much has been learned about the care of patients with mild to moderate dementia and the support of their primary caregivers. There is a pressing need for the development, and dissemination, of collaborative systems of care.
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Cites: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;13(6):535-815956274
The paper presents the All-Russian consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease in children and adults, which has been elaborated by leading experts, such as gastroenterologists and pediatricians of Russia on the basis of the existing Russian and international guidelines. The consensus approved at the 42nd Annual Scientific Session of the Central Research Institute of Gastroenterology on Principles of Evidence-Based Medicine into Clinical Practice (March 2-3, 2016). The consensus is intended for practitioners engaged in the management and treatment of patients with celiac disease. Evidence for the main provisions of the consensus was sought in electronic databases. In making recommendations, the main source was the publications included in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed. The search depth was 10 years. Recommendations in the preliminary version were reviewed by independent experts. Voting was done by the Delphic polling system.
Current debates around the choice of management strategy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) combined with limited efficacy and frequent adverse effects of current pharmacotherapies cause uncertainty and confusion, challenging optimal care delivery to AF patients.
To determine gaps in knowledge, skill, and competencies of Canadian physicians caring for patients with AF as well as underlying causes of these gaps.
A mixed-method approach --consisting of qualitative (semistructured interviews) and quantitative data collection techniques (online survey) --was conducted. Findings were triangulated to ensure the reliability and trustworthiness of findings. The combined sample (n = 161) included 43 family physicians/general practitioners, 23 internal medicine specialists, 48 cardiologists, 28 emergency physicians, 14 neurologists, and 5 patients.
Gaps and barriers impeding optimal care were related to an unclear definition of AF, uncertainty of its pathophysiology, and knowledge gaps across the care continuum, including screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Clinical decision-making, individualized patient therapy, communication with patients and between professionals, and application of guidelines were found to be particularly challenging. These issues are discussed in the context of the newly revised Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) AF Guidelines.
Educational gaps exist across the entire continuum of care. Results from this study, along with the 2011 CCS guidelines for AF management, provide direction for solutions through physician education and professional development.
Postoperative atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (POAF) are the most common complications of cardiac surgery that require intervention or prolong intensive care unit and total hospital stay. For some patients, these tachyarrhythmias have important consequences including patient discomfort/anxiety, hemodynamic deterioration, cognitive impairment, thromboembolic events including stroke, exposure to the risks of antiarrhythmic treatments, longer hospital stay, and increased health care costs. We conclude that prevention of POAF is a worthwhile exercise and recommend that the dominant therapy for this purpose be ß-blocker therapy, especially the continuation of ß-blocker therapy that is already in place. When ß-blocker therapy is contraindicated, amiodarone prophylaxis is recommended. If both of these therapies are contraindicated, therapy with either intravenous magnesium or biatrial pacing is suggested. Patients at high risk of POAF may be considered for first-line amiodarone therapy, first-line sotalol therapy, or combination prophylactic therapy. The treatment of POAF may follow either a rate-control approach (with the dominant therapy being ß-blocking drugs) or a rhythm-control approach. Anticoagulation should be considered if persistent POAF lasts >72 hours and at the point of hospital discharge. The ongoing need for any POAF treatment (including anticoagulation) should be reconsidered 6-12 weeks after the surgical procedure.