The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. According to initial studies conducted in 2014, the instrument showed promising psychometric characteristics. The present study tested the psychometric properties, including language and gender invariance, in a large international sample of online gamers. In this study, data were collected from 7,193 participants comprising Hungarian (n = 3,924), Iranian (n = 791), English-speaking (n = 754), French-speaking (n = 421), Norwegian (n = 195), Czech (n = 496), and Peruvian (n = 612) online gamers via gaming-related websites and gaming-related social-networking-site groups. A unidimensional factor structure provided a good fit to the data in all language-based samples. In addition, results indicated both language and gender invariance on the level of scalar invariance. Criterion and construct validity of the IGDT-10 was supported by its strong association with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire and moderate association with weekly gaming time, psychopathological symptoms, and impulsivity. The proportions of each sample that met the cut-off score on the IGDT-10 varied between 1.61% and 4.48% in the individual samples, except for the Peruvian sample (13.44%). The IGDT-10 shows robust psychometric properties and appears suitable for conducting cross-cultural and gender comparisons across seven languages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examined the feasibility of the HLS-EU-Q16 (in Finnish) for use among older Finns and whether the health literacy score correlates with indicators of health and functioning.
To determine the feasibility of the instrument, we first conducted a focus group discussion with nine participants. For the quantitative analyses, we used data from the AGNES cohort study, collected between October 2017 and April 2018 at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland. 292 75-year-old Finnish men and women were interviewed face-to-face in their homes. Health literacy was measured with the HLS-EU-Q16 and health literacy score, ranging from 0 to 50, computed. The reproducibility of the instrument was test-retested. Chi-square tests were used to compare health literacy scores between participants by different socioeconomic variables, and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to study the associations of health literacy with cognition, depressive symptoms, chronic conditions, life-space mobility and physical performance.
The mean health literacy score for all participants was 35.05 (SD 6.32). Participants who rated their financial situation and self-rated health as very good had the highest health literacy scores (38.85, SD 5.09 and 39.22, SD 6.77, respectively). Better health literacy was associated with better cognitive status, fewer depressive symptoms and chronic conditions, higher life-space mobility and better physical performance.
The HLS-EU-Q16 is a feasible measure for research purposes among older Finns. The associations between health literacy and indicators of health and functioning need to be more closely investigated in larger samples with a wider age-range.
There is evidence that clinicians' pain attitudes and beliefs are associated with the pain beliefs and illness perceptions of their patients and furthermore influence their recommendations for activity and work to patients with back pain. The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (PABS) is a questionnaire designed to differentiate between biomedical and biopsychosocial pain attitudes among health care providers regarding common low back pain. The original version had 36 items, and several shorter versions have been developed. Concern has been raised over the PABS' internal construct validity because of low internal consistency and low explained variance. The aim of this study was to examine and improve the scale's measurement properties and item performance.
A convenience sample of 667 Norwegian physiotherapists provided data for Rasch analysis. The biomedical and biopsychosocial subscales of the PABS were examined for unidimensionality, local response independency, invariance, response category function and targeting of persons and items. Reliability was measured with the person separation index (PSI). Items originally excluded by the developers of the scale because of skewness were re-introduced in a second analysis.
Our analysis suggested that both subscales required removal of several psychometrically redundant and misfitting items to satisfy the requirements of the Rasch measurement model. Most biopsychosocial items needed revision of their scoring structure. Furthermore, we identified two items originally excluded because of skewness that improved the reliability of the subscales after re-introduction. The ultimate result was two strictly unidimensional subscales, each consisting of seven items, with invariant item ordering and free from any form of misfit. The unidimensionality implies that summation of items to valid total scores is justified. Transformation tables are provided to convert raw ordinal scores to unbiased interval-level scores. Both subscales were adequately targeted at the ability level of our physiotherapist population. Reliability of the biomedical subscale as measured with the PSI was 0.69. A low PSI of 0.64 for the biopsychosocial subscale indicated limitations with regard to its discriminative ability.
Rasch analysis produced an improved Norwegian version of the PABS which represents true (fundamental) measurement of clinicians' biomedical and biopsychosocial treatment orientation. However, researchers should be aware of the low discriminative ability of the biopsychosocial subscale when analyzing differences and effect changes.
The study presents a revised PABS that provides interval-level measurement of clinicians' pain beliefs. The revision allows for confident use of parametric statistical analysis. Further examination of discriminative validity is required.
Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chronic pain causes suffering for affected individuals and incurs costs to society through work disability. Interventions based on early screening of psychological risk factors for chronic pain using screening tools such as the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) have been found to reduce work absenteeism and health care visits and increase perceived health. The aim of the current study was to translate the ÖMPSQ into Finnish and test its validity and reliability in a patient sample.
The ÖMPSQ was forward-backward translated and cross-culturally adapted, and applied to our study population (n=69), the members of which had been referred to the Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of Oulu University Hospital from primary health care centres in Northern Finland due to chronic low back pain. The patients answered the ÖMPSQ two weeks before the hospital visit, and the follow-up questionnaire either during the hospital visit, or after by mail. The reliability of the ÖMPSQ was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Factor analysis was used to group items of the ÖMPSQ, and internal consistency between the items was determined by calculating Cronbach's alphas.
The cross-cultural adaptation revealed only minor semantic and cultural differences. Measurements showed reliability as moderate to nearly perfect for all of the ÖMPSQ items (ICC values ranged from 0.59 to 0.96). Items loaded into five different factors: disability, psychological symptoms, pain, fear avoidance, and work. All except one (work) showed acceptable internal consistency. The ÖMPSQ score was positively associated with both intensity of pain and the Oswestry Disability Index.
The reliability and construct validity of the Finnish version of the ÖMPSQ were good. The predictive ability of the ÖMPSQ in the Finnish population should be evaluated in further studies.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a survey to investigate parents' satisfaction with neonatal wards in a population of parents of children with a gestation age of =24 weeks to 3 months after full-term birth.
We explored the literature and conducted three focus groups: two with expert health personnel and one with parents. We tested the survey in a parent population (N = 105) and report the different stages in the validation process along with the full survey, the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey - 13 categories (NSS-13).
We found 13 subcategories in the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey. The subcategories measure parents' satisfaction with neonatal units based on staff, admission, nurses, anxiety, siblings (parents' perceptions of caring for the siblings of the newborn), information, timeout, doctors, facilities, nutrition, preparation for discharge, trust and visitors. Each subcategory showed acceptable internal consistency. The full version of the Neonatal Satisfaction Survey presents 69 items, and each subcategory contains two to eleven items.
The Neonatal Satisfaction Survey seems suitable to measure parents' satisfaction with neonatal units and can be used in full, but it can also measure subcategories. Parents' satisfaction with neonatal units can be used to improve the quality in such wards. We consider this study as the first in a series to validate the NSS-13. The full survey with subcategories is presented in this paper.
The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS-PT) is a self-administered instrument developed to assess the strength of two possible treatment orientations of physiotherapists towards the management of low back pain. The aim of this study was to translate the PABS-PT into Norwegian from the original 36-item Dutch version and to examine its dimensionality and internal consistency.
The Norwegian version was generated in a forward-backward translation procedure. To examine construct validity, a cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 3849 physiotherapists was invited to fill out the Norwegian PABS-PT, together with demographic and professional data. Only therapists who had been involved in back pain management for the last 6?months were included. Principal factor and Cronbach's alpha analyses were performed to determine the factor structure and internal consistency, respectively.
The PABS-PT was successfully translated into Norwegian. Responses from 921 therapists were obtained (response rate 24.8%), and of these, 647 could be included in the factor analysis. Analysis revealed two factors, labelled 'biomedical' and 'biopsychosocial' treatment orientation, which confirmed the structure of the original Dutch version. Thirty-six items were reduced to 19, with 13 items loading on factor I and six items on factor II, explaining 18.1% and 7.1%, respectively, of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha of the biomedical sub-scale was 0.79 and 0.57 for the bio-psychosocial sub-scale.
The aim is to determine concurrent validity of a single self-report habitual physical activity (PA) question against accelerometer-based PA and mobility variables, and corresponding changes in self-reported PA and mobility. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of the "Life-space mobility in old age" (LISPE) cohort and its substudy on PA were utilized. At baseline, 848 community-dwelling, 75- to 90-year-old people living independently in central Finland participated in home-based interviews. One and 2 years later, 816 and 761 of them were reassessed by phone, respectively. Tri-axial accelerometer data over 7 days were collected following the baseline assessments in a subsample of 174. Self-reported habitual PA was assessed based on intensity and duration using a single question with seven response options (range: mostly resting to competitive sports). Mobility variables were as follows: life-space mobility, walking difficulty over 500 m, and short physical performance battery. Statistically significant correlations were found between self-reported habitual PA and mobility (Spearman correlation coefficient Rs = 0.40-0.61) and accelerometer-based PA variables [step counts (Rs = 0.49), time in moderate (Rs = 0.49) and low intensity (Rs = 0.40) PA, and time in sedentary behavior (Rs = -0.28)]. A decline in self-reported habitual PA over time was associated with 5-10p decline in life-space mobility (PA improvement with 0-3p increase) and with developing a higher degree of walking difficulty (in 35-44% of participants). In conclusion, based on these results, the self-report question to assess habitual PA is valid and responsive to change and thus useful for epidemiological research in community-dwelling older people, also in follow-up studies.
Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q, and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population-based subsample (n=125) was included from the "Diet, Cancer and Health-Next Generations" (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity coefficients, which express the correlation between measured and "true" exposure, were calculated, and misclassification across categories was evaluated. The validity of the Danish step test was moderate (women: r=.66, and men: r=.56); however, men were systematically underestimated (43% misclassification). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure-time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=.28) and vigorous sports (0.28) alone were positively correlated with VO2 max. Finally, the percentage of misclassification was low for self-rated fitness (women: 9% and men: 13%). Thus, self-rated fitness was found to be a superior method to the Danish step test, as well as being less cost prohibitive and more practical than the VO2 max method. Finally, even if correlations were low, they support the potential for questionnaire outcomes, particularly sports, vigorous sports, and self-rated fitness to be used to estimate CRF.
Since 1998, soldiers deployed to war zones with the Danish Defense (˜31,000) have been invited to fill out a questionnaire on post-mission reactions. This provides a unique data source for studying the psychological toll of war. Here, we validate a measure of PTSD-symptoms from the questionnaire. Soldiers from two cohorts deployed to Afghanistan with the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2009 (ISAF7, N = 334) and 2013 (ISAF15, N = 278) filled out a standard questionnaire (Psychological Reactions following International Missions, PRIM) concerning a range of post-deployment reactions including symptoms of PTSD (PRIM-PTSD). They also filled out a validated measure of PTSD-symptoms in DSM-IV, the PTSD-checklist (PCL). We tested reliability of PRIM-PTSD by estimating Cronbach's alpha, and tested validity by correlating items, clusters, and overall scale with corresponding items in the PCL. Furthermore, we conducted two confirmatory factor analytic models to test the factor structure of PRIM-PTSD, and tested measurement invariance of the selected model. Finally, we established a screening and a clinical cutoff score by application of ROC analysis. We found high internal consistency of the PRIM-PTSD (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88; both cohorts), strong item-item (0.48-0.83), item-cluster (0.43-0.72), cluster-cluster (0.71-0.82) and full-scale (0.86-0.88) correlations between PRIM-PTSD and PCL. The factor analyses showed adequate fit of a one-factor model, which was also found to display strong measurement invariance across cohorts. ROC curve analysis established cutoff scores for screening (sensitivity = 1, specificity = 0.93) and clinical use (sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.98). In conclusion, we find that PRIM-PTSD is a valid measure for assessing PTSD-symptoms in Danish soldiers following deployment.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is suitable for population screening due to its high incidence and the recognizable and treatable prephase, and the present study is part of the larger study; Screening for Swedish Colons (SCREESCO). In Sweden, there is, to our knowledge, no questionnaire assessing shared decision making (SDM) with regard to CRC screening and, therefore, the aim of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the CRC screening module of the National Survey of Medical Decisions (DECISIONS) into a Swedish context.
A qualitative design inspired by guidelines based on methods for cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires was used. In addition, focus group discussions, individual interviews and think-aloud (TA) sessions were performed.
Of the 54 items included in the original DECISION survey, 32 were excluded, 22 were modified, and three were added as a result of the qualitative study. How the health care organization communicated and CRC screening knowledge was communicated were found to be the most important cultural differences between Sweden and the USA. The final questionnaire consists of 24 items.
The process of translation and cultural adaptation of the CRC screening module of the DECISIONS survey resulted in the removal and modifying of a considerable number of items. The major rationale for the removal and modifying of items can be explained by the different cultural traditions between Sweden and the USA when communicating with the health care system regarding screening participation and how CRC screening information and knowledge is communicated.