The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. According to initial studies conducted in 2014, the instrument showed promising psychometric characteristics. The present study tested the psychometric properties, including language and gender invariance, in a large international sample of online gamers. In this study, data were collected from 7,193 participants comprising Hungarian (n = 3,924), Iranian (n = 791), English-speaking (n = 754), French-speaking (n = 421), Norwegian (n = 195), Czech (n = 496), and Peruvian (n = 612) online gamers via gaming-related websites and gaming-related social-networking-site groups. A unidimensional factor structure provided a good fit to the data in all language-based samples. In addition, results indicated both language and gender invariance on the level of scalar invariance. Criterion and construct validity of the IGDT-10 was supported by its strong association with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire and moderate association with weekly gaming time, psychopathological symptoms, and impulsivity. The proportions of each sample that met the cut-off score on the IGDT-10 varied between 1.61% and 4.48% in the individual samples, except for the Peruvian sample (13.44%). The IGDT-10 shows robust psychometric properties and appears suitable for conducting cross-cultural and gender comparisons across seven languages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Oral moist snuff is widely used in Sweden including during pregnancy. Maternal snuff use has been associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in epidemiological studies. Self-reported maternal snuff use has not been validated previously. The main objective of this study was to validate self-reported snuff use in pregnancy in a prospective cohort study and in the Medical Birth Register.
A prospective Swedish cohort study, 2005-2011, in which 572 women were asked to participate. Of 474 recruited women, 381 non-smokers (263 snuff users and 118 non-tobacco users) were included in the main analyses. Participants prospectively reported snuff use through questionnaires. Medical Birth Register data on the participants was obtained. Maternal urine cotinine was collected in late pregnancy and was used as a biomarker.
Cotinine levels in maternal urine confirmed a high validity of self-reported snuff use through questionnaires in late pregnancy; sensitivity and specificity values were 98% and 96%, respectively. In the Medical Birth Register, 45% of the snuff users were misclassified as nonusers in late pregnancy. There were significant differences in median cotinine levels between users of mini pouches and users of standard pouches, but there was a great difference of cotinine levels among users with similar number of pouches used daily.
Self-reported snuff use through questionnaires has high validity. In the Medical Birth Register, in late pregnancy, many snuff users were misclassified as nonusers. As a consequence, there is a risk of underestimating the harmful effects of snuff use when using late pregnancy Medical Birth Register data.
The demand to increase nursing competence is brought on by the requirement of safe, accessible and more effective use of healthcare provider expertise. Clinical nurse specialist competency development dates back to the late 20th century; however, an examination of the literature reveals a lack of research and discussion to support the competency development.
To describe the formulation and validation process of the clinical nurse specialist core competencies.
Exploratory sequential mixed-method design.
This mixed-method study, conducted between 2013 and 2017 in Finland, involved four phases: I) a Policy Delphi study (n = 25, n = 22, n = 19); II) cross-mapping of preliminary competency criteria against international competency sets; III) content validity study of expanded competency criteria (n = 7, n = 10); and IV) verification of competency criteria with practicing CNSs (n = 16). Data were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods.
Seventy-four preliminary clinical nurse competency criteria were formulated in the first phase of the study. Through cross-mapping the competencies against the US and Canadian clinical nurse specialist competency sets, they were further concised to 61 criteria. The examination of Content Validity Indexes and experts' comments led to the clarification and consequent inclusion of 50 criteria to the final scale, with Scale Content Validity Index Average of 0.94. The competency criteria were evaluated to be a solid set with potential to clarify and uniform the clinical nurse specialist roles.
Through a rigorous research process, validated clinical nurse specialist competency criteria were formed with a high Scale Content Validity Index Average. The results allude to the potential of formulating international competency criteria to support global role clarity and understanding. However, further research is needed to validate the content and construct of the formulated competencies with a larger population across countries.
Addiction to work is defined as a compulsion or an uncontrollable need to work incessantly. Only few measures exist to identify work addiction and the health consequences are sparsely explored. The Bergen Workaholic Scale (BWAS) measures seven core elements of work addiction and has been used in Norway, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, USA and Poland. The aim of this study was to validate the BWAS in a Danish sample and to investigate if high risk of work addiction was associated with stress and reduced quality of life. We conducted an online screening survey with 671 participants aged 16-68 years with the Danish translation of the BWAS. We added the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the quality of life scale EQ-5D-5L. Those with high risk of work addiction reported significantly higher mean PSS scores (20.0 points) compared to those with low risk of addiction (12.5 points) and poorer quality of life (61.9) compared to the low risk group (81.3). Furthermore, work addiction was associated with more weekly working hours (44.0 vs. 35.6 hours/week) and having more leadership responsibility. A preliminary estimate of work addiction prevalence was 6.6%. The BWAS demonstrated good reliability (a = 0.83), and factor analyses pointed at a single factor structure. Work addiction seems to be associated with health problems in terms of stress and poorer quality of life. The BWAS is recommended as a reliable and valid tool to identify work addiction in Danish.
Plastic Surgery Unit, Surgery Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; Department of Hand Surgery, Plastic Surgery and Burns, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The Linköping burn score has been used for two decades to calculate the cost to the hospital of each burned patient. Our aim was to validate the Burn Score in a dedicated Burn Centre by analysing the associations with burn-specific factors: percentage of total body surface area burned (TBSA%), cause of injury, patients referred from other (non-specialist) centres, and survival, to find out which of these factors resulted in higher scores. Our second aim was to analyse the variation in scores of each category of care (surveillance, respiration, circulation, wound care, mobilisation, laboratory tests, infusions, and operation). We made a retrospective analysis of all burned patients admitted during the period 2000-15. Multivariable regression models were used to analyse predictive factors for an increased daily burn score, the cumulative burn score (the sum of the daily burn scores for each patient) and the total burn score (total sum of burn scores for the whole group throughout the study period) in addition to sub-analysis of the different categories of care that make up the burn score. We retrieved 22301 daily recordings for inpatients. Mobilisation and care of the wound accounted for more than half of the total burn score during the study. Increased TBSA% and age over 45 years were associated with increased cumulative (model R2 0.43, p
The Swedish Program for health surveillance of preschool children includes screening of language and communication abilities. One important language screening is carried out at age 4 years as part of a general screening conducted by health nurses at child health centres. The instruments presently in use for this screening mainly focus on expressive phonology. This may result in both over-referral of children with phonological difficulties and under-referral of children with language disorders (LDs), involving difficulties with vocabulary, grammar and/or language comprehension. Previous research has proposed non-word repetition as a clinical marker for LD. It has also been found that higher predictive power is achieved when non-word repetition is combined with the assessment of lexical/semantic skills. Taking these findings into account, the construction of a language screening instrument may yield more adequate referrals to speech-language therapists (SLTs).
To construct a new standardized language screening instrument for 4-year-olds and to test its properties.
An instrument was developed and revised after piloting. A population of 352 children was screened at the regular 4-year check-up by 11 health nurses. The final sample consisted of 328 children aged 46-53 months (23% multilingual). Children performing below a preliminary cut-off were referred to an SLT (n = 52). Five SLTs carried out an assessment on average within 5 weeks using a gold standard language test battery. Children who screened negatively were followed up with a parent questionnaire at age 5;6.
Thirty-one true-positives and 11 false-positives were identified after SLT assessment. A further six children were identified as false-negatives (two through referral to an SLT and four through parent questionnaire at age 5;6). A receiver-operating characteristics curve with a C statistic of .94 was calculated. Based on optimal cut-off, the sensitivity of the screening instrument was found to be .84, and specificity was .96. Multilingual children performed similar to monolingual children; boys performed significantly lower than girls; and children with a family history of language-related problems performed lower than those without. Interrater reliability was high, as was Cronbach's alpha.
The screening instrument seems sufficiently valid for its purpose to identify children who need further assessment by an SLT. A follow-up study including SLT assessment for all children to check for false-negatives would be interesting in future, as would studies comparing results from the 4-year screening with those from earlier screens.
This study examined the feasibility of the HLS-EU-Q16 (in Finnish) for use among older Finns and whether the health literacy score correlates with indicators of health and functioning.
To determine the feasibility of the instrument, we first conducted a focus group discussion with nine participants. For the quantitative analyses, we used data from the AGNES cohort study, collected between October 2017 and April 2018 at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland. 292 75-year-old Finnish men and women were interviewed face-to-face in their homes. Health literacy was measured with the HLS-EU-Q16 and health literacy score, ranging from 0 to 50, computed. The reproducibility of the instrument was test-retested. Chi-square tests were used to compare health literacy scores between participants by different socioeconomic variables, and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to study the associations of health literacy with cognition, depressive symptoms, chronic conditions, life-space mobility and physical performance.
The mean health literacy score for all participants was 35.05 (SD 6.32). Participants who rated their financial situation and self-rated health as very good had the highest health literacy scores (38.85, SD 5.09 and 39.22, SD 6.77, respectively). Better health literacy was associated with better cognitive status, fewer depressive symptoms and chronic conditions, higher life-space mobility and better physical performance.
The HLS-EU-Q16 is a feasible measure for research purposes among older Finns. The associations between health literacy and indicators of health and functioning need to be more closely investigated in larger samples with a wider age-range.
There are no actual validation studies of the Finnish Arthroplasty Register (FAR), and only a few studies about the accuracy of self-reported hip and knee arthroplasty exist. Therefore, we examine how reliably total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasties can be identified from multiple data sources, including self-reports, the hospital discharge register, the arthroplasty register, and medical records.
Data from the FAR and from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) during the years 1980-2010 were cross-checked to identify all THA and TKA events for the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study cohort (n = 14,220). Unclear events were further checked from the medical records. After establishing a gold standard, by referring to confirmed THAs and TKAs, we examined the validity of self-reports in identifying the prevalent population with THA/TKA and in identifying incident THA/TKA.
Completeness of 2820 total arthroplasty events was 96.1% in FAR and 98.3% in FHDR. The self-reports had 95.1% sensitivity and 92.9% positive predictive value (PPV) to identify population with THA and for TKA sensitivity was 94.6% and PPV 95.2%. Self-reports' sensitivity of finding the actual surgery events was 65.3% and PPV 85.4% for THA and for TKA sensitivity was 62.9% and PPV 83.4%.
The best way to identify THAs and TKAs in Finland is to combine data from the FAR and the FHDR. Self-reports can be considered as suitable to identify the prevalent population with THA/TKA, and they do not work as well to identify the actual surgery events.
To translate and assess the validity and reliability of the original American Care Transitions Measure, both the 15-item and the shortened 3-item versions, in a sample of people in transition from hospital to home within Sweden.
Translation of survey items, evaluation of psychometric properties.
Ten surgical and medical wards at five hospitals in Sweden.
Patients discharged from surgical and medical wards.
Psychometric properties of the Swedish versions of the 15-item (CTM-15) and the 3-item (CTM-3) Care Transition Measure.
We compared the fit of nine models among a sample of 194 Swedish patients. Cronbach's alpha was 0.946 for CTM-15 and 0.74 for CTM-3. The model indices for CTM-15 and CTM-3 were strongly indicative of inferior goodness-of-fit between the hypothesized one-factor model and the sample data. A multidimensional three-factor model revealed a better fit compared with CTM-15 and CTM-3 one factor models. The one-factor solution, representing 4 items (CTM-4), showed an acceptable fit of the data, and was far superior to the one-factor CTM-15 and CTM-3 and the three-factor multidimensional models. The Cronbach's alpha for CTM-4 was 0.85.
CTM-15 with multidimensional three-factor model was a better model than both CTM-15 and CTM-3 one-factor models. CTM-4 is a valid and reliable measure of care transfer among patients in medical and surgical wards in Sweden. It seems the Swedish CTM is best represented by the short Swedish version (CTM-4) unidimensional construct.
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The association between birth weight and later life outcomes is of considerable interest in life-course epidemiology. Research often relies on self-reported measures of birth weight, and its validity is consequently of importance. We assessed agreement between self-reported birth weight and official birth records for Norwegian twins born 1967-1974. The intraclass correlation between self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight was 0.91 in our final sample of 363 twins. It could be expected that 95% of self-reported birth-weight values will deviate from official records within a maximum of +446 grams and a minimum of -478 grams - around a mean deviation of 16 grams. Self-reported birth weight had a sensitivity of 0.78-0.89 and a positive predictive value of 0.59-0.85, and an overall weighted kappa of 0.71. We further assessed agreement by conducting two linear regression models where we respectively regressed self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight on adult body mass index, a known association. The two models were not significantly different; however, there were different levels of significance in parameter estimates that warrant some caution in using self-reported birth weight. Reliability of self-reported birth weight was also assessed, based on self-reports in another sample of twins born 1935-1960 who had reported their birth weight in two questionnaires 34 years apart. The intraclass correlation was 0.86, which indicates a high degree of reliability. In conclusion, self-reported birth weight, depending on context and age when birth weight was reported, can be cautiously used.