Venous thromboembolism (VTE) clusters in families, but the familial risk of VTE has only been determined in first-degree relatives. This nationwide study aimed to determine the familial risk of VTE in first-, second- and third-degree relatives of affected individuals. The Swedish Multi-Generation Register was linked to Hospital Discharge Register data for the period 1987-2009. This was a case-cohort study. Odds ratios (ORs) for VTE were calculated for individuals whose relatives were hospitalised for VTE, as determined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), and those whose relatives were unaffected by VTE. The familial OR for VTE was 2.49 in siblings (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40-2.58), 2.65 in children (2.50-2.80), 2.09 in parents (2.03-2.15), 1.52 in maternal half-siblings (1.26-1.85), 2.34 in paternal half-siblings (2.00-2.73), 1.69 in nieces/nephews (1.57-1.82), 1.47 in cousins (1.33-1.64), and 1.14 in spouses of individuals diagnosed with VTE (1.09-1.18). Familial clustering was stronger at young ages. The familial transmission was slightly stronger for males compared with females but was only significant for siblings 1.13 (1.05-1.22) and parents 1.11 (1.05-1.78) of probands. The present data showing an increased VTE risk among not only first-degree relatives but also second- and third-degree relatives indicate that the genetic component of the familial clustering of VTE is strong. Family history is a potentially useful genetic surrogate marker for clinical VTE risk assessment, even in second- and third degree-relatives.
Early-term birth (gestational age, 37-38 weeks) has been associated with increased infant mortality relative to later-term birth, but mortality beyond infancy has not been studied. We examined the association between early-term birth and mortality through young adulthood.
We conducted a national cohort study of 679,981 singleton births in Sweden in 1973-1979, followed up for all-cause and cause-specific mortality through 2008 (ages 29-36 years).
There were 10,656 deaths in 21.5 million person-years of follow-up. Among those still alive at the beginning of each age range, early-term birth relative to those born at 39-42 weeks was associated with increased mortality in the neonatal period (0-27 days: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.51]), postneonatal period (28-364 days: 1.66 [1.44-1.92]), early childhood (1-5 years: 1.29 [1.10-1.51]), and young adulthood (18-36 years: 1.14 [1.05-1.24]), but not in late childhood/adolescence (6-17 years: 0.97 [0.84-1.12]). In young adulthood, early-term birth was strongly associated with death from congenital anomalies and endocrine disorders, especially diabetes (2.89 [1.54-5.43]).
In this large national cohort study, early-term birth was independently associated with increased mortality in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. Lowest short-term and long-term mortality was among those born at 39-42 weeks.
It has been proposed that cancer is more common in some families than in others, but the hypothesis lacks population level support. We use a novel approach by studying any cancers in large three-generation families and thus are able to find risks even though penetrance is low.
Individuals in the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database were organised in three generations and the relative risk (RR) of cancer was calculated to the persons in the third generation by the numbers of patients with cancer in generations 1, 2 and 3.
The RRs for any cancer in generation 3 increased by the numbers of affected relatives, reaching 1.61 when at least seven relatives were diagnosed. The median patient had two affected relatives, and 7.0% had five or more affected relatives with an RR of 1.46, which translated to an absolute risk of 21.5% compared with 14.7% in population by age 65 years. For prostate cancer, the RR was 2.85 with four or more affected family members with any cancer, and it increased to 14.42 with four or more concordant cancers in family members. RRs for prostate cancer were approximately equal (2.70 vs 2.85) if a man had one relative with prostate cancer or four or more relatives diagnosed with any cancer.
A strong family history of cancer, regardless of tumour type, increases cancer risk of family members and calls for mechanistic explanations. Our data provide tools for counselling of patients with cancer with both low and high familiar risks.
Whether high cardiovascular fitness is associated with reduced risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. The present study aims to determine whether high cardiovascular fitness reduces the risk of VTE.
A Swedish cohort of male conscripts (n?=?773,925) born in 1954-1970 with no history of previous VTE were followed from enlistment (1972-1990) until 2010. Data on cardiovascular fitness using a cycle ergonometric test (maximal aerobic workload in Watt [Wmax]) at conscription were linked with national hospital register data and the Multi-Generation Register. We identified all full-siblings and first-cousin pairs discordant for maximal aerobic workload. This co-relative design allows for adjustment for familial resemblance.
In total, 3005 (0.39%) males were affected by VTE. Cardiovascular fitness estimated with Wmax was not associated with VTE risk when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). However, cardiovascular fitness estimated with Wmax/kg and adjusted for BMI was associated with reduced risk for VTE (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.85 per standard deviation compared with mean Wmax/kg). The association was weaker over time and also when examining discordant first cousins and full-sibling pairs.
These results suggest that there is a relationship between cardiovascular fitness and weight that is important for future VTE risk. Key messages Whether high cardiovascular fitness is associated with reduced risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. A Swedish cohort of male conscripts (n = 773,925) tested with a cycle ergometric test with no history of previous VTE were followed from enlistment (1972-1990) until 2010. Cardiovascular fitness estimated with Wmax/kg and adjusted for BMI was associated with reduced risk for VTE (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.85). These results suggest that there is a relationship between cardiovascular fitness and weight that is important for future VTE risk.
To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases, particularly macular degeneration, cataract, diabetes-related eye complications, and glaucoma.
The study population comprised a nationwide sample of 2,060,887 men and 2,250,851 women aged 40 years or older living in Sweden who were followed from 1 January 2000 until the first hospitalization/outpatient registration for age-related eye disease during the study period, death, emigration, or the end of the study period on 31 December 2010. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation and age-related eye diseases.
In men, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related eye diseases for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods compared to those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors (macular degeneration, OR 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.12; cataract, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.26-1.35; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30-1.43; glaucoma, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.15). In women, similar patterns were observed (macular degeneration, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15; cataract, OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.31-1.40; diabetes-related eye complications, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.42-1.59; glaucoma, OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.17).
Our results suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related eye diseases in both men and women. These results implicate that individual- as well as neighborhood-level factors are important for preventing age-related eye diseases.
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2007 Feb;32(2):97-10617234484
Cancer runs in families, suggesting a heritable component, but the contribution of environmental factors cannot be neglected. Studies on spousal risk can partly disentangle the environmental contribution but miss shared environmental factors during childhood and adolescence. Here, we examined the familial aggregation of common cancers among 80,281 Swedish-born adoptees, identified from the national Swedish Multigeneration Register, and linked them to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for common cancers (colorectal, lung, breast, prostate, and skin cancers) in the adoptees whose adoptive parents were diagnosed with concordant cancers, compared with the general population. SIRs in adoptees with an affected adoptive parent ranged from 1.00 (breast cancer) to 1.28 (skin cancer), whereas the SIRs in nonadoptees with an affected parent ranged from 1.63 (colorectal cancer) to 2.12 (skin cancer). Environmental factors account for around 0-28% of the familial aggregation. Cancer sites with high environmental contributions were observed for skin and colorectal cancers, which are known to have strong environmental causes.
Although average life expectancy has increased considerably in Sweden, there is less evidence for improved self-rated health (SRH). We analyzed longitudinal trends in SRH between 1980/1981 and 2004/2005 in age and birth cohort subgroups.
2,728 males and 2,770 females, aged 16-71 years, were interviewed every eighth year. Mixed models with random intercepts were used to estimate changes in SRH within different age groups and birth cohorts, adjusting for potential confounders.
During the 25-year follow-up, SRH improved in individuals aged =48 years, but became poorer or was unchanged in those aged 16-47 years. All birth cohorts showed poorer SRH with increasing age, with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.94 (0.93-0.95) in males and 0.92 (0.91-0.93) in females.
While SRH in the older age groups improved, SRH became poorer in the youngest. Poorer SRH is deeply worrying for the affected individuals, and may also have a negative impact on the health care system. Although mental illness, socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle may be potential mechanisms, future studies are needed to investigate the reasons behind this trend.
Little is known about what immigrant patients, interpreters and GPs who have participated in the same consultation experience during these consultations or their reflections about these experiences. Previous studies have focused on the patient's, the interpreter's or the GP's perspective or a combination of two perspectives.
The first aim was to describe some aspects of each of the three perspectives in the triangular meeting between immigrant patients, interpreters and GPs, including their experiences, reflections and interactions during the consultation in primary health care. The second aim was to analyse patients' satisfaction with the consultation; whether satisfaction is influenced by respect for patients' culture, personality and wishes; and whether interpreters or GPs experience any ethical conflicts during the consultation.
Using questionnaires, all three categories were asked about their opinions regarding the communication, their experiences and reflections during the consultation and the patient's satisfaction. The interpreters and GPs were asked about ethical conflicts.
Of the 182 respondents, 52 were patients, 65 GPs and 65 interpreters. A matched group of answers from patients, GPs and interpreters was present in 40 consultations. Eighteen of the patients experienced language difficulties. Twenty-six experienced respect for their culture; 32, respect for their personality; and 33, respect for their wishes. Ethical conflicts were rare. All three categories reported that the majority of patients were satisfied with the consultation.
Professional interpreters are important for both a correct verbal and a cultural interpretation. Patient-centred communication is of key importance to a successful consultation.
Environmental risk factors, particularly tobacco smoking, are important for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder. Studies in migrants may provide valuable insight into the environmental and genetic etiology of cancer. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for transitional-cell carcinoma among the immigrants compared with native Swedes. SIRs for lung cancer were also calculated as a proxy for smoking prevalence. Significantly decreased risks of bladder cancer were observed for male (SIR=0.89) and female (0.71) Finns and male East Asian (0.39) first-generation immigrants. Male immigrants from many countries showed increased risks, ranging from 1.18 to 2.29. Only female immigrants from Denmark (1.40) and Norway (1.27) had increased risks. The risks for bladder and lung cancers correlated, except for Finnish and Iranian men. The sons of immigrants born in high-risk countries had an increased SIR (1.51) whereas the daughters of immigrants born in low-risk countries had a decreased risk (0.32). The risk in the second-generation immigrants born in Sweden was equal to that of natives. In conclusion, the observed bladder cancer risks in the first-generation immigrants, the changes in risks in the second-generation immigrants, and the covariation of the risk patterns of bladder and lung cancers suggested a main contribution by tobacco smoking. The exceptional patterns among the Finns and Iranians may point to the existence of modifying factors. The changes in incidence in second-generation immigrants, yet based on small case numbers, lend little support to the involvement of genetic factors.
OBJECTIVES: Cancer and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two common diseases that may share risk factors. We aimed at determining subsequent cancer risks in patients hospitalized for T2D in Sweden. METHODS: T2D patients were obtained from the nationwide Hospital Discharge Register; cancers were recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for cancer following last hospitalization for T2D. The comparison group was the general Swedish population. RESULTS: The number of hospitalized T2D patients from 1964 to 2007 was 125,126, of whom 26,641 had an affected family member. Altogether 24 cancers showed an elevated risk when follow-up was started after the last hospitalization. The highest SIRs were for pancreatic (6.08) and liver (4.25) cancers. The incidences of these cancers were even elevated when follow-up was started 5 years after the last hospitalization for T2D, with primary liver cancer showing the highest SIR of 4.66. Also increased were the incidences of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, colon, rectal, pancreatic, lung, cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and kidney cancers. Prostate cancer showed a lower risk. Familial T2D patients showed no exceptional elevated cancer risks but their prostate cancer and melanoma risks were lower. CONCLUSIONS: This study, covering approximately one half of Swedish T2D patients, showed an elevated risk for several cancers after hospitalization for T2D, probably indicating the profound metabolic disturbances of the underlying disease. The highest risks were found for liver and pancreatic cancers. No excess cancer risks were observed in familial diabetics. The lower risk for prostate cancer remains intriguing.