Since the development of the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellege, & Kaemmer, 1989), no independent studies have been conducted to validate the new GF and GM scales, the only published study being based on the original standardization sample. To determine the concurrent validity of these scales, our study correlated GF and GM with scores obtained from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, the Sex Role Behavior Scale, and the Sex Role Identity Scale. Because the sex-role literature has suggested numerous personality correlates of masculinity and femininity, the 16-PF was included to assess this dimension of the new scales, as well as measures of social desirability. Results revealed the GF and GM scales to have low internal consistency and low concurrent validity with established sex-role measures. Relative to construct validity, their patterns of correlation with personality measures suggest that GF and GM are more related to personality traits of interpersonal potency and sensitivity, respectively, than to masculinity and femininity. Overall, although the data yielded by these new scales provide additional information over Scale 5, they do not appear to hold as much promise as hoped for.
The relationship of conflict between sex role ideology and sex role orientation with eating-disorder behaviors and attitudes was examined. American participants were 321 female college students who completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974), Sex Role Ideology Scale (Kalin & Tilby, 1978), and Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI; Garner, Olmsted, & Polivy, 1983). The results indicated that conflict between ideology and self-perception had little effect on responses to the Inventory. Instead, students with higher levels of self-rated social desirability and lower levels of masculinity reported higher prevalence of eating-disorder behaviors and attitudes. Analyses of sex role orientation data revealed that participants categorized as undifferentiated had the most pathological responses to the EDI. Overall, the results suggested that social desirability and masculinity, more than sex role orientation or conflict, are strongly related to eating-disorder behavior, perhaps because of a third mediating factor.
This study explored the usefulness of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Subtle-Obvious scales as profile validity indicators with a inpatient psychiatric population. Some 292 MMPI profiles were utilized and divided into overreporters, underreporters, and standard reporters, based on their Subtle-Obvious scale scores. Reporting style was shown to be unrelated to actual patient pathology because of the lack of relationship between reporting style and diagnostic categorization according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) Axis I and II. Comparisons of MMPI profiles of the three groups revealed that overreporters endorsed more pathology on the MMPI clinical scales than did either underreporters or standard reporters. The same pattern of response style was demonstrated by subjects on another objective measure, the Beck Depression Inventory, whereas on a projective measure, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, there were no differences between groups. These findings suggest that clinicians may want to utilize the Subtle-Obvious scales to gain information about MMPI profile validity. Specifically, profiles of patients identified as overreporters should be interpreted with caution so as to not overstate their level of pathology.
Using the Rorschach protocols from 129 adult psychiatric inpatients, the Egocentricity Index as calculated in the Exner Comprehensive System was investigated relative to MMPI standard and special scales, Beck Depression Inventory, and other Rorschach variables. Results indicate that rather than being a measure of self-focus and self-centeredness, the Index might be related to introversion and introspection. Additionally, the Index may have differential implications about mental health for males vs. females.
Social anxiety is a common problem in psychotic disorders. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating version (LSAS-SR) is a widely used instrument to capture different aspects of social anxiety, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in this patient group. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR in patients with first episode psychosis, to investigate whether it differentiated between active and passive social withdrawal and to test which clinical factors contributed to current level of social anxiety.
A total of 144 first episode psychosis patients from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study were included at the time of first treatment. Diagnoses were set according to the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-1) for DSM-IV. A factor analysis was carried out and the relationship of social anxiety to psychotic and general symptomatology measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was evaluated. Possible contributors to social anxiety were analyzed using multiple hierarchic regression analysis.
The factor analysis identified three subscales: public performance, social interaction and observation. All three subscales showed satisfactory psychometric properties, acceptable convergent and discriminate properties, and confirmed previous findings in social anxiety samples. Self-esteem explained a significant amount of the variance in social anxiety, even after adjusting for the effects of delusions, suspiciousness and depression.
The study shows that the LSAS-SR can be used in this patient group, that social anxiety is strongly related to both behavioral social avoidance and to self-esteem. The results support the use of this measure in assessment of social anxiety in both clinical settings and in research.
This study compared three reading tests commonly used in research for screening, descriptive, and educational purposes with alcohol and other drug-abusing individuals. To that end, 82 male and 41 female substance abusers were administered the Slosson Oral Reading Test-Revised, Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised in random order. Results revealed that the tests have high concurrent validity, provide approximately the same grade-equivalent level scores, and yield raw scores that, when standardized, do not differ significantly from one another. However, if used for screening purposes, the three tests result in different proportions of subjects meeting specified criteria, particularly at lower grade levels. Specific test selection depends on the purpose of testing. For example, when the entire range of possible scores is of interest, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised has a distinct advantage, because it has the widest range of grade-equivalent levels. Other considerations for test selection are discussed.