Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.
The aim of this study was to correlate dental anxiety as reported by two different ethnic groups with socio-demographic factors, dental status, and dental behaviour. Two randomly selected populations aged 35-44 years and 65-74 years were interviewed. The populations comprised 214 and 99 Danes and 384 and 497 Hong Kong Chinese respectively. Dental anxiety was assessed by the Corah Dental Anxiety Score (DAS). Mean DAS scores were significantly higher in Chinese than in Danes (8.7-10.3 and 6.7-8.2, respectively) and higher in the younger than in the older groups. Moderate to phobic dental anxiety was reported by 15% of the Danes and 30% of the Chinese, the latter proportion far beyond what is usually reported in Western populations. Only in the Chinese group did women report more anxiety than men. Regression analysis indicated that only a few of the variables selected to explain anxiety determinants had significant explanatory value. Among Chinese, gender was the most predominant in both age groups followed by perceived condition of teeth in the younger age group. Among Danes, perceived condition of teeth had an explanatory value for both age groups and dental visit pattern was the strongest for the younger age group. In spite of statistical significance, all explanatory values were small and indicate that variables not included in this analysis may exert a greater influence on the variation in dental anxiety. DAS, seemingly, was able to highlight variations in dental anxiety in the populations in spite of their differences and made interpretations feasible with regard to contrasting dental care behaviour and dental status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze the variation of pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women according to age, occupation, and degree of male-female domination within occupations. METHODS: Data from a prospective study of all new sick-leave spells exceeding 7 d in 1985 and 1986 in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, were related to the population at risk, through the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The subjects included in the analysis were all 7000 employed women that gave birth in 1985 and 1986, of which some 3000 were sick-listed at least once with pregnancy-related diagnoses. RESULTS: There was little difference in the pregnancy-related sickness absence between the age groups. The age-standardized rate for sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses differed substantially between occupations. Women in the metal industry had the highest rates; those employed in administration, banking, and insurance had the lowest. White-collar occupations generally had lower rates and blue-collar occupations higher rates, with some exceptions (eg, in saw mills, farming, and the chemical industry). Gender-integrated occupations had the lowest sick-leave rate, while extremely male-dominated jobs had the highest. The latter association remained after adjustment for occupational area. CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable differences between occupational groups in the rates of sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses. Some differences were related to physical load of the jobs being done, but not all. It seems important to consider also male-female domination within a job with respect to such sick leaves.
OBJECTIVE. To investigate the influence of hierarchial position and perceived influence on ethical and technical decisions. DESIGN. The study was conducted as a postal questionnaire survey. SUBJECTS. A random sample of 329 Danish physicians working at departments of internal medicine and related subspecialties. Of these, 270 (82%) returned a completed questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE. Self-reported perceived influence in discussions about technical and ethical issues in connection with decisions to terminate treatment for patients with terminal malignant illness. RESULTS. The odds ratio for perceived influence between consultants and house officers is 14.9 for ethical issues, 44.9 for technical issues, and 652.3 for questions concerning departmental policy. Gender plays no role, when one controls for hierarchial position. CONCLUSIONS. Hierarchial position is the major determinant of perceived influence on technical and ethical decisions. Position seem to play a larger role in technical than in ethical decisions.
OBJECTIVES. To study the geographical variation in daytime sleepiness, snoring and disrupted breathing during sleep and to identify and compare risk factors using the same method in four European cities. DESIGN. A cross-sectional, multicentre epidemiological survey. SETTING: Reykjavik in Iceland, Uppsala and Göteborg in Sweden and Antwerp in Belgium. PARTICIPANTS. A random population sample of 2202 subjects who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Sleep disturbances and daytime symptoms. RESULTS. At all the centres, 5% of the men and 2-3% of the women reported snoring every night. Daytime sleepiness (DS) was more often reported in Uppsala [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval: 1.6 (1.2-2.1)] than in the other centres, whilst daytime tiredness (DT) was most common in Reykjavik [ OR 1.8 (1.4-2.1)]. Snoring was positively correlated with age, male gender and body-mass index in all areas. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux were associated with DS: OR 2.6 (1.5 4.4) and DT: OR 4.5 (2.7-7.6) and disrupted breathing: OR 3.8 (1.4-10). DS and DT were reported more often by women than by men. CONCLUSION. The prevalence of snoring was about the same in all four areas, whilst there was a geographical variation in daytime sleepiness and tiredness. As complaints of DS and DT and disrupted breathing were more common in subjects who reported symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux, we suggest that polysomnographic studies comparing sleep patterns in adult patients with and without reflux should be conducted.
Among 652 Swedish and 654 Turkish adolescents, the study found that 61 Swedish (9.4%) and 71 Turkish (10.9%) adolescents reported that they had made previous suicide attempts. Previous psychiatric contact, female gender, low perceived family support, and suicide attempts in the family for the Swedish group and suicide attempts in the family, low perceived family support, psychiatric disorder in the family, and previous psychiatric contact variables in the Turkish sample were found to be associated with previous attempts. Low perceived family support, previous suicide attempts, low perceived peer support, female gender, previous psychiatric contact, low positive assertion skills, and a small number of friends for the Swedish; and low perceived family support, previous suicide attempts, low perceived peer support, suicide attempts in the family, and previous psychiatric contact variables for the Turkish group were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal risk.
A questionnaire with 12 case histories was constructed to investigate views on sickness certification and concepts of disease and illness among GPs and laymen. It was mailed to random samples of 436 Norwegian GPs and 600 Norwegians, stratified for gender, age and residence. Response rates were low, 44% for doctors, and 54% for laymen, probably indicating that the method was more suitable for smaller surveys. Case histories could be used to compare views of GPs and laymen on the concepts of disease and illness. They were also useful in examining views on sickness certification, but, in that case, they probably only reveal what respondents thought should be done. From this study it was not safe to conclude how often, and for what medical conditions doctors would issue sickness certificates in practice. ICPC was useful for coding diagnostic suggestions, set by GPs, but will be more useful after inclusion of criteria and more extensive synonym lists.
The purpose of the present study was to describe dental health behavior and self-reported oral health problems among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Two hundred and forty dentate patients were interviewed with regard to participation in school dental care, dental visiting habits, self-assessment of oral health, dental anxiety, and oral hygiene habits. Dental visiting habits were associated with gender, psychiatric diagnosis, duration of mental disorder, and fear of dental care. Moreover, toothbrushing habits varied with gender, status as inpatient or day-hospital patient, number of admissions, and psychiatric diagnosis. Constant regular dental visits were observed among 31% of the participants, whereas regular toothbrushing was reported by 55%. Compared with reference figures of the general population, these figures reflect a relatively poorer dental health behavior among the study participants. The study underlines the need for specific preventive dental programs, which aim at improving the poor dental health behavior among psychiatric patients.
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is an exclusion diagnosis. Although it is a prognostically important entity and a common indication for cardiac transplantation, the incidence and age distribution of idiopathic IDCM in a well-defined population today is unknown. The present study intended to estimate the proportion of IDCM among congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, and to evaluate its prognostic implications. The records of all 16-65-year-old patients hospitalized for CHF or IDCM during a 6-year period (n = 2711) were evaluated in a defined region of Western Sweden (1.05 million inhabitants 16-65 years of age). Twenty-two percent (584/2711) of these records contained no plausible cause of CHF or IDCM, and among living patients an obvious aetiology was lacking in 27% (411/1516). These 411 patients were subsequently offered a diagnostic investigation including echocardiography, and were compared to a randomly selected healthy control group (n = 103). Of 411 patients, 293 accepted the investigation and 286 had acceptable echocardiographic recordings, indicating left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction in 30%. From the hospital records, 170 patients were identified as new cases of IDCM during the 6-year period. Adding another 34 cases revealed by our diagnostic procedures yielded an age-gender standardized incidence rate of 29.2 cases per 10(6) persons/year. The incidence of IDCM increased considerably with age, although in younger patients its relative contribution to heart failure was greater. The incidence of IDCM was higher in the urban compared to the rural parts of the region 21 vs 32/10(6); P = 0.013). The estimated prevalence was 131/10(6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Nurses make up a considerable proportion of the Swedish health care staff. Few nationally representative studies of their work environment and health, however, have been published. The present questionnaire study on work conditions, skill utilization, health and well-being of a national representative sample of 3,500 Swedish nurses, indicates a high degree of job satisfaction. Despite high satisfaction, 40% of the respondents felt too tired after work to socialize with family and 45% had seriously considered quitting their jobs. Factors such as improved work climate and development of supervisory skills were suggested as psychosocial interventions. Improvement in physical work environment factors had low priority. Medical care nurses perceive a higher work load and higher job demands in relation to decision latitude, and geriatric nurses report less work development. No differences between disciplines were found in work relations. In conclusion, there is a need to further develop skills development and utilization and work organization. Results will be used in interventions to enhance the work environment for nurses.