Skip header and navigation

Refine By

21800 records – page 1 of 2180.

Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52783
Source
Arch Sex Behav. 1995 Aug;24(4):409-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1995
Author
M S Weinberg
I L Lottes
F M Shaver
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA.
Source
Arch Sex Behav. 1995 Aug;24(4):409-37
Date
Aug-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Coitus - psychology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Female
Humans
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
United States
Abstract
Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.
PubMed ID
7661656 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dental anxiety in Danish and Chinese adults--a cross-cultural perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52784
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1995 Jul;41(1):123-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1995
Author
E. Schwarz
H. Birn
Author Affiliation
Department of Periodontology and Public Health, University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Dentistry.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1995 Jul;41(1):123-30
Date
Jul-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health - ethnology
China - ethnology
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Denmark - ethnology
Dental Anxiety - ethnology
Female
Health Behavior
Hong Kong
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Oral Health
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The aim of this study was to correlate dental anxiety as reported by two different ethnic groups with socio-demographic factors, dental status, and dental behaviour. Two randomly selected populations aged 35-44 years and 65-74 years were interviewed. The populations comprised 214 and 99 Danes and 384 and 497 Hong Kong Chinese respectively. Dental anxiety was assessed by the Corah Dental Anxiety Score (DAS). Mean DAS scores were significantly higher in Chinese than in Danes (8.7-10.3 and 6.7-8.2, respectively) and higher in the younger than in the older groups. Moderate to phobic dental anxiety was reported by 15% of the Danes and 30% of the Chinese, the latter proportion far beyond what is usually reported in Western populations. Only in the Chinese group did women report more anxiety than men. Regression analysis indicated that only a few of the variables selected to explain anxiety determinants had significant explanatory value. Among Chinese, gender was the most predominant in both age groups followed by perceived condition of teeth in the younger age group. Among Danes, perceived condition of teeth had an explanatory value for both age groups and dental visit pattern was the strongest for the younger age group. In spite of statistical significance, all explanatory values were small and indicate that variables not included in this analysis may exert a greater influence on the variation in dental anxiety. DAS, seemingly, was able to highlight variations in dental anxiety in the populations in spite of their differences and made interpretations feasible with regard to contrasting dental care behaviour and dental status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7667665 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women in a Swedish county.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52788
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1995 Jun;21(3):191-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
K. Alexanderson
G. Hensing
J. Carstensen
P. Bjurulf
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1995 Jun;21(3):191-8
Date
Jun-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Female
Humans
Occupations - classification
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyze the variation of pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women according to age, occupation, and degree of male-female domination within occupations. METHODS: Data from a prospective study of all new sick-leave spells exceeding 7 d in 1985 and 1986 in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, were related to the population at risk, through the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The subjects included in the analysis were all 7000 employed women that gave birth in 1985 and 1986, of which some 3000 were sick-listed at least once with pregnancy-related diagnoses. RESULTS: There was little difference in the pregnancy-related sickness absence between the age groups. The age-standardized rate for sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses differed substantially between occupations. Women in the metal industry had the highest rates; those employed in administration, banking, and insurance had the lowest. White-collar occupations generally had lower rates and blue-collar occupations higher rates, with some exceptions (eg, in saw mills, farming, and the chemical industry). Gender-integrated occupations had the lowest sick-leave rate, while extremely male-dominated jobs had the highest. The latter association remained after adjustment for occupational area. CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable differences between occupational groups in the rates of sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses. Some differences were related to physical load of the jobs being done, but not all. It seems important to consider also male-female domination within a job with respect to such sick leaves.
PubMed ID
7481606 View in PubMed
Less detail

The medical hierarchy and perceived influence on technical and ethical decisions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52789
Source
J Intern Med. 1995 May;237(5):487-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1995
Author
S. Holm
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Philosophy and Clinical Theory, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Intern Med. 1995 May;237(5):487-92
Date
May-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Decision Making
Denmark
Dissent and Disputes
Ethics, Medical
Group Processes
Humans
Internal Medicine
Medical Staff, Hospital
Nurse's Role
Odds Ratio
Power (Psychology)
Questionnaires
Referral and Consultation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Withholding Treatment
Abstract
OBJECTIVE. To investigate the influence of hierarchial position and perceived influence on ethical and technical decisions. DESIGN. The study was conducted as a postal questionnaire survey. SUBJECTS. A random sample of 329 Danish physicians working at departments of internal medicine and related subspecialties. Of these, 270 (82%) returned a completed questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE. Self-reported perceived influence in discussions about technical and ethical issues in connection with decisions to terminate treatment for patients with terminal malignant illness. RESULTS. The odds ratio for perceived influence between consultants and house officers is 14.9 for ethical issues, 44.9 for technical issues, and 652.3 for questions concerning departmental policy. Gender plays no role, when one controls for hierarchial position. CONCLUSIONS. Hierarchial position is the major determinant of perceived influence on technical and ethical decisions. Position seem to play a larger role in technical than in ethical decisions.
PubMed ID
7738489 View in PubMed
Less detail

Daytime sleepiness, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux amongst young adults in three European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52791
Source
J Intern Med. 1995 Mar;237(3):277-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1995
Author
C. Janson
T. Gislason
W. De Backer
P. Plaschke
E. Björnsson
J. Hetta
H. Kristbjarnason
P. Vermeire
G. Boman
Author Affiliation
Department of Lung Medicine, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
J Intern Med. 1995 Mar;237(3):277-85
Date
Mar-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Gastroesophageal Reflux - complications - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Snoring - complications - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES. To study the geographical variation in daytime sleepiness, snoring and disrupted breathing during sleep and to identify and compare risk factors using the same method in four European cities. DESIGN. A cross-sectional, multicentre epidemiological survey. SETTING: Reykjavik in Iceland, Uppsala and Göteborg in Sweden and Antwerp in Belgium. PARTICIPANTS. A random population sample of 2202 subjects who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Sleep disturbances and daytime symptoms. RESULTS. At all the centres, 5% of the men and 2-3% of the women reported snoring every night. Daytime sleepiness (DS) was more often reported in Uppsala [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval: 1.6 (1.2-2.1)] than in the other centres, whilst daytime tiredness (DT) was most common in Reykjavik [ OR 1.8 (1.4-2.1)]. Snoring was positively correlated with age, male gender and body-mass index in all areas. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux were associated with DS: OR 2.6 (1.5 4.4) and DT: OR 4.5 (2.7-7.6) and disrupted breathing: OR 3.8 (1.4-10). DS and DT were reported more often by women than by men. CONCLUSION. The prevalence of snoring was about the same in all four areas, whilst there was a geographical variation in daytime sleepiness and tiredness. As complaints of DS and DT and disrupted breathing were more common in subjects who reported symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux, we suggest that polysomnographic studies comparing sleep patterns in adult patients with and without reflux should be conducted.
PubMed ID
7891048 View in PubMed
Less detail

Suicidal behavior as related to social support and assertiveness among Swedish and Turkish high school students: a cross-cultural investigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52792
Source
J Clin Psychol. 1995 Mar;51(2):158-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1995
Author
M. Eskin
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
Source
J Clin Psychol. 1995 Mar;51(2):158-72
Date
Mar-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Assertiveness
Bereavement
Child of Impaired Parents - psychology
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Family
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Peer Group
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Social Support
Suicide, Attempted - psychology
Sweden
Turkey
Abstract
Among 652 Swedish and 654 Turkish adolescents, the study found that 61 Swedish (9.4%) and 71 Turkish (10.9%) adolescents reported that they had made previous suicide attempts. Previous psychiatric contact, female gender, low perceived family support, and suicide attempts in the family for the Swedish group and suicide attempts in the family, low perceived family support, psychiatric disorder in the family, and previous psychiatric contact variables in the Turkish sample were found to be associated with previous attempts. Low perceived family support, previous suicide attempts, low perceived peer support, female gender, previous psychiatric contact, low positive assertion skills, and a small number of friends for the Swedish; and low perceived family support, previous suicide attempts, low perceived peer support, suicide attempts in the family, and previous psychiatric contact variables for the Turkish group were found to be significant predictors of current suicidal risk.
PubMed ID
7797638 View in PubMed
Less detail

The use of case histories to explore concepts of disease, illness and sickness certification.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52795
Source
Fam Pract. 1995 Mar;12(1):75-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1995
Author
S. Brage
E M Håland Haldorsen
T S Johannesen
H. Ursin
G. Tellnes
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Fam Pract. 1995 Mar;12(1):75-83
Date
Mar-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abstracting and Indexing
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude of Health Personnel
Attitude to Health
Comparative Study
Disability Evaluation
Documentation
Female
Humans
Male
Medical Records
Middle Aged
Norway
Physicians, Family - psychology
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
A questionnaire with 12 case histories was constructed to investigate views on sickness certification and concepts of disease and illness among GPs and laymen. It was mailed to random samples of 436 Norwegian GPs and 600 Norwegians, stratified for gender, age and residence. Response rates were low, 44% for doctors, and 54% for laymen, probably indicating that the method was more suitable for smaller surveys. Case histories could be used to compare views of GPs and laymen on the concepts of disease and illness. They were also useful in examining views on sickness certification, but, in that case, they probably only reveal what respondents thought should be done. From this study it was not safe to conclude how often, and for what medical conditions doctors would issue sickness certificates in practice. ICPC was useful for coding diagnostic suggestions, set by GPs, but will be more useful after inclusion of criteria and more extensive synonym lists.
PubMed ID
7665047 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dental health behavior and self-reported dental health problems among hospitalized psychiatric patients in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52796
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 1995 Feb;53(1):35-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1995
Author
B. Hede
Author Affiliation
Department for Community Dentistry, Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 1995 Feb;53(1):35-40
Date
Feb-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
Chi-Square Distribution
Dental Anxiety - psychology
Dental Care for Disabled - psychology - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Female
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Institutionalization
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - psychology
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Toothbrushing - psychology - utilization
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to describe dental health behavior and self-reported oral health problems among hospitalized psychiatric patients. Two hundred and forty dentate patients were interviewed with regard to participation in school dental care, dental visiting habits, self-assessment of oral health, dental anxiety, and oral hygiene habits. Dental visiting habits were associated with gender, psychiatric diagnosis, duration of mental disorder, and fear of dental care. Moreover, toothbrushing habits varied with gender, status as inpatient or day-hospital patient, number of admissions, and psychiatric diagnosis. Constant regular dental visits were observed among 31% of the participants, whereas regular toothbrushing was reported by 55%. Compared with reference figures of the general population, these figures reflect a relatively poorer dental health behavior among the study participants. The study underlines the need for specific preventive dental programs, which aim at improving the poor dental health behavior among psychiatric patients.
PubMed ID
7740929 View in PubMed
Less detail

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy among Swedish patients with congestive heart failure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52798
Source
Eur Heart J. 1995 Jan;16(1):53-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1995
Author
B. Andersson
K. Caidahl
F. Waagstein
Author Affiliation
Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goteborg University, Sweden.
Source
Eur Heart J. 1995 Jan;16(1):53-60
Date
Jan-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated - complications - epidemiology
Coronary Disease - complications - epidemiology
Echocardiography
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Failure, Congestive - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Prevalence
Prognosis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is an exclusion diagnosis. Although it is a prognostically important entity and a common indication for cardiac transplantation, the incidence and age distribution of idiopathic IDCM in a well-defined population today is unknown. The present study intended to estimate the proportion of IDCM among congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, and to evaluate its prognostic implications. The records of all 16-65-year-old patients hospitalized for CHF or IDCM during a 6-year period (n = 2711) were evaluated in a defined region of Western Sweden (1.05 million inhabitants 16-65 years of age). Twenty-two percent (584/2711) of these records contained no plausible cause of CHF or IDCM, and among living patients an obvious aetiology was lacking in 27% (411/1516). These 411 patients were subsequently offered a diagnostic investigation including echocardiography, and were compared to a randomly selected healthy control group (n = 103). Of 411 patients, 293 accepted the investigation and 286 had acceptable echocardiographic recordings, indicating left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction in 30%. From the hospital records, 170 patients were identified as new cases of IDCM during the 6-year period. Adding another 34 cases revealed by our diagnostic procedures yielded an age-gender standardized incidence rate of 29.2 cases per 10(6) persons/year. The incidence of IDCM increased considerably with age, although in younger patients its relative contribution to heart failure was greater. The incidence of IDCM was higher in the urban compared to the rural parts of the region 21 vs 32/10(6); P = 0.013). The estimated prevalence was 131/10(6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7737223 View in PubMed
Less detail

Work environment, skills utilization and health of Swedish nurses--results from a national questionnaire study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature52801
Source
Psychother Psychosom. 1995;64(1):20-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
I L Petterson
B B Arnetz
J E Arnetz
L G Hörte
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Psychother Psychosom. 1995;64(1):20-31
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Clinical Competence
Fatigue - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Gender Identity
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Middle Aged
Nurses - psychology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Psychophysiologic Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Environment
Sweden - epidemiology
Work Schedule Tolerance
Workload
Abstract
Nurses make up a considerable proportion of the Swedish health care staff. Few nationally representative studies of their work environment and health, however, have been published. The present questionnaire study on work conditions, skill utilization, health and well-being of a national representative sample of 3,500 Swedish nurses, indicates a high degree of job satisfaction. Despite high satisfaction, 40% of the respondents felt too tired after work to socialize with family and 45% had seriously considered quitting their jobs. Factors such as improved work climate and development of supervisory skills were suggested as psychosocial interventions. Improvement in physical work environment factors had low priority. Medical care nurses perceive a higher work load and higher job demands in relation to decision latitude, and geriatric nurses report less work development. No differences between disciplines were found in work relations. In conclusion, there is a need to further develop skills development and utilization and work organization. Results will be used in interventions to enhance the work environment for nurses.
PubMed ID
7480580 View in PubMed
Less detail

21800 records – page 1 of 2180.