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164 records – page 1 of 17.

Asthma and other pulmonary diseases in former elite athletes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15860
Source
Thorax. 1996 Mar;51(3):288-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1996
Author
U M Kujala
S. Sarna
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Unit for Sports and Exercise Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Thorax. 1996 Mar;51(3):288-92
Date
Mar-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology
Bronchitis - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Lung Diseases - epidemiology
Male
Odds Ratio
Physical Endurance
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sports
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma is rising and there are recent reports of increasing asthma rates among top level skiers and runners in the Nordic countries. METHODS: The lifetime occurrence of pulmonary diseases (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema) and current bronchitis symptoms was compared in former elite male athletes (n = 1282) who represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 at least once in international competitions and controls (n = 777) who, at the age of 20, were classified as healthy and who responded to a questionnaire in 1985. The presence of disease and symptoms was identified from the questionnaire and, in the case of asthma, also from a nationwide reimbursable medication register. The death certificates of the subjects of our original cohort who died between 1936 and 1985 were also investigated to determine the cause of death. RESULTS: The occurrence of the pulmonary diseases was associated with age, smoking habits, occupational group, and a history of exposure to chemicals. After adjusting for these variables, athletes who participated in mixed sports (odds ratio (OR) 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.92) and power sports (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.87) had lower odds ratios for emphysema, and endurance sports athletes had a lower odds ratio for the presence of at least one pulmonary disease (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.98) when compared with controls. Athletes also tended to have fewer reimbursable medications for asthma and fewer current symptoms for chronic bronchitis. Between 1936 and 1985 two controls but none of the athletes died of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The lifetime occurrence of asthma or other pulmonary diseases is not increased in former elite athletes, and exercise alone, even in a cold environment, did not appear to increase the prevalence of asthma, at least up to the mid 1980s.
PubMed ID
8779133 View in PubMed
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Concordance for type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort of twins in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222787
Source
Diabetologia. 1992 Nov;35(11):1060-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1992
Author
J. Kaprio
J. Tuomilehto
M. Koskenvuo
K. Romanov
A. Reunanen
J. Eriksson
J. Stengård
Y A Kesäniemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Diabetologia. 1992 Nov;35(11):1060-7
Date
Nov-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - genetics
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population
Registries
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
We studied the cumulative incidence, concordance rate and heritability for diabetes mellitus in a nationwide cohort of 13,888 Finnish twin pairs of the same sex. The twins were born before 1958 and both co-twins were alive in 1967. Data on diabetes were derived through computerized record linkage from death certificates, the National Hospital Discharge Register and the National Drug Register. Records were reviewed in order to assign a diagnostic category to the 738 diabetic patients identified. Of these patients 109 had Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, 505 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, 46 gestational diabetes, 24 secondary diabetes, 38 impaired glucose tolerance and 16 remained unclassified. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 1.4% in men and 1.3% in women aged 28-59 years and 9.3% and 7.0% in men and women aged 60 years and over, respectively. The cumulative incidence did not differ between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The concordance rate for Type 1 diabetes was higher among monozygotic (23% probandwise and 13% pairwise) than dizygotic twins (5% probandwise and 3% pairwise). The probandwise and pairwise concordance rates for Type 2 diabetes were 34% and 20% among monozygotic twins and 16% and 9% in dizygotic twins, respectively. Heritability for Type 1 diabetes was greater than that for Type 2 where both genetic and environmental effects seemed to play a significant role.
Notes
Comment In: Diabetologia. 1993 May;36(5):471-28314454
PubMed ID
1473616 View in PubMed
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Stress of daily activities and risk of breast cancer: a prospective cohort study in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195210
Source
Int J Cancer. 2001 Mar 15;91(6):888-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2001
Author
K. Lillberg
P K Verkasalo
J. Kaprio
L. Teppo
H. Helenius
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. kirsi.lillberg@helsinki.fi
Source
Int J Cancer. 2001 Mar 15;91(6):888-93
Date
Mar-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk factors
Stress, Physiological - complications
Abstract
The belief that life stress enhances breast cancer is common, but there are few prospective epidemiological studies on the relationship of life stress and breast cancer. We have investigated the association between stress of daily activities (SDA) and breast-cancer risk in a prospective cohort study of 10,519 Finnish women aged 18 years or more. SDA measures a subject's own appraisal of daily stress. It was assessed in 1975 and 1981 by a self-administered questionnaire, which also provided information on subject characteristics and other known breast-cancer risk factors. Follow-up data for breast cancer from 1976 to 1996 were attained through record linkage to the Finnish Cancer Registry. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups based on their SDA scores in 1975: no stress (23% of subjects), some stress (68%) and severe stress (9%). Hazard ratios (HRs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of breast cancer by level of SDA were obtained from the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified 205 incident breast cancers in the cohort. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for breast-cancer risk were 1.00 (reference), 1.11 (95% CI 0.78-1.57) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.53-1.73) by increasing level of stress. Neither shifting of the SDA cut-off points nor restricting the analysis to women who reported the same level of SDA in 1975 and 1981 materially altered the results. We found no evidence of an association between self-perceived daily stress and breast-cancer risk.
PubMed ID
11275996 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of nickel allergy among Finnish university students in 1995.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195289
Source
Contact Dermatitis. 2001 Apr;44(4):218-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
L. Mattila
M. Kilpeläinen
E O Terho
M. Koskenvuo
H. Helenius
K. Kalimo
Author Affiliation
Finnish Student Health Service, Kirkkotie 13 PL 28, FIN-20541 Turku, Finland.
Source
Contact Dermatitis. 2001 Apr;44(4):218-23
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Dermatitis, Allergic Contact - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Nickel - adverse effects
Patch Tests
Prevalence
Students - statistics & numerical data
Universities
Abstract
Nickel allergy was studied in a sample of 1st-year university students starting their studies in 1995. A total of 296 subjects (72%) of 413 invited participated in the clinical examination, and 284, 96 male and 188 female, were patch tested (69%). A history of nickel sensitization was enquired for. Prick tests and serum specific IgE levels were determined. Occurrence of atopic dermatitis, hand eczema, and current exposure to metals were recorded. Nickel allergy was encountered in 39% of all female students, in 42% of females with pierced skin, and in 14% of females without pierced skin. The corresponding figures for males were 3%, 7% and 3%. In the multiple regression analysis, the risk factors for nickel allergy were female sex (OR 8.1, p
PubMed ID
11260237 View in PubMed
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Heritability of leptin levels and the shared genetic effects on body mass index and leptin in adult Finnish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195405
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Jan;25(1):132-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
J. Kaprio
J. Eriksson
M. Lehtovirta
M. Koskenvuo
J. Tuomilehto
Author Affiliation
University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health, The Finnish Twin Cohort Study, Helsinki, Finland. Jaakko.Kaprio@Helsinki.Fi
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Jan;25(1):132-7
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight - genetics
Cohort Studies
Environment
Female
Finland
Humans
Leptin - blood - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Obesity - blood - genetics
Sex Characteristics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
Leptin is involved in the regulation of body weight, but the relative role of genetic and environmental influences on inter-individual variation in leptin levels is unknown.
To investigate the genetic and environmental contributions to the association of body mass index (BMI) with serum leptin levels, 58 monozygotic (MZ, 27M, 31F), and 74 like-sexed dizygotic (DZ, 32M, 42F) Finnish twin pairs aged 50--76 y were studied.
Serum leptin levels, weight, height, hip and waist measurements.
Women had higher mean leptin levels (16.8+/-9.5 ng/ml), and more overall variability in leptin levels than men (6.4+/-3.5 ng/ml; P
PubMed ID
11244469 View in PubMed
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Life satisfaction and suicide: a 20-year follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195539
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;158(3):433-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
H. Koivumaa-Honkanen
R. Honkanen
H. Viinamäki
K. Heikkilä
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. heli.koivumaa@kuh.fi
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;158(3):433-9
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Personal Satisfaction
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Suicide - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins - psychology
Abstract
The authors investigated whether self-reported life satisfaction predicted suicide over a period of 20 years (1976-1995) in adults unselected for mental health status.
A nationwide sample of adults aged 18-64 years (N=29,173) from the Finnish Twin Cohort responded to a health questionnaire that included a life satisfaction scale (score range=4-20, with higher scores indicating greater dissatisfaction) that covered four items: interest in life, happiness, general ease of living, and feeling of loneliness. "Dissatisfied" subjects (life satisfaction score=12-20) were compared to "satisfied" subjects (score=4-6). Mortality data were derived from the national registry and analyzed with Cox regression.
Dissatisfaction at baseline (life satisfaction score=12-20) was associated with a higher risk of suicide throughout the 20-year follow-up period (age-adjusted hazard ratio=3.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.83-4.98). The association was somewhat stronger in the first decade (hazard ratio=4.46, 95% CI=1.95-10.20) than in the second (hazard ratio=2.34, 95% CI=1.24-4.45). A dose-response relationship was also found. Men with the highest degrees of dissatisfaction (life satisfaction score=19-20) were 24.85 times as prone to commit suicide as satisfied men during the first 10 years of the follow-up period. Throughout the entire follow-up, life dissatisfaction still predicted suicide after adjusting for age, sex, baseline health status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity (hazard ratio=1.74, 95% CI=1.02-2.97). Subjects who reported dissatisfaction at baseline and again 6 years later showed a high suicide risk (hazard ratio=6.84, 95% CI=1.99-23.50) compared to those who repeatedly reported satisfaction.
Life dissatisfaction has a long-term effect on the risk of suicide, and this seems to be partly mediated through poor health behavior. Life satisfaction seems to be a composite health indicator.
PubMed ID
11229985 View in PubMed
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Social predictors of adult asthma: a co-twin case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195980
Source
Thorax. 2001 Mar;56(3):234-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
E. Huovinen
J. Kaprio
L A Laitinen
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. elisa.huovinen@helsinki.fi
Source
Thorax. 2001 Mar;56(3):234-6
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Social Environment
Abstract
Environmental factors are needed to explain the observed increase in the prevalence of asthma during recent decades, despite the existence of a recognised genetic component in asthma. A co-twin case-control study was undertaken to examine possible social risk factors for asthma.
Asthma diagnoses were based on register data of reimbursed asthma medication. During 17 years follow up of the Finnish twin cohort, 262 twin pairs discordant for incident asthma were identified. Conditional logistic regression for 1-1 matched data was used for risk calculation.
The atopic twin had an increased risk of asthma compared with the non-atopic co-twin (RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.81 to 4.68). The more educated twin had a decreased risk of asthma compared with his/her twin sibling with less education (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.86), and the twin who participated in conditioning exercise had a decreased risk of asthma compared with the more sedentary co-twin (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.88).
In addition to allergic diseases, educational level and physical activity are associated with adult onset asthma, which indicates a role for factors associated with life style.
Notes
Cites: Eur Respir J. 1999 Jan;13(1):2-410836314
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Cites: Thorax. 1996 Mar;51(3):288-928779133
PubMed ID
11182018 View in PubMed
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Relative effect of genetic and environmental factors on body height: differences across birth cohorts among Finnish men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196076
Source
Am J Public Health. 2000 Apr;90(4):627-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2000
Author
K. Silventoinen
J. Kaprio
E. Lahelma
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. karri.silventoinen@helsinki.fi
Source
Am J Public Health. 2000 Apr;90(4):627-30
Date
Apr-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Body Height - genetics
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Questionnaires
Sex Characteristics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study examined the change in heritability of adult body height across birth cohorts in Finland.
In 1981, cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 10,968 twin pairs born before 1958. The effect of genetic factors was estimated via genetic modeling.
Heritability increased from the cohort born before 1929 (0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 0.88 in men; 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.77 in women) to that born in 1947 through 1957 (0.81, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.87 in men; 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.89 in women).
Heritability of height increased across Finnish birth cohorts born in the first half of this century and leveled off after World War II. Environmental factors, compared with genetic factors, appear to be more important among women than men.
Notes
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PubMed ID
10754982 View in PubMed
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Disease-specific mortality among elite athletes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196134
Source
JAMA. 2001 Jan 3;285(1):44-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-3-2001

Genetic influences on use and abuse of alcohol: a study of 5638 adult Finnish twin brothers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234939
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1987 Aug;11(4):349-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1987
Author
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
H. Langinvainio
K. Romanov
S. Sarna
R J Rose
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1987 Aug;11(4):349-56
Date
Aug-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Diseases in Twins
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
To evaluate genetic influences on the use and abuse of alcohol, we compared questionnaire measures of the frequency, quantity, and density of social drinking, and the frequency of alcohol-induced passouts self-reported by 879 monozygotic (MZ) and 1940 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of twin brothers, aged 24-49 yr. The measures of frequency, quantity, and density (heavy drinking once or more a month) significantly intercorrelate, and the self-reported alcohol consumption by this sample is satisfactorily stable and consistent with nationwide sales figures. None of the drinking measures was associated with twin type (zygosity), and only density correlated with age. Similarity of drinking habits among twin brothers was evaluated as a function of their genetic resemblance and age, the frequency of their social contact with one another, and the interactions of these terms. The effects were estimated from hierarchical linear regressions of a double-entry data matrix from which each twin's drinking was predicted from that of his twin brother, and that pair's age, zygosity, cohabitation status, and frequency of social contact. Significant genetic variance was found for each of the drinking measures with heritability estimates ranging from 0.36 to 0.40. Co-twins in more frequent social contact with one another reported greater similarity in their use of alcohol, but heritable variance remained after the effects of age and social contact were removed from both mean levels and co-twin resemblance. Reported frequency of passouts yielded significant, but equivalent, correlations in both MZ and DZ twins and no evidence of genetic influence.
PubMed ID
3307505 View in PubMed
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164 records – page 1 of 17.