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Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk for Depression: A Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284225
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 15;80(12):916-922
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2016
Author
Zheng Chang
Brian M D'Onofrio
Patrick D Quinn
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 15;80(12):916-922
Date
Dec-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors - adverse effects
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - drug therapy - epidemiology
Central Nervous System Stimulants - adverse effects
Child
Depressive Disorder - chemically induced - epidemiology
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. However, it is unclear whether ADHD medication increases or decreases the risk for depression.
We studied all individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD born between 1960 and 1998 in Sweden (N = 38,752). We obtained data for prescription of ADHD medication, diagnosis of depression and other psychiatric disorders, and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. The association between ADHD medication and depression was estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression.
After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, ADHD medication was associated with a reduced long-term risk (i.e., 3 years later) for depression (hazard ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.67). The risk was lower for longer duration of ADHD medication. Also, ADHD medication was associated with reduced rates of concurrent depression; within-individual analysis suggested that occurrence of depression was 20% less common during periods when patients received ADHD medication compared with periods when they did not (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92).
Our study suggests that ADHD medication does not increase the risk of later depression; rather, medication was associated with a reduced risk for subsequent and concurrent depression.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27086545 View in PubMed
Less detail

Work ability among Finnish workers with type 1 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284226
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2016 Aug;66(6):446-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
P. Hakkarainen
L. Moilanen
V. Hänninen
J. Heikkinen
K. Räsänen
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2016 Aug;66(6):446-53
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - complications
Female
Finland
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Power (Psychology)
Self Report
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Work
Work Capacity Evaluation
Workload
Young Adult
Abstract
Work ability represents the balance between individual resources, health status and job demands. As far as we are aware, these issues have not been examined in working people with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
To examine how work-related and diabetes-related factors are associated with work ability among male and female workers.
Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2500 people with T1D from the Medication Reimbursement Register of The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The associations of the predictors of poor work ability were examined in a logistic regression analysis.
The final sample comprised 767 working people aged 18-64 with T1D; overall response rate 49%. One in every three working men and women with T1D had poor work ability. High job demands and low job control were associated with poor work ability in both genders. Physical work and low worktime control were significantly associated with poor work ability in men but not in women with T1D. A self-reported high value of glycosylated haemoglobin was the only diabetes-related variable associated with poor work ability in both men and women.
Work-related factors and poor glycaemic control were associated with poor work ability in individuals with T1D. Thus, job control and worktime control should be taken into account in supporting the work ability of workers with T1D.
PubMed ID
27085189 View in PubMed
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Cervical facet oedema: prevalence, correlation to symptoms, and follow-up imaging.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284227
Source
Clin Radiol. 2016 Jun;71(6):570-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
M T Nevalainen
P J Foran
J B Roedl
A C Zoga
W B Morrison
Source
Clin Radiol. 2016 Jun;71(6):570-5
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Axis, Cervical Vertebra - diagnostic imaging
Causality
Comorbidity
Edema - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Joint Diseases
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Radiculopathy - diagnosis - epidemiology
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Spinal Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Statistics as Topic
Symptom Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Zygapophyseal Joint - diagnostic imaging
Abstract
To evaluate the prevalence of cervical facet oedema in patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neck pain and/or radiculopathy, and to investigate whether there is a correlation between the presence of oedema and patients' symptoms.
A retrospective report review of 1885 patients undergoing cervical spine MRI between July 2008 and June 2015 was performed. Exclusion criteria included acute trauma, surgery, neoplastic disease, or infection in the cervical spine. One hundred and seventy-three MRI studies with cervical facet oedema were evaluated by each of the two radiologists. In these patients, the grade of bone marrow oedema (BMO) and corresponding neuroforaminal narrowing at the cervical facets was assessed. Correlation with symptoms was performed based on pre-MRI questionnaire.
The prevalence of cervical facet oedema was 9%; the most commonly affected levels were C3-4, C4-5, and C2-3. A total of 202 cervical facets were evaluated: mild BMO was seen in 35%, moderate in 41%, and severe in 24% of cases. Surrounding soft-tissue oedema was observed in 36%, 69%, and 92% of the BMO grades, respectively. The correlations between unilateral radiculopathy and ipsilateral facet BMO grades were 79%, 83%, and 73% (chi-square, p
PubMed ID
27055743 View in PubMed
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Psychosocial work environment and retirement age: a prospective study of 1876 senior employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284228
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Aug;89(6):891-900
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Sannie Vester Thorsen
Per H Jensen
Jakob Bue Bjørner
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Aug;89(6):891-900
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Ageism
Career Mobility
Denmark
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Leadership
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Retirement - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Trust
Workload - psychology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement in a longitudinal study.
Data about work environment, health, and background factors came from the DANES 2008 questionnaire survey. We followed members of the Danish early retirement scheme for up to 4 years in national registers-focusing on the age range, 60-64 years, where early retirement was possible. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyze the rate of early retirement.
The study included 16 psychosocial work environment factors. The following 10 psychosocial factors were significant predictors of early retirement in covariate adjusted analyses: Low job satisfaction, low influence in job, low possibilities for development, low role clarity, perceived age discrimination, low recognition from management, low workplace justice, poor trust in management, poor leadership quality, and poor predictability. No significant association with early retirement was found for work pace, quantitative demands, emotional demands, role conflicts, social community between colleagues, and trust between colleagues.
Older employees with high job satisfaction, influence, possibilities for development, positive management relations, and jobs with no age discrimination remained longer at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees' decision on early retirement.
PubMed ID
27055542 View in PubMed
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A nationwide family study of venous thromboembolism and risk of arterial vascular disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284229
Source
Heart. 2016 Aug 15;102(16):1315-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-15-2016
Author
Bengt Zöller
Xinjun Li
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Source
Heart. 2016 Aug 15;102(16):1315-21
Date
Aug-15-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aortic Aneurysm - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Pedigree
Peripheral Arterial Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Venous Thromboembolism - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
This nationwide study aimed to determine whether venous thromboembolism (VTE) shares familial susceptibility with aortic aneurysm (AA), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and arterial thrombosis and embolisation (ATE) in locations other than the heart and brain.
Nationwide Swedish family study. Data from the Swedish Multi-Generation Register for subjects aged 0-78 years old, covering the period 1964-2010, were linked to the Hospital Register. Familial risks (standardised incidence ratio, SIR) of AA, PAD and ATE were determined for individuals with a first-degree relative (parents/sibling) diagnosed with VTE. Separate analyses were done to determine risks for spouses.
A total of 13 063 individuals had AA, 15 494 had PAD and 7325 had ATE. Fully adjusted familial risks for individuals with family history (parent/sibling) of VTE were 1.04 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.08)) for AA, 1.42 (1.35 to 1.49) for ATE and 1.08 (1.04 to 1.13) for PAD. The familial sibling risks were 1.07 (0.99 to 1.14) for AA, 1.61 (1.48 to 1.74) for ATE and 1.19 (1.11 to 1.26) for PAD. Among individuals younger than 50 years of age, the familial risks were: 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) for AA, 1.76 (1.62 to 1.91) for ATE and 1.12 (1.03 to 1.21) for PAD. In spouses of patients with VTE, the SIRs were 1.21 (1.17 to 1.25) for AA, 1.19 (1.14 to 1.23) for ATE and 1.26 (1.21 to 1.30) for PAD.
VTE shares only weak familial susceptibility with AA and PAD in the Swedish population. However, ATE partially shares a moderate familial susceptibility and possibly genetic factors with VTE. Moreover, familial non-genetic factors may contribute to the observed familial associations.
PubMed ID
27048773 View in PubMed
Less detail

Subacromial shoulder disorders among baggage handlers: an observational cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284230
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):867-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
Lau Caspar Thygesen
Sigurd Mikkelsen
Ellen Bøtker Pedersen
Karina Lauenborg Møller
Tine Alkjær
Henrik Koblauch
Erik B Simonsen
Sanne Pagh Møller
Charlotte Brauer
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):867-76
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Air travel
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Lifting - adverse effects
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Registries
Risk factors
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome - epidemiology - etiology
Time Factors
Abstract
To assess the influence of cumulative employment as baggage handler on the risk of incident subacromial shoulder disorders. Baggage handling is characterized by repetitive work primarily consisting of heavy lifting in awkward positions and time pressure.
This cohort study is based on the Copenhagen Airport Cohort consisting of unskilled men with employment at Copenhagen Airport and unskilled men with employment in other firms in the Greater Copenhagen area during the period 1990-2012. Only men were included. We followed the cohort in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The primary exposure was cumulative years of employment as a baggage handler, and the primary outcome was diagnoses and surgical treatment of subacromial shoulder disorders.
The cohort contained 3396 baggage handlers and 63,909 workers in the reference group. Baggage handlers with longer cumulative years of employment had higher incidence compared to baggage handlers with shorter employment; for example, baggage handlers with 10-19 years of employment had incidence rate ratio of 2.07 (95 % confidence interval, 1.27-3.38) compared to baggage handlers with less than 3 years of employment. Spline regression showed an increase in incidence within the first few years after employment whereupon the increased risk remained constant for longer employment. Baggage handlers had increased incidence in younger ages than the reference population.
In this large cohort study, we found increased incidence of subacromial shoulder disorders for workers with longer cumulative years of employment. These results support that long-term lifting in awkward positions and time pressure influences the risk of subacromial shoulder disorders.
PubMed ID
26994603 View in PubMed
Less detail

Circadian clock of Drosophila montana is adapted to high variation in summer day lengths and temperatures prevailing at high latitudes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284231
Source
J Insect Physiol. 2016 Jun;89:9-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Hannele Kauranen
Outi Ala-Honkola
Maaria Kankare
Anneli Hoikkala
Source
J Insect Physiol. 2016 Jun;89:9-18
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Circadian Clocks
Diapause, Insect
Drosophila - genetics - physiology
Drosophila Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Finland
Gene Expression
Locomotion
Period Circadian Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Photoperiod
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
Photoperiodic regulation of the circadian rhythms in insect locomotor activity has been studied in several species, but seasonal entrainment of these rhythms is still poorly understood. We have traced the entrainment of activity rhythm of northern Drosophila montana flies in a climate chamber mimicking the photoperiods and day and night temperatures that the flies encounter in northern Finland during the summer. The experiment was started by transferring freshly emerged females into the chamber in early and late summer conditions to obtain both non-diapausing and diapausing females for the studies. The locomotor activity of the females and daily changes in the expression levels of two core circadian clock genes, timeless and period, in their heads were measured at different times of summer. The study revealed several features in fly rhythmicity that are likely to help the flies to cope with high variation in the day length and temperature typical to northern summers. First, both the non-diapausing and the diapausing females showed evening activity, which decreased towards the short day length as observed in the autumn in nature. Second, timeless and period genes showed concordant daily oscillations and seasonal shifts in their expression level in both types of females. Contrary to Drosophila melanogaster, oscillation profiles of these genes were similar to each other in all conditions, including the extremely long days in early summer and the cool temperatures in late summer, and their peak expression levels were not locked to lights-off transition in any photoperiod. Third, the diapausing females were less active than the non-diapausing ones, in spite of their younger age. Overall, the study showed that D. montana clock functions well under long day conditions, and that both the photoperiod and the daily temperature cycles are important zeitgebers for seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of this species.
PubMed ID
26993661 View in PubMed
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Longevity and admission to nursing home according to age after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery: a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284232
Source
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016 Jun;22(6):792-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Kristinn Thorsteinsson
Jan J Andreasen
Rikke N Mortensen
Kristian Kragholm
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Gunnar Gislason
Lars Køber
Kirsten Fonager
Source
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016 Jun;22(6):792-8
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Coronary Artery Bypass - methods
Coronary Artery Disease - mortality - surgery
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Longevity
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Homes - statistics & numerical data
Proportional Hazards Models
Survival Rate - trends
Time Factors
Abstract
Data on nursing home admission in patient's =80 years after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longevity and subsequent admission to a nursing home stratified by age in a nationwide CABG cohort.
All patients who underwent isolated CABG from 1996 to 2012 in Denmark were identified through nationwide registers. The cumulative incidence of admission to a nursing home after CABG was estimated. A Cox regression model was constructed to identify predictors for living in a nursing home 1 year after CABG. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used for survival analysis. Subanalysis on home care usage was performed in the period 2008-2012.
A total of 38 487 patients were included. The median age was 65.4 ± 9.5 years (1455 > 80 years) and 80% were males. The 30-day mortality rate was 2.8%, increasing with age (1.2% in patients
Notes
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PubMed ID
26969738 View in PubMed
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Molecular Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Puumala Virus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284233
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2016 May;54(5):1335-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Nina Lagerqvist
Åsa Hagström
Malin Lundahl
Elin Nilsson
Mikael Juremalm
Inger Larsson
Erik Alm
Göran Bucht
Clas Ahlm
Jonas Klingström
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2016 May;54(5):1335-9
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Female
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome - diagnosis
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques - methods
Puumala virus - isolation & purification
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Sweden
Abstract
Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two severe acute diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS; also called hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome [HCPS]) in the Americas. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most common causative agent of HFRS in Europe. Current routine diagnostic methods are based on serological analyses and can yield inconclusive results. Hantavirus-infected patients are viremic during the early phase of disease; therefore, detection of viral RNA genomes can be a valuable complement to existing serological methods. However, the high genomic sequence diversity of PUUV has hampered the development of molecular diagnostics, and currently no real-time reverse transcription-quantitative (RT)-PCR assay is available for routine diagnosis of HFRS. Here, we present a novel PUUV RT-PCR assay. The assay was validated for routine diagnosis of HFRS on samples collected in Sweden during the winter season from 2013 to 2014. The assay allowed detection of PUUV RNA in 98.7% of confirmed clinical HFRS samples collected within 8 days after symptomatic onset. In summary, this study shows that real-time RT-PCR can be a reliable alternative to serological tests during the early phase of HFRS.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26962084 View in PubMed
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Temporal patterns of sitting at work are associated with neck-shoulder pain in blue-collar workers: a cross-sectional analysis of accelerometer data in the DPHACTO study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284234
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):823-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
David M Hallman
Svend Erik Mathiassen
Marina Heiden
Nidhi Gupta
Marie Birk Jørgensen
Andreas Holtermann
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):823-33
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accelerometry - methods - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Male
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - etiology - physiopathology
Occupational Diseases - etiology - physiopathology
Occupations
Posture - physiology
Risk factors
Shoulder Pain - etiology - physiopathology
Time Factors
Abstract
Our aim was to examine the extent to which temporal patterns of sitting during occupational work and during leisure-time, assessed using accelerometry, are associated with intense neck-shoulder pain (NSP) in blue-collar workers.
The population consisted of 659 Danish blue-collar workers. Accelerometers were attached to the thigh, hip, trunk and upper dominant arm to measure sitting time and physical activity across four consecutive days. Temporal sitting patterns were expressed separately for work and leisure by the proportion of total time spent sitting in brief bursts (0-5 min), moderate (>5-20 min) and prolonged (>20 min) periods. The peak NSP intensity during the previous 3 months was assessed using a numerical rating scale (range 0-10) and dichotomized into a lower (=4) and higher (>4) NSP score. Logistic regression analyses with multiple adjustments for individual and occupational factors were performed to determine the association between brief, moderate and prolonged sitting periods, and NSP intensity.
Time in brief bursts of occupational sitting was negatively associated with NSP intensity (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.48-0.98), while time in moderate periods of occupational sitting showed a positive association with NSP (adjusted OR 1.32, 95 % CI 1.04-1.69). Time in prolonged periods of occupational sitting was not associated with NSP (adjusted OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.78-1.09). We found no significant association between brief, moderate or prolonged sitting periods during leisure, and NSP.
Our findings indicate that the association between occupational sitting time and intense NSP among blue-collar workers is sensitive to the temporal pattern of sitting.
Notes
Erratum In: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2017 Feb 16;:28210807
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Erratum In: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2017 Jul;90(5):46528210807
PubMed ID
26935311 View in PubMed
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Effect of Positive Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Nonsleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea. The RICCADSA Randomized Controlled Trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284235
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep 01;194(5):613-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-01-2016
Author
Yüksel Peker
Helena Glantz
Christine Eulenburg
Karl Wegscheider
Johan Herlitz
Erik Thunström
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep 01;194(5):613-20
Date
Sep-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Comorbidity
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - therapy
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Middle Aged
Myocardial Revascularization
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive - epidemiology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), many of whom do not report daytime sleepiness. First-line treatment for symptomatic OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but its value in patients without daytime sleepiness is uncertain.
To determine the effects of CPAP on long-term adverse cardiovascular outcome risk in patients with CAD with nonsleepy OSA.
This single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded evaluation trial was conducted between December 2005 and November 2010. Consecutive patients with newly revascularized CAD and OSA (apnea-hypopnea index =15/h) without daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score
PubMed ID
26914592 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prevalence and Characteristics of Positional Nystagmus in Normal Subjects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284236
Source
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May;154(5):861-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Camilla Martens
Frederik Kragerud Goplen
Karl Fredrik Nordfalk
Torbjørn Aasen
Stein Helge Glad Nordahl
Source
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 May;154(5):861-7
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Nystagmus, Physiologic - physiology
Prevalence
Vestibular Function Tests
Abstract
In clinical practice, patients are often referred due to a finding of positional nystagmus that does not always appear to correlate with clinical symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. To know when to consider nystagmus to be of clinical relevance, it is necessary to know the prevalence and characteristics of positional nystagmus in a healthy population.
Case series of 75 healthy subjects.
Two tertiary referral centers in Norway.
Seventy-five adult subjects aged 40 ± 13 years (mean ± SD; range, 21-87) without a history of vertigo or balance disorder were included from 2013 to 2015. The subjects underwent 6 different standardized positional tests in a repositioning chair. Videonystagmography was used to record eye movements. Of 1350 recordings, 1329 were included and analyzed.
Positional nystagmus was detected in 88% of the subjects. The most common finding was nystagmus in the Dix-Hallpike position, which occurred in 55% of the subjects. The 95th percentile of the maximum slow-phase velocity for each subject was found to be 5.06° per second (n = 54) in the horizontal plane and 6.48° per second (n = 48) in the vertical plane.
Positional nystagmus is a common finding in normal subjects and occurred in 88% of the healthy subjects in the present study. Horizontal direction-changing apogeotropic or geotropic nystagmus may occur in asymptomatic subjects. However, nystagmus that is of the paroxysmal type or has a slow-phase velocity greater than approximately 5° per second in the horizontal plane or 6.5° per second in the vertical plane should be considered outside the 95th percentile.
PubMed ID
26908561 View in PubMed
Less detail

Inflammatory markers and exposure to airborne particles among workers in a Swedish pulp and paper mill.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284237
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):813-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
HÃ¥kan Westberg
Karine Elihn
Eva Andersson
Bodil Persson
Lennart Andersson
Ing-Liss Bryngelsson
Cathe Karlsson
Bengt Sjögren
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):813-22
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerosols - adverse effects
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Biomarkers - blood
Blood Coagulation Factors - analysis
C-Reactive Protein - analysis
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Inflammation Mediators - blood
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Interleukins - blood
Male
Manufacturing Industry
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Paper
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Serum Amyloid A Protein - analysis
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
To study the relationship between exposure to airborne particles in a pulp and paper mill and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood.
Personal sampling of inhalable dust was performed for 72 subjects working in a Swedish pulp and paper mill. Stationary measurements were used to study concentrations of total dust, respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, interleukins (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen and markers of coagulation factor VIII, von Willebrand, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and D-dimer were measured in plasma or serum. Sampling was performed on the last day of the work free period of 5 days, before and after the shift the first day of work and after the shifts the second and third day. In a mixed model analysis, the relationship between particulate exposures and inflammatory markers was determined. Sex, age, smoking, and BMI were included as covariates.
The average 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) air concentration levels of inhalable dust were 0.30 mg/m(3), range 0.005-3.3 mg/m(3). The proxies for average 8-h TWAs of respirable dust were 0.045 mg/m(3). Significant and consistent positive relations were found between several exposure metrics (PM 10, total and inhalable dust) and CRP, SAA and fibrinogen taken post-shift, suggesting a dose-effect relationship.
This study supports a relationship between occupational particle exposure and established inflammatory markers, which may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26875192 View in PubMed
Less detail

Road traffic noise, air pollution and myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284238
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):793-802
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
Theo Bodin
Jonas Björk
Kristoffer Mattisson
Matteo Bottai
Ralf Rittner
Per Gustavsson
Kristina Jakobsson
Per-Olof Östergren
Maria Albin
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):793-802
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Both road traffic noise and air pollution have been linked to cardiovascular disease. However, there are few prospective epidemiological studies available where both road traffic noise and air pollution have been analyzed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between road traffic noise, air pollution and incident myocardial infarction in both current (1-year average) and medium-term (3-year average) perspective.
This study was based on a stratified random sample of persons aged 18-80 years who answered a public health survey in Skåne, Sweden, in 2000 (n = 13,512). The same individuals received a repeated survey in 2005 and 2010. Diagnoses of myocardial infarction (MI) were obtained from medical records for both inpatient and outpatient specialized care. The endpoint was first MI during 2000-2010. Participants with prior myocardial infarction were excluded at baseline. Yearly average levels of noise (L DEN) and air pollution (NO x ) were estimated using geographic information system for residential address every year until censoring.
The mean exposure levels for road traffic noise and air pollution in 2005 were L DEN 51 dB(A) and NO x 11 µg/m(3), respectively. After adjustment for individual confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, alcohol consumption, civil status, year, country of birth and physical activity), a 10-dB(A) increase in current noise exposure did not increase the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI, 0.99 (95 % CI 0.86-1.14). Neither did a 10-µg/m(3) increase in current NO x increase the risk of MI, 1.02 (95 % CI 0.86-1.21). The IRR for MI associated with combined exposure to road traffic noise >55 dB(A) and NO x >20 µg/m(3) was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.90-1.64) compared to
PubMed ID
26867595 View in PubMed
Less detail

Situating beyond the social: understanding the role of materiality in Danish nursing education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284239
Source
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2016 Oct;21(4):819-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Ann Katrine B Soffer
Source
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2016 Oct;21(4):819-32
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropology, Cultural
Clinical Competence
Denmark
Education, Nursing - organization & administration
Humans
Learning
Models, Educational
Simulation Training
Abstract
Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are introduced. One issue that has arisen is the analytical requirement for an educational program to be a homogeneous, singular, and social phenomenon thereby discounting the varied and different sites and materialities found within nursing education. By using the materiality of the hospital bed as an empirical example of the way materiality also shapes practices, an alternative understanding of situated participation can emerge. This approach allows different sites and materialities to be conceptualized as equally genuine parts of the situated leaning framework. I suggest the notion of multi-configured learning, which captures the heterogeneity and materiality encountered during ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish nursing school.
PubMed ID
26846220 View in PubMed
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Cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis in patients with intravenous drug use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284240
Source
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016 May;22(5):633-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Oda Bratland Østerdal
Pirjo-Riitta Salminen
Stina Jordal
Haakon Sjursen
Øystein Wendelbo
Rune Haaverstad
Source
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2016 May;22(5):633-40
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiac Surgical Procedures - methods - mortality
Endocarditis, Bacterial - etiology - surgery
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prognosis
Retrospective Studies
Staphylococcal Infections - etiology - mortality - surgery
Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications - mortality
Survival Rate - trends
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Intravenous drug users have a high risk of infective endocarditis and reduced survival. Cardiac surgery may be recommended for these patients, but redo surgery is controversial. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of intravenous drug users accepted for surgery during a 12-year period.
This retrospective study included 29 injecting drug users treated with valve surgery for endocarditis between January 2001 and December 2013 at a tertiary academic centre. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The median patient age was 36 (24-63) years and 27 patients (93%) were male. Staphylococcus aureus (52%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17%) were the most common microorganisms. Common illicit drugs were opioids (69%), amphetamines (52%) and benzodiazepines (24%). Mixed abuse was reported in 66% of patients. Seven patients (24%) had prior intracardial implants or native valve pathology. Twenty-five patients (86%) were positive for hepatitis C virus antibody, but none carried the human immunodeficiency virus. Twelve (41%) were homeless and 15 (52%) had poor dental hygiene. Three patients (10%) received medication-assisted rehabilitation before surgery. The main indications for surgery were regurgitation and secondary heart failure (86%), embolization (41%) and uncontrolled infection (24%). Aortic valve replacement was performed in 24 patients (83%), either as part of univalvular or multiple valve surgery. Seven patients (24%) had multivalvular endocarditis. All but 3 patients received biological valve prostheses. The 30-day mortality was 7% after first time surgery. During follow-up, 15 patients (52%) presented with reinfection: 10 (35%) were offered a second and 2 (7%) a third operation. Thirty-day mortality was 10% after redo surgery. Thirteen patients (45%) died within a median of 22 (0-84) months. Continued intravenous drug use was reported in 70 and 44% of patients after the first and second operation, respectively.
Cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis has acceptable early postoperative results among intravenous drug users. The 2- and 5-year survival were 79 and 59%, respectively. The number of reinfections was high within 2 years, as continued drug use seems to be a major challenge for this group.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26826713 View in PubMed
Less detail

Survival of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284241
Source
J Endod. 2016 Feb;42(2):216-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Helena Fransson
Victoria S Dawson
Fredrik Frisk
Lars Bjørndal
Thomas Kvist
Source
J Endod. 2016 Feb;42(2):216-20
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Dental Restoration, Permanent - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Middle Aged
Root Canal Filling Materials
Root Canal Obturation - methods
Root Canal Therapy - methods - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Tooth Extraction
Tooth, Nonvital - epidemiology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The aim was to assess survival in the Swedish population of teeth treated by nonsurgical root canal treatment during 2009.
Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess cumulative tooth survival during a period of 5-6 years of all teeth that were root-filled during 2009.
In 2009, 248,299 teeth were reported as root-filled. The average age of the patients at the time of the root filling was 55 years (range, 20-102 years). The teeth most frequently root-filled were the maxillary and mandibular first molars. During the 5- to 6-year period 25,228 of the root-filled teeth (10.2%) were reported to have been extracted; thus 223,071 teeth (89.8%) survived. Tooth survival was highest in the youngest age group (93.2%). The highest survival (93.0%) was for the mandibular premolars, and the lowest (87.5%) was for the mandibular molars. Teeth restored with indirect restorations within 6 months of the root filling had higher survival rates (93.1%) than those restored with a direct filling (89.6%).
In the adult population of Sweden, teeth that are root-filled by general practitioners under the tax-funded Swedish Social Insurance Agency have a 5- to 6-year survival rate of approximately 90%.
PubMed ID
26813417 View in PubMed
Less detail

User participation in district psychiatry. The social construction of 'users' in handovers and meetings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284242
Source
Nurs Inq. 2016 Jun;23(2):169-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Vår Mathisen
Aud Obstfelder
Geir F Lorem
Per Måseide
Source
Nurs Inq. 2016 Jun;23(2):169-77
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communication
Health Personnel
Humans
Mental Health Services - utilization
Norway
Patient Handoff
Patient Participation - psychology
Psychiatry - organization & administration
Qualitative Research
Abstract
An ideal in mental health care is user participation. This implies inclusion and facilitation by clinicians to enable users to participate in decisions about themselves and in the design of suitable treatment. However, much of the work of clinicians consists of handovers and other meetings where patients are not present. It is therefore interesting to study how the patient perspective is handled in such meetings and whether it forms a basis for user participation. We conducted fieldwork in three different inpatient wards in Norwegian District Psychiatric Centres. We used an interactional perspective in our analysis, where speech acts, framing and footing were key concepts. The findings show that the talk in the handovers and meetings contained five main themes and that there was a clear correlation between what was said and how it was said, and whether clinicians related to the content in a decisive, person-centred or indecisive manner. We discuss potential participation statuses for patients and their limited opportunity to influence the talk and possible decisions about themselves. Our conclusion is that handover meetings primarily function as an aid in organising clinicians' work and could ultimately be seen as counteracting user participation.
PubMed ID
26792646 View in PubMed
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Associations Between Self-Reported and Objectively Recorded Early Life Stress, FKBP5 Polymorphisms, and Depressive Symptoms in Midlife.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284243
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 01;80(11):869-877
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-01-2016
Author
Jari Lahti
Heidi Ala-Mikkula
Eero Kajantie
Kadri Haljas
Johan G Eriksson
Katri Räikkönen
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 01;80(11):869-877
Date
Dec-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult Survivors of Child Adverse Events - statistics & numerical data
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Depression - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Self Report
Stress, Psychological
Tacrolimus Binding Proteins - genetics
World War II
Abstract
FK506-binding protein 51 is involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene have been shown to interact with retrospectively self-reported early life stress (ELS) in patients with psychiatric disorders. We examined interactions between three selected FKBP5 SNPs and self-reported and objectively recorded ELS in relation to depressive symptoms in midlife.
This study comprised 1431 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants genotyped for FKBP5 SNPs shown to alter cortisol metabolism (rs1360780, rs9470080, and rs9394309). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at ages 61.5 years (time 1) and 63.4 years (time 2); 165 and 181 participants were separated from their parents in childhood as a result of evacuations during World War II as indicated by self-reports and the Finnish National Archives registry, respectively.
Associations between self-reported and objectively recorded ELS, but not stressful events in midlife, and the mean BDI score (average of time 1 and time 2) or mild to severe BDI scores (10-63 points at time 1 and time 2), or both, were moderated by the FKBP5 variants (p values for interactions .18). Mean BDI scores or odds for having mild to severe BDI scores, or both, increased according to number of minor alleles and haplotypes derived from these alleles in the separated groups, but not in the nonseparated groups.
FKBP5 variations in combination with self-reported and objectively recorded ELS predict more pronounced depressive symptoms in midlife. Our findings confirm previous retrospective findings in a prospective epidemiologic study setting.
PubMed ID
26740367 View in PubMed
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Does physical or psychosocial workload modify the effect of musculoskeletal pain on sickness absence? A prospective study among the Finnish population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284244
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):719-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
Subas Neupane
Tiina Pensola
Eija Haukka
Anneli Ojajärvi
Päivi Leino-Arjas
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Jul;89(5):719-28
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Pain - etiology
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Social Support
Workload
Abstract
Previously, among food industry workers, multisite pain predicted sickness absence (SA) only in those with low biomechanical workload. Here we studied among a wide range of occupations whether the relationship of pain with SA was modified by the level of physical or psychosocial workload.
A nationally representative sample (Health 2000 Survey) comprised 3420 occupationally active Finns aged 30-55 years. Baseline data on musculoskeletal pain during the preceding month, strenuous work history, current physical workload, job demands, job control, support at work, lifestyle, and chronic diseases were obtained in 2000/2001 by questionnaire, interview, and clinical examination. Musculoskeletal pain in 18 body locations was combined into four sites (neck, upper limbs, low back, and lower limbs) and classified as no pain, single-site pain, and multisite pain (2-4 sites). The data were linked with information from national registers on annual SA periods lasting =10 workdays for 2002-2008. Negative binomial regression analysis was used.
At baseline, one-third of the study sample reported single-site and one-third multisite pain. Allowing for gender and age, the employees with multisite pain in strata with high physical workload and high job demands tended to have the highest risk of SA, but no statistically significant interactive effects between work factors and pain were observed. Further adjustment for health-related lifestyle and chronic diseases decreased the risk estimates in all strata.
We did not find evidence for significant modification by physical or psychosocial workload of the relationship between musculoskeletal pain and SA periods lasting =10 workdays.
PubMed ID
26715494 View in PubMed
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