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Demographic inference from whole-genome and RAD sequencing data suggests alternating human impacts on goose populations since the last ice age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289902
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Nov; 26(22):6270-6283
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
J M Pujolar
L Dalén
M M Hansen
J Madsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Nov; 26(22):6270-6283
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources
Denmark
Ecosystem
Geese - genetics
Genetics, Population
Human Activities
Humans
Iceland
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Svalbard
Abstract
We investigated how population changes and fluctuations in the pink-footed goose might have been affected by climatic and anthropogenic factors. First, genomic data confirmed the existence of two separate populations: western (Iceland) and eastern (Svalbard/Denmark). Second, demographic inference suggests that the species survived the last glacial period as a single ancestral population with a low population size (100-1,000 individuals) that split into the current populations at the end of the last glacial maximum with Iceland being the most plausible glacial refuge. While population changes during the last glaciation were clearly environmental, we hypothesize that more recent demographic changes are human-related: (1) the inferred population increase in the Neolithic is due to deforestation to establish new lands for agriculture, increasing available habitat for pink-footed geese, (2) the decline inferred during the Middle Ages is due to human persecution, and (3) improved protection explains the increasing demographic trends during the 20th century. Our results suggest both environmental (during glacial cycles) and anthropogenic effects (more recent) can be a threat to species survival.
PubMed ID
28980346 View in PubMed
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Association between Weight Change and Mortality in Community Living Older People Followed for Up to 14 Years. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289903
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2017; 21(8):909-917
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
T R Haugsgjerd
J Dierkes
S E Vollset
K J Vinknes
O K Nygård
R Seifert
G Sulo
G S Tell
Author Affiliation
Teresa Risan Haugsgjerd, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Kalfarveien 31, 5018 Bergen, Norway; Email: Teresa.Haugsgjerd@uib.no, Tel: +47 40634711.
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2017; 21(8):909-917
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Body Weight - physiology
Cohort Studies
Community Medicine
Female
Humans
Male
Mortality
Norway
Prospective Studies
Time Factors
Weight Gain
Abstract
To study the importance of weight change with regard to mortality in older people.
Prospective cohort study.
The cohort includes participants in the Hordaland Health Study, Norway, 1997-99 (N=2935, age 71-74 years) who had previously participated in a survey in 1992-93.
Participants with weight measured at both surveys were followed for mortality through 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate risk of death according to changes in weight. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for people with stable weight (± 3 kg were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, weight should be routinely measured in older adults.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28972244 View in PubMed
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Night work, long work weeks, and risk of accidental injuries. A register-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289904
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 11 01; 43(6):578-586
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-01-2017
Author
Ann D Larsen
Harald Hannerz
Simone V Møller
Johnny Dyreborg
Jens Peter Bonde
Johnni Hansen
Henrik A Kolstad
Åse Marie Hansen
Anne Helene Garde
Author Affiliation
The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersoe Parkalle 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen. adl@nrcwe.dk.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 11 01; 43(6):578-586
Date
11-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Denmark
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Prospective Studies
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Shift Work Schedule - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Surveys and Questionnaires
Work Schedule Tolerance - physiology
Wounds and Injuries
Abstract
Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the association between night work or long work weeks and the risk of accidental injuries and (ii) test if the association is affected by age, sex or socioeconomic status. Methods The study population was drawn from the Danish version of the European Labour Force Survey from 1999-2013. The current study was based on 150 438 participants (53% men and 47% women). Data on accidental injuries were obtained at individual level from national health registers. We included all 20-59-year-old employees working =32 hours a week at the time of the interview. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative rates (RR) of accidental injuries as a function of night work or long work weeks (>40 hours per week) adjusted for year of interview, sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), industry, and weekly working hours or night work. Age, sex and SES were included as two-way interactions. Results We observed 23 495 cases of accidental injuries based on 273 700 person years at risk. Exposure to night work was statistically significantly associated with accidental injuries (RR 1.11, 99% CI 1.06-1.17) compared to participants with no recent night work. No associations were found between long work weeks (>40 hours) and accidental injuries. Conclusion We found a modest increased risk of accidental injuries when reporting night work. No associations between long work weeks and risk of accidental injuries were observed. Age, sex and SES showed no trends when included as two-way interactions.
PubMed ID
28914325 View in PubMed
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Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289905
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2017 Oct 18; 19(10):1336-1345
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-18-2017
Author
Gwyneth Anne MacMillan
John Chételat
Joel P Heath
Raymond Mickpegak
Marc Amyot
Author Affiliation
Centre for Northern Studies, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, CanadaH2V 2S9. m.amyot@umontreal.ca.
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2017 Oct 18; 19(10):1336-1345
Date
Oct-18-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Carbon Isotopes - analysis
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food chain
Fresh Water - chemistry
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Metals, Rare Earth - analysis
Mining
Nitrogen Isotopes - analysis
Seawater - chemistry
Abstract
Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?15N, ?13C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REEs generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (?REE for 15 elements
PubMed ID
28879355 View in PubMed
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Norwegian study on microbial source tracking for water quality control and pollution removal in constructed wetland treating catchment run-off.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289906
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2017 Sep; 76(5-6):1158-1166
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Lisa Paruch
Adam M Paruch
Anne-Grete Buseth Blankenberg
Ketil Haarstad
Trond Mæhlum
Author Affiliation
Division of Environment and Natural Resources, NIBIO - Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Pb 115, Aas NO-1431, Norway E-mail: adam.paruch@nibio.no.
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2017 Sep; 76(5-6):1158-1166
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Bacteria - classification - isolation & purification
Environmental monitoring
Feces - microbiology
Humans
Norway
Quality Control
Water - analysis
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution - analysis
Water Quality
Wetlands
Abstract
This study describes the first Norwegian microbial source tracking (MST) approach for water quality control and pollution removal from catchment run-off in a nature-based treatment system (NBTS) with a constructed wetland. The applied MST tools combined microbial analyses and molecular tests to detect and define the source(s) and dominant origin(s) of faecal water contamination. Faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and host-specific Bacteroidales 16 s rRNA gene markers have been employed. The study revealed that the newly developed contribution profiling of faecal origin derived from the Bacteroidales DNA could quantitatively distinguish between human and non-human pollution origins. Further, the outcomes of the MST test have been compared with the results of both physicochemical analyses and tests of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). A strong positive correlation was discovered between the human marker and PPCPs. Gabapentin was the most frequently detected compound and it showed the uppermost positive correlation with the human marker. The study demonstrated that the NBTS performs satisfactorily with the removal of E. coli but not PPCPs. Interestingly, the presence of PPCPs in the water samples was not correlated with high concentrations of E. coli. Neither has the latter an apparent correlation with the human marker.
PubMed ID
28876257 View in PubMed
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Changes in Daily Steps and Body Mass Index and Waist to Height Ratio during Four Year Follow-Up in Adults: Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289907
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 09 05; 14(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-05-2017
Author
Kasper Salin
Mirja Hirvensalo
Costan G Magnussen
Risto Telama
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Jorma Viikari
Olli Raitakari
Tuija Tammelin
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Sport & Heath Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylän, Finland. kasper.makela@jyu.fi.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 09 05; 14(9):
Date
09-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Waist-Height Ratio
Walking
Abstract
Aims: Over the study years, there was a significant increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in middle aged Finnish adults. Methods: Data were obtained from 1033 Finnish adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 2007 and 2011. Cohort study participants wore an Omron Walking Style One (HJ-152R-E) pedometer for five days and were grouped into those who increased, maintained and decreased their steps between 2007 and 2011. Paired samples t-test was used to compare body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) change values between the change groups in study years. Results: Among study population BMI and WtHR increase between study years was statistically significant (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
28872597 View in PubMed
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Incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and native Finns: a register-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289908
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017 12; 52(12):1523-1540
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2017
Author
Niina Markkula
Venla Lehti
Mika Gissler
Jaana Suvisaari
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, Clínica Alemana Universidad del Desarrollo, Av. Las Condes 12 438, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile. Niina.markkula@helsinki.fi.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2017 12; 52(12):1523-1540
Date
12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study.
A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use.
The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05).
The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28856385 View in PubMed
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Improved Housing Accessibility for Older People in Sweden and Germany: Short Term Costs and Long-Term Gains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289909
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 08 26; 14(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-26-2017
Author
Björn Slaug
Carlos Chiatti
Frank Oswald
Roman Kaspar
Steven M Schmidt
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences & Centre for Ageing and Supportive Environments (CASE), Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. bjorn.slaug@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 08 26; 14(9):
Date
08-26-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Germany
Housing - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Models, Theoretical
Public Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Sweden
Abstract
The physical housing environment is important to facilitate activities of daily living (ADL) for older people. A hindering environment may lead to ADL dependence and thus increase the need for home services, which is individually restricting and a growing societal burden. This study presents simulations of policy changes with regard to housing accessibility that estimates the potential impact specifically on instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL), usage of home services, and related costs. The models integrate empirical data to test the hypothesis that a policy providing funding to remove the five most severe environmental barriers in the homes of older people who are at risk of developing dependence in I-ADL, can maintain independence and reduce the need for home services. In addition to official statistics from state agencies in Sweden and Germany, we utilized published results from the ENABLE-AGE and other scientific studies to generate the simulations. The simulations predicted that new policies that remove potentially hindering housing features would improve I-ADL performance among older people and reduce the need for home services. Our findings suggest that a policy change can contribute to positive effects with regard to I-ADL independence among older people and to a reduction of societal burden.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28846592 View in PubMed
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Social Environment of Older People during the First Year in Senior Housing and Its Association with Physical Performance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289910
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 08 25; 14(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
08-25-2017
Author
Sinikka Lotvonen
Helvi Kyngäs
Pentti Koistinen
Risto Bloigu
Satu Elo
Author Affiliation
Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, Medical Research Center of Oulu, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. sinikka.lotvonen@student.oulu.fi.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 08 25; 14(9):
Date
08-25-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Exercise
Female
Finland
Hand Strength
Housing for the Elderly
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Social Environment
Abstract
Increasing numbers of older people relocate into senior housing when their physical performance declines. The change in social environment is known to affect their wellbeing, providing both challenges and opportunities, but more information on the relations between social and physical parameters is required. Thus, we elicited perceptions of the social environment of 81 older people (aged 59-93 years, living in northern Finland) and changes in it 3 and 12 months after relocation to senior housing. We also measured their physical performance, then analysed associations between the social and physical variables. Participants reported that they had freedom to do whatever they liked and generally had enough contact with close people (which have recognized importance for older people's wellbeing), but changes in their physical condition limited their social activity. Moreover, their usual walking speed, dominant hand's grip strength and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) significantly decreased. The pleasantness of the residential community, peer support, constraints on social activity imposed by changes in physical condition, meaningful activity at home and meeting close people all affected these physical performance parameters. Clearly, in addition to assessing physical performance and encouraging regular exercise, the complex interactions among social factors, physical performance and wellbeing should be considered when addressing individuals' needs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28841198 View in PubMed
Less detail

Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289911
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2017 Oct 18; 19(10):1235-1248
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-18-2017
Author
Martin Jiskra
Jan G Wiederhold
Ulf Skyllberg
Rose-Marie Kronberg
Ruben Kretzschmar
Author Affiliation
Soil Chemistry, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), ETH Zurich, CHN, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. martin.jiskra@gmail.com.
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2017 Oct 18; 19(10):1235-1248
Date
Oct-18-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Chemical Fractionation
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Humic Substances - analysis
Mercury - analysis - chemistry
Mercury Isotopes - analysis
Rivers - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Sweden
Taiga
Abstract
Terrestrial runoff represents a major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. In boreal forest catchments, such as the one in northern Sweden studied here, mercury bound to natural organic matter (NOM) represents a large fraction of mercury in the runoff. We present a method to measure Hg stable isotope signatures of colloidal Hg, mainly complexed by high molecular weight or colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) in natural waters based on pre-enrichment by ultrafiltration, followed by freeze-drying and combustion. We report that Hg associated with high molecular weight NOM in the boreal forest runoff has very similar Hg isotope signatures as compared to the organic soil horizons of the catchment area. The mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures (?199Hg and ?200Hg) measured in soils and runoff were in agreement with typical values reported for atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) and distinctly different from reported Hg isotope signatures in precipitation. We therefore suggest that most Hg in the boreal terrestrial ecosystem originated from the deposition of Hg0 through foliar uptake rather than precipitation. Using a mixing model we calculated the contribution of soil horizons to the Hg in the runoff. At moderate to high flow runoff conditions, that prevailed during sampling, the uppermost part of the organic horizon (Oe/He) contributed 50-70% of the Hg in the runoff, while the underlying more humified organic Oa/Ha and the mineral soil horizons displayed a lower mobility of Hg. The good agreement of the Hg isotope results with other source tracing approaches using radiocarbon signatures and Hg?:?C ratios provides additional support for the strong coupling between Hg and NOM. The exploratory results from this study illustrate the potential of Hg stable isotopes to trace the source of Hg from atmospheric deposition through the terrestrial ecosystem to soil runoff, and provide a basis for more in-depth studies investigating the mobility of Hg in terrestrial ecosystems using Hg isotope signatures.
PubMed ID
28825440 View in PubMed
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Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluoroalkyl substances in a remote population of Alaska Natives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289912
Source
Environ Pollut. 2017 Dec; 231(Pt 1):387-395
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Samuel Byrne
Samarys Seguinot-Medina
Pamela Miller
Vi Waghiyi
Frank A von Hippel
C Loren Buck
David O Carpenter
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Studies, 104 Memorial Hall, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY 13617, USA. Electronic address: sbyrne@stlawu.edu.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2017 Dec; 231(Pt 1):387-395
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska Natives
Animals
Diet
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Fatty Acids - blood
Fluorocarbons - blood
Food
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis - blood
Humans
Islands
Smegmamorpha - metabolism
Abstract
Many Alaska Native communities rely on a traditional marine diet that contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The indoor environment is also a source of POPs. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are present both in the traditional diet and the home indoor environment.
We assessed exposure to PBDEs and PFASs among residents of two remote Alaska Native villages on St. Lawrence Island. Ninespine stickleback (Pungitious pungitious) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were used to detect accumulation of these compounds in the local environment.
Concentrations of PBDEs and PFASs were measured in dust collected from 49 households on St. Lawrence Island, as well as in blood serum from 85 island residents. Resident ninespine stickleback and Alaska blackfish were used as sentinels to detect accumulation of PBDEs and PFASs in the food web.
Serum concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were elevated, despite low concentrations of PFASs in dust samples. Concentrations of PBDEs in dust and serum were similar to those from the contiguous United States. Statistical associations between dust and serum concentrations are apparent for a small number of PBDEs, suggesting a possible route of exposure. Predominant compounds were similar between human sera and stickleback; however, blackfish accumulated PFASs not found in either stickleback or human sera.
Household dust contributes to PBDE exposure, but not PFAS exposure. Elevated concentrations of long chain PFASs in serum are likely due to exposure from traditional foods. The presence of both PFASs and PBDEs in sentinel fish species suggests atmospheric deposition and bioaccumulation, as well as local environmental contamination.
PubMed ID
28818814 View in PubMed
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Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer-A nationwide, population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289913
Source
Cancer Epidemiol. 2017 10; 50(Pt A):166-172
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
10-2017
Author
E Moseholm
B Ø Lindhardt
Author Affiliation
Department of Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Nordsjælland Dyrehavevej 29, DK-3400 Hillerød, Denmark. Electronic address: elml@ssi.dk.
Source
Cancer Epidemiol. 2017 10; 50(Pt A):166-172
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology
Prevalence
Registries
Abstract
A new cancer patient pathway for patients presenting with non-specific signs and symptoms (NSSC-CPP) was implemented nationally in Denmark in 2012. This study aims to describe, on a national level, the characteristics of patients referred to the Danish NSSC-CPP, and to estimate the prevalence and distribution of cancers and other diagnosis in this population.
A population-based cohort study using the Danish national registries, including all patients who completed a diagnostic course through the NSSC-CPP between 2012 and 2015. Cancer prevalence is presented as the percentage of included patients who were diagnosed with cancer after completing a NSSC-CPP diagnostic course. Associations between patient characteristics and cancer diagnosis were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model.
The mean age of the 23,934 patients included in the analysis was 64.6 years and 47% where male. In total, 11% of all patients received a cancer diagnosis after completing a diagnostic course in the NSSC-CPP; the most common types were breast cancer (18%) hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue cancer (15%), and malignant melanoma (12%). The most common non-cancer diagnosis was non-specific symptoms/observation (54%). Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with cancer within six months following a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP.
The prevalence of cancer in the NSSC-CPP was 11%. The most common cancer diagnosis was breast cancer, hematopoietic and lymphoid cancer and malignant melanoma. A small proportion of patients receiving a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP were diagnosed with cancer in the six months following their NSSC-CPP course.
PubMed ID
28807680 View in PubMed
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Legislative change enabling use of early part-time sick leave enhanced return to work and work participation in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289914
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 09 01; 43(5):447-456
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-01-2017
Author
Eira Viikari-Juntura
Lauri J Virta
Johanna Kausto
Ilona Autti-Rämö
Kari-Pekka Martimo
Mikko Laaksonen
Taina Leinonen
Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen
Alex Burdorf
Svetlana Solovieva
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 40, 00251 Helsinki, Finland. eira.viikari-juntura@ttl.fi.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 09 01; 43(5):447-456
Date
09-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Employment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - therapy
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - rehabilitation
Propensity Score
Return to Work - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Sick Leave - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Abstract
Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of part-time sick leave at the early (first 12 weeks) stage of work disability due to mental disorder or musculoskeletal disease on sustained return to work (RTW) and overall work participation. Methods In a nation-wide register-based quasi-experimental study, we compared sustained RTW (ie, =28 consecutive days at work) and 2-year work participation between the part- and full-time sickness absence (SA) benefit groups (N=1878 in each group) using propensity-score matching. Persons who received partial or full SA benefit due to musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were eligible as cases or controls, respectively. Results A higher proportion showed sustained RTW after part- compared to full-time sick leave [absolute risk difference 8.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-10.9]. Moreover, the proportion of time at work was at a 10.5% higher level in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. The prevalence of full disability retirement was almost three-fold among the full- compared to part-time sick leave group, whereas partial disability retirement was 4.5-fold more prevalent in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. Conclusions The use of part-time sick leave during the first three months of SA enhances RTW and overall work participation during two years among persons with mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The prescription of part-time sick leave can be recommended at an early stage of work disability.
PubMed ID
28783202 View in PubMed
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National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289915
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 08 02; 18(1):87
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-02-2017
Author
Tuija Seppälä
Nelli Hankonen
Eveliina Korkiakangas
Johanna Ruusuvuori
Jaana Laitinen
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere, Linna, -33014, Tampere, FI, Finland. tuija.seppala@helsinki.fi.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 08 02; 18(1):87
Date
08-02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Exercise
Finland
Health Behavior
Health Policy
Health Promotion - methods
Healthy Diet
Humans
Occupational Health
Workplace
Abstract
Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose.
We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy.
A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%).
The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to identify neglected aspects in current policy, and to develop interventions based on recommendations, thus helping to increase the impact of policy papers.
Notes
ErratumIn: BMC Public Health. 2017 Sep 22;17 (1):736 PMID 28938882
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PubMed ID
28764754 View in PubMed
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Objectively measured physical activity patterns, sedentary time and parent-reported screen-time across the day in four-year-old Swedish children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289916
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 08 01; 18(1):69
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-01-2017
Author
Daniel Berglind
Per Tynelius
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. Daniel.Berglind@ki.se.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 08 01; 18(1):69
Date
08-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Exercise - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Motor Activity
Play and Playthings - psychology
Sedentary lifestyle
Sex Factors
Sweden
Television - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) improves health outcomes accumulating evidence suggests that sedentary time (ST), especially parent-reported screen-time, is associated with negative health outcomes in children. The aim of the present study is to describe levels and patterns of PA and ST across the day and week and activity pattern differences between the sexes, across all weekdays and time spent in and outside the preschool in four-year old children.
In total 899 four-year old Swedish children who had both complete questionnaire data on screen-time behaviors and objective activity variables and at least 4 days, including one weekend day, with more than 10 h of GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometer wear time data were included in the study. Patterns of PA and ST across the day and week and differences between sexes, weekdays vs. weekend days and time in preschool vs. time spent outside preschool were assessed.
Children engaged in 150 min (SD 73) and 102 min (SD 60) of screen-time on weekend days and weekdays, with 97% and 86% of children exceeding the 1 h guideline for screen-time on weekend days and weekdays, respectively. Accelerometer data showed that boys are more active and less sedentary compared with girls and both sexes were more active and less sedentary on weekdays compared with weekend days, while parent-reported data showed that boys engage in more screen-time compared with girls. Children accumulated 24.8 min (SD. 19) MVPA during preschool time and 26.6 min (SD. 16) outside preschool hours on weekdays, compared with 22.4 min (SD. 18) MVPA during preschool time and 25.3 min (SD. 22) outside preschool hours on weekend days.
Four-year old Swedish children display different activity patterns across the day on weekdays compared to weekend days, with preschool hours during weekdays being the most active segments and preschool hours during weekend days being the least active segments of the day.
Notes
ErratumIn: BMC Public Health. 2017 Sep 22;17 (1):736 PMID 28938882
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PubMed ID
28764730 View in PubMed
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Plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta: substantial increase in infection after establishment of European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289917
Source
J Fish Biol. 2017 Sep; 91(3):912-927
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
R Borgstrøm
J Trømborg
T O Haugen
B O Rosseland
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway.
Source
J Fish Biol. 2017 Sep; 91(3):912-927
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Cestoda - growth & development
Cestode Infections - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Cyprinidae - parasitology - physiology
Diphyllobothrium
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology - transmission
Host-Parasite Interactions
Introduced species
Lakes
Norway
Seasons
Trout - parasitology - physiology
Abstract
This study focuses on plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta from the subalpine lake Øvre Heimdalsvatn in south-central Norway. Salmo trutta was the only fish species in this lake until European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus was registered in 1969. The P. phoxinus population increased substantially in the following years. In contrast with the 1969-1972 period, when plerocercoids of D. ditremum were practically absent in S. trutta, there was a high prevalence and intensity of infection in the 2013 S. trutta samples. Because the life cycle of D. ditremum involves two larval stages, in copepods and salmonids and mature worms in piscivorous birds, such as mergansers and loons, a change in feeding ecology of S. trutta or changes in population densities of copepods, fish or birds might have influenced the infection pattern. No relationships between D. ditremum infection and muscle-tissue d15 N signature or Hg concentration were found, indicating that infection is not a result of piscivory or cannibalism. Furthermore, consumption of copepods by S. trutta during summer and autumn was low. On the other hand, the number of piscivorous birds has increased, probably due to the presence of P. phoxinus as a new and numerous prey. An increased number of final D. ditremum hosts may have produced a higher output of cestode eggs, resulting in more infected copepods that in turn are consumed by S. trutta. Indirectly, P. phoxinus may therefore have caused the observed increased infection in S. trutta and thereby imposed further negative effects on S. trutta in high mountain areas.
PubMed ID
28758219 View in PubMed
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Detection of Verticillium species in Swedish soils using real-time PCR.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289918
Source
Arch Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 199(10):1383-1389
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Georgios Tzelepis
Sarosh Bejai
Muhammad Naeem Sattar
Arne Schwelm
Jonas Ilbäck
Johan Fogelqvist
Christina Dixelius
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant Biology, Uppsala BioCenter, Linnean Center for Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7080, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden. Georgios.Tzelepis@slu.se.
Source
Arch Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 199(10):1383-1389
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Brassicaceae - microbiology
DNA Primers - genetics
DNA, Fungal - genetics
Plant Diseases - microbiology
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Sweden
Verticillium - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
Verticillium species are soilborne plant pathogens, responsible for big yield losses worldwide. Here, we report improved procedures to generate DNA from Verticillium species imbedded in farm soils. Using new genomic sequence information, primers for V. dahliae, V. albo-atrum, V. tricorpus, and V. longisporum were designed. In a survey of 429 samples from intensively farmed soil of two Swedish regions, only V. dahliae and V. longisporum were identified. A bias towards V. longisporum (40%) was seen in the south, whereas V. dahliae was more frequent in the western region (19%). Analyses of soil and leaf samples from 20 sugar beet fields, where foliar wilting had been observed, revealed V. dahliae DNA in all leaf and soil samples and V. longisporum in 18 soil samples, illustrating host choice and longevity of the V. longisporum microsclerotia. This study demonstrates the applicability of new molecular diagnostic tools that are important for growers of variable crops.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28741076 View in PubMed
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Common adult psychiatric disorders in Swedish primary care where most mental health patients are treated.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289919
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 06 30; 17(1):235
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-30-2017
Author
Jan Sundquist
Henrik Ohlsson
Kristina Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Author Affiliation
Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. jan.sundquist@med.lu.se.
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2017 06 30; 17(1):235
Date
06-30-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Anxiety Disorders - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - psychology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Feeding and Eating Disorders - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - psychology
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Prevalence
Primary Health Care
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The overall aim of this study is to present descriptive data regarding the treated prevalence of nine common psychiatric and substance use disorders in the first Primary Care Registry (PCR) in Sweden: Major Depression (MD), Anxiety Disorders (AD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Adjustment Disorder (AdjD), Eating Disorders (ED), Personality Disorder (PD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and Drug Abuse (DA).
We selected 5,397,675 individuals aged =18. We examined patterns of comorbidity among these disorders and explored the association between diagnoses in the PCR and diagnoses obtained from Hospital and Specialist care. We explored the proportion of patients with these nine disorders that are only treated in primary health care.
For four of our disorders, 80% or more of the cases were present only in the PCR: AdjD, DA, AD and MD. For two disorders (OCD and ED), 65-70% of cases were only found in the PCR. For three disorders (PD, AUD, and ADHD), 45-55% of the patients were only present in the PCR.
The PCR will, in the future, likely prove to be an important tool for studies in psychiatric epidemiology.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28666429 View in PubMed
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Exploring the core of crew resource management course: speak up or stay silent.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289920
Source
Int Marit Health. 2017; 68(2):126-132
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Roar Espevik
Evelyn Rose Saus
Olav Kjellvold Olsen
Author Affiliation
Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Laksevåg, Norway, Norway. roar.espevik@uib.no.
Source
Int Marit Health. 2017; 68(2):126-132
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Communication
Humans
Inservice training
Middle Aged
Naval Medicine
Norway
Abstract
The Norwegian Costal Express travels 24/7 along a coast considered as one of the most dangerous littoral areas of the world. It is crucial for safe voyage to speak up when one of the crewmembers discovers a discrepancy or vital new information to the passage that needs to be shared and acted upon. Crew resource management courses are intended to increase safety and we suggest that the key is to enhance the ability to speak up. Watch keepers valued a 4-h course intended to enhance the ability to speak up and improve listening skills as highly relevant (89%) and educational (69%). These high scores indicate that this type of training is necessary to improve safety.
PubMed ID
28660617 View in PubMed
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Work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predict disability after 28 years: a Finnish longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289921
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 09 01; 43(5):405-414
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-01-2017
Author
K C Prakash
Subas Neupane
Päivi Leino-Arjas
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Taina Rantanen
Monika E von Bonsdorff
Jorma Seitsamo
Juhani Ilmarinen
Clas-Håkan Nygård
Author Affiliation
School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, FI-33014, Tampere, Finland. Prakash.kc@uta.fi.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 09 01; 43(5):405-414
Date
09-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Aging - physiology
Biomechanical Phenomena - physiology
Disability Evaluation
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - physiopathology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Work - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Objectives We investigated whether the extent of biomechanical exposures and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predict disability in old age. Methods Participants of the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Aging Municipal Employees (FLAME) in 1981 (aged 44-58 years) responded to disability questionnaires in 2009 (1850 women and 1082 men). Difficulties in performing five activities of daily living (ADL) and seven instrumental ADL (IADL) were used to assess severity of disability (score range: 0-12, 0=no disability). Information on biomechanical exposures and job strain was collected by questionnaire at baseline. Adjusted prevalence proportion ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were modelled using mixed negative binomial regression with robust variance. The joint effect of two exposures was quantified using the concept of relative excessive risk due to interaction (RERI). Results The overall prevalence of disability (score: 1-12) was 46.7% (women: 41%; men: 57%). Compared to low-level exposures in an adjusted model, the PR of high baseline biomechanical exposures for each one unit increase in the disability score was 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.55) and PR of high job strain was 1.71 (95% CI 1.26-2.32). Associations were rather similar in gender-stratified analyses. Furthermore, the joint effect (high strain/high biomechanical) was multiplicative (women: PR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.45; men: PR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.44), but no additive effect was observed when fully adjusted. Conclusion High biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife were strongly associated with the severity of disability in later life. The workplace could serve as arena for preventive interventions regarding disability in old age.
PubMed ID
28653077 View in PubMed
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