A validated measure to gather patient feedback on physicians' empathy is not available in Swedish. The objective for this study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of a Swedish version of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure (widely used in English).
The CARE measure was translated into Swedish and tested on 554 unselected patients visiting physicians in two primary care clinics in northwestern Stockholm, Sweden.
Adequate translation, as well as reliability and validity of the Swedish CARE measure.
The Swedish CARE measure seemed to demonstrate high acceptability and face validity when consulting a physician. The mean CARE score 41.5 (SD 8.9) over all 10 item was not significantly influenced by seasonality, age or gender. Scores were somewhat negatively distributed, but corrected item-total correlations were high (0.86-0.91) suggesting homogeneity. Internal reliability was very high (Cronbach's alpha 0.975). Factor analysis implied a one-dimensional structure with factor loadings between 0.89 and 0.93.
The Swedish CARE measure appears to be psychometrically valid and reliable enough in physicians.
Cites: BMC Fam Pract. 2009 Jan 27;10 :10 PMID 19173724
Cites: Lancet. 2001 Mar 10;357(9258):757-62 PMID 11253970
Cites: Int J Qual Health Care. 2002 Apr;14(2):111-8 PMID 11954680
Cites: BMC Fam Pract. 2011 Jun 01;12:43 PMID 21631927
To analyze time trends in prevalence of hearing impairment in almost complete birth cohorts of 18-year old Swedish men from 1970s up to 2010.
Before 1999, all 18-year old men, in Sweden, were called for a compulsory conscription examination. In 1971-1999, the participation rate in audiometry was 73-95%. After 1999, when exemption from conscription was allowed, the participation rate gradually declined to 52% in 2004. Samples with participation rates below 50% (2005-2010) were considered non-representative and excluded from the analyses.
High-frequency hearing impairments (HFHI) 35-40 dB HL and =45 dB HL showed a decreasing trend over the observed period, from a prevalence of 2.9% (35-40 dB HL) and 3.8% (=45 dB HL) respectively in 1971 to 1.4% and 1.1% respectively in 2004. HFHI 25-30 dB HL, showed slow variations over time and decreased from 8.5% in 1971 to 3.2% in 1981 followed by an increase to 10.4% in 1992. After that year there was a decrease to 5.2% in 2004. The slow fluctuations affected only HFHI 25-30 dB HL, mainly at 6 kHz. The left ear was more affected than the right ear.
The most important observation was a decrease of HFHI 35-40 dB HL by 52% percent and of HFHI =45 dB HL by 71% between the years 1971 and 2004. The prevalence of HFHI 25-30 dB HL in young Swedish males fluctuated over a period of 33 years. Possible reasons for these trends and variations are discussed.
American Indian and Alaska Native men experience poorer sexual health than white men. Barriers related to their sex and racial identity may prevent them from seeking care; however, little is known about this population's use of sexual health services.
Sexual health service usage was examined among 923 American Indian and Alaska Native men and 5,322 white men aged 15-44 who participated in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression models explored differences in service use by race and examined correlates of use among American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Among men aged 15-19 and those aged 35-44, men with incomes greater than 133% of the federal poverty level, men with private insurance, those living in the Northeast and those living in rural areas, American Indians and Alaska Natives were more likely than whites to use STD or HIV services (odds ratios, 1.5-3.2). The odds of birth control service use did not differ by race. Differences in service use were found among American Indian and Alaska Native men: For example, those with a usual source of care had elevated odds of using sexual health services (1.9-3.4), while those reporting no recent testicular exam had reduced odds of using these services (0.3-0.4).
This study provides baseline data on American Indian and Alaska Native men's use of sexual health services. Research exploring these men's views on these services is needed to help develop programs that better serve them.
High throughput V3-16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data was used for evaluating differences between free-living (FL, 1.2?µm) bacterial communities, and their spatial variation between inner fjord (IF) and outer fjord (OF) of Kongsfjorden. A total of 4,454,142 high quality sequences obtained clustered into 32,058 OTUs. A majority of these sequences were affiliated with Proteobacteria (59.8%), followed by Bacteroidetes (29.02%), Firmicutes (5.9%), Actinobacteria (2.84%), Cyanobacteria (1.04%), and others (1.4%). The highest bacterial diversity was recorded in the inner fjord free-living (IF_FL) fraction whilst the lowest was observed in the outer fjord free-living (OF_FL) fraction. There was a clear spatial variation among FL bacterial communities, while PA communities remained similar at both sampling locations. The free-living bacterial community differs from particle-associated community and had relatively higher abundance (>4-fold) of Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas, while PA community was relatively more enriched with Balneatrix, Ulvibacter, Formosa, Candidatus Planktomarina, Sulfitobacter, Loktanella, members of SAR116, and Acidimicrobiales. In addition, two major bacterial taxa, Polaribacter and SAR11, co-occurred in both FL and PA fractions with varied proportions in IF and OF. These results suggest co-occurrence of PA specialist as well as generalist bacterial groups in Kongsfjorden. Further, high bacterial diversity in the IF_FL fraction indicates possible role of glacial inputs in modulating diversity of free-living bacterial community in Kongsfjorden.
A plastic anemia is a rare life-threatening disease. However, since the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the outcome has improved considerably, and the 5-year survival is reported to be 70-80% in selected patient cohorts. Yet, contemporary population-based data on incidence and survival are lacking. We performed a national retrospective study to determine the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with aplastic anemia diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011. Patients were included via the National Patient Registry, and diagnosed according to the Camitta criteria. In total, 257 confirmed cases were identified, with an overall incidence of 2.35 (95% CI: 2.06-2.64) cases per million inhabitants per year. Median age was 60 years (range: 2-92), and median follow up was 76 (0-193) months. Primary treatments included immunosuppressive therapy (63%), allogenic stem cell transplantation (10%), or single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy (27%). The 5-year survival was 90.7% in patients aged 0-18 years, 90.5% in patients aged 19-39 years, 70.7% in patients aged 40-59 years, and 38.1% in patients aged =60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age (both 40-59 and =60 age groups), very severe aplastic anemia and single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy were independent risk factors for inferior survival. In conclusion, younger aplastic anemia patients experience a very good long-term survival, while that of patients =60 years in particular remains poor. Apparently, the challenge today is to improve the management of older aplastic anemia patients, and prospective studies to address this medical need are warranted.
aDepartment of Clinical Sciences bDepartment of Nephrology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University cDepartment of Family Medicine, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Region Skåne, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Iraqi-born immigrants residing in Sweden are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia compared with native Swedes. Paradoxically, hypertension is less prevalent in this immigrant population. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in renal function and further if differences in blood pressure (BP) levels were associated with differences across ethnicities in renal function as a possible explanation to the paradox.
A population-based, cross-sectional study of men and women, born in Iraq or Sweden, aged 30-75 years was conducted in Malmö, Sweden, from 2010 to 2012. Blood samples were drawn, physical examinations performed and self-administrated questionnaires were assessed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from the Caucasian Asian Pediatric Adult cohort formula based on cystatin C.
Participants without history of cardiovascular disease born in Iraq (n?=?1214), irrespective of age and sex, presented with higher eGFR than participants born in Sweden (n?=?659), (96.5?ml/min per 1.73?m vs. 93.6, P?=?0.009). Furthermore, eGFR showed weaker association with BP in Iraqis than in Swedes, especially for SBP. The relationship was confirmed by a significant interaction between eGFR and country of birth (Pinteraction country of birth?×?eGFRcystatinC?=?0.004).
The current study shows differences across ethnicities in renal function and its associations with BP. More studies are needed to understand mechanisms contributing to BP regulation and renal function in populations of different ethnic backgrounds.
Six invasive meningococcal disease cases occurred among Scottish and Swedish nationals associated with the World Scout Jamboree (WSJ), an international mass gathering, held in Japan. The index case developed symptoms while returning home. The strains from all six cases were identical and seldom seen in Japan.
Over 33 000 participants from 155 countries attended WSJ. At the Jamboree site, participants of the North of Scotland's and Sweden's units camped within the same subcamp and kept the same schedule of events. No information was available about the Swedish and Scottish cases' close personal contact history.
Health Protection Scotland investigated Scottish cases, conducted active case finding, provided chemoprophylaxis, vaccinated close contacts and advised Scottish WSJ participants and contacts to seek medical care if they developed symptoms. The Public Health Agency of Sweden recommended chemoprophylaxis to all participants in Sweden. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) requested the Scout Association of Japan advise all participants to seek medical attention if they developed symptoms. MHLW shared information about the event with local authorities, medical associations, and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
No additional case related to WSJ has been reported. This outbreak highlighted the risk for international spread of invasive meningococcal disease at international mass gatherings.
Assessing risk, educating participants, enhancing surveillance and sharing timely information among related countries are significant for prevention and response against invasive meningococcal disease outbreaks at mass gatherings.
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2016 Nov 10;21(45): PMID 27918265
Background People with low socioeconomic status have higher blood pressure (BP), increasing their risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. We hypothesized that the gap in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, according to educational level, has decreased over time but, that economical vulnerability would confer higher BP. Methods A total of 4564 women and 4363 men aged 25-74 years participated in five population-based surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA study between 1994 and 2014 (participation rate 76.8-62.5%). Results SBP decreased by 10?mmHg in women and 4?mmHg in men, while DBP was unchanged. Treatment with antihypertensives increased in all but the youngest men. The prevalence of BP control in the population (
Hyperthyroidism is associated with alterations in metabolism that are currently only partially understood. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in metabolism associated with reinstatement of euthyroidism in Swedish patients.
Eighty metabolites in plasma were profiled from 10 subjects with Graves' disease (GD) at baseline and after 9 and 15 months of treatment to reinstate euthyroidism. Thyroid parameters, thyrotropin (TSH), TSH receptor antibodies, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine were followed. Main findings were validated in plasma from 20 subjects with GD at baseline and at three, six, and nine months. The study was conducted at the endocrinology clinic in Malmö, Sweden.
Euthyroidism was reinstated at three months, and thyroid status did not change further during the 15-month follow-up. This was paralleled by altered levels of 9/19 detected acylcarnitines (p?
Anti-HLA class I antibodies have been suggested as a possible cause of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to characterize maternal anti-HLA class I alloantibodies in suspected cases of FNAIT. The study population consisted of all nationwide referrals of neonates with suspected FNAIT to the National Unit for Platelet Immunology in Tromsø, Norway, during 1998-2009 (cases), and 250 unselected pregnancies originally included in a prospective study (controls). Inclusion criterion was a positive screening for maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies. Neonates with other identifiable causes of thrombocytopenia, including maternal anti-human platelet antigens (HPA) antibodies, were excluded. Ultimately, 50 cases with suspected FNAIT were compared with 60 controls. The median neonatal platelet count nadir among cases was 24×109/L (range 4-98×109/L). Five children (10%) were reported to have intracranial hemorrhage. Maternal and neonatal HLA class I genotype was available for 33 mother/child pairs (66%). Immunization was not tied to any particular HLA class I antigen. Using epitope mapping, we could demonstrate that the maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies were specific towards mismatched paternally-inherited fetal epitopes, with little reactivity towards any third-party epitopes. Antibody reactivity patterns were similar to those found among controls, although the mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) among cases were significantly higher. This study demonstrates the value of using data on HLA epitope expression, instead of HLA antigens, to examine alloimmune responses in connection with neonatal thrombocytopenia. Our findings support the idea that maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies are involved in FNAIT.
Parasite distributions are constantly changing due to climate change, local and global movement of animals and humans, as well as land use and habitat change. The trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a relatively recent invader of Canada, being first reported in eastern Canada in the 1930s and western Canada in the 1970s. However, historical records are scarce and its emergence is poorly understood. The establishment of this parasite in Canada provides an interesting opportunity to explore the use of population genetic approaches to help elucidate the invasion history of a relatively recently established helminth parasite. In this study, we compare the genetic diversity and population structure of a number of D. dendriticum populations from western and eastern Canada, and compare these with much longer established European populations. Two independent genetic marker systems were used; a microsatellite marker panel and a cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) mitochondrial (mt)DNA sequence marker. We found distinct differences in both genetic diversity and population structure of the different Canadian populations that provide insights into their invasion histories compared with the European populations. Two populations from British Columbia, Canada - Salt Spring and Vancouver Islands - are of low diversity, show evidence of a population bottleneck and are closely related to each other, suggesting a shared recent history of establishment. These west coast populations are otherwise most closely related to those from eastern Canada and western Europe, and in contrast are genetically divergent from those in Cypress Hills, Alberta, Canada. Although the Alberta parasite population is the most recently reported in Canada, being first identified there in the early 1990s, it was the most genetically diverse of those examined and showed a strong pattern of admixture of genotypes present in western and eastern Europe. Overall, our results are consistent with a model in which western Europe is likely the source of flukes on the east coast of Canada, which were then subsequently translocated to the west coast of Canada. The most recently reported D. dendriticum population in Canada appears to have a different history and likely has multiple origins.
The aim of this explorative study was to examine the effect of education on obesity using Mendelian randomization.
Participants (N=2011) were from the on-going nationally representative Young Finns Study (YFS) that began in 1980 when six cohorts (aged 30, 33, 36, 39, 42 and 45 in 2007) were recruited. The average value of BMI (kg/m2) measurements in 2007 and 2011 and genetic information were linked to comprehensive register-based information on the years of education in 2007. We first used a linear regression (Ordinary Least Squares, OLS) to estimate the relationship between education and BMI. To identify a causal relationship, we exploited Mendelian randomization and used a genetic score as an instrument for education. The genetic score was based on 74 genetic variants that genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have found to be associated with the years of education. Because the genotypes are randomly assigned at conception, the instrument causes exogenous variation in the years of education and thus enables identification of causal effects.
The years of education in 2007 were associated with lower BMI in 2007/2011 (regression coefficient (b)=-0.22; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]=-0.29, -0.14) according to the linear regression results. The results based on Mendelian randomization suggests that there may be a negative causal effect of education on BMI (b=-0.84; 95% CI=-1.77, 0.09).
The findings indicate that education could be a protective factor against obesity in advanced countries.
It has been suggested that experiencing serious life events may promote Type 1 diabetes in children. Studies in adults are lacking, as are studies on the interaction of life events with genetic factors. We aimed to investigate life events and the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and Type 2 diabetes while taking into account HLA genotype.
Analysis was based on 425 incident cases of LADA, 1417 incident cases of Type 2 diabetes and 1702 population-based controls recruited in Sweden between 2010 and 2016. Self-reported information on life events including conflicts, divorce, illness/accidents, death and financial problems experienced during the 5 years preceding diagnosis/index year was used. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression and adjusted for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity and education.
Overall there was no association between experience of any life event and either LADA (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68-1.08) or Type 2 diabetes (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.83-1.21). The results were similar for individual events as well as in separate analysis of men and women. Similar results were seen in more autoimmune LADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies > median) [OR (any life event) 0.88, 95% CI 0.64-1.21] and in LADA carriers of the high-risk HLADR4-DQ8 genotype (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.61-1.29).
Our findings indicate that experience of a serious life event, including the death of a family member, divorce or financial problems, is not associated with an increased risk of LADA, overall or in genetically susceptible individuals.
Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations between psychotropic medication use and NPS, cognition, and functional performance in persons with very mild or mild AD at baseline.
Data were collected as part of the prospective three-year study of home-dwelling persons with AD and their caregivers (n = 236 dyads). The associations between psychotropic medication use and clinical measures were analyzed using repeated measures Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models. NPS, cognition, daily functioning, and disease severity were assessed with NPI, CERAD-NB, or MMSE, ADCS-ADL, and CDR-SOB, respectively. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, and co-morbidities.
The prevalence of benzodiazepines and related medications increased from 16% to 24% (p = 0.031), antidepressants from 11% to 18% (p = 0.057), and antipsychotics from 4% to 16% (p = 0.011) in the three years following AD diagnosis. In adjusted multivariable analyses, a one-point increase in NPI increased the odds of using any psychotropic medication class by 4% (odds ratio (OR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.07). ADCS-ADL (1/OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) and CDR-SOB (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42) were associated with use of antipsychotics. CERAD-NB and MMSE were not associated with any psychotropic medication class use in the models.
Psychotropic medication use increased significantly in relation to increasing dependency in AD, especially with NPS. Furthermore, the use of antipsychotics increased with disease severity, and with decline in daily functioning. Cognitive performance was not associated with psychotropic medication use.
Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, 2 Tampa General Circle, 6th Floor, Tampa, FL 33579. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Marked racial and ethnic disparities exist in infant feeding in the United States. Based on a review of recent literature, this article examines current discrepancies between the 2020 Healthy People breastfeeding goals and current breastfeeding rates among women from different ethnic groups in the United States. We discuss maternal and child health outcomes associated with breastfeeding, and we review potential causes of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding outcomes in the United States, especially among non-Hispanic Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic/Latina populations. We conclude with an overview of best practices in interventions aimed to increase U.S. breastfeeding rates, such as adoption of the baby friendly hospital initiative (BHFI) and programs that utilize peer counseling strategies to increase breastfeeding promotion and support.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is affected in obesity and might influence metabolic risk. It is unclear what mechanisms cause elevated TSH in obesity. We aimed to investigate TSH status within the normal range and the association of TSH with degree of obesity and metabolic parameters in children with obesity.
A total of 3,459 children, aged 3.0-17.9 years, were identified in the Swedish Childhood Obesity Treatment Registry, BORIS. Age, gender, TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS), as well as variables of lipid and glucose metabolism were examined.
Children with high-normal TSH (>3.0 mU/L) (28.8%) had higher BMI SDS compared to children with low-normal TSH (
The European Nordic Countries are the most exposed to opioid-related deaths. Between April and October 2016, a series of forty lethal intoxications occurred in Sweden, in which the presence of the synthetic opioid acrylfentanyl was determined to be the main - or a contributing - cause of death. In the reported cases, the blood concentration of acrylfentanyl - mostly detected in combination with other drugs - ranged from 0.01ng/g to 5ng/g; victims were predominantly males (34 males and 6 females), and their age varied between 18 and 53 years. We further describe five cases, representative of the different drug administration route (nasal spray, tablets) and intentions (accidental or voluntary intoxication). Moreover, we address nine cases of non-lethal intoxication, in single (8 cases) or polydrug scenario (1 case). We discuss the present characteristics of the Swedish drug market for fentanyl-analogs in general and acrylfentanyl in particular, reporting a structural difficulty to effectively counteracting the appearance of unscheduled substances due to the constant turnover of new molecules on the recreational drug market.
Many people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) live alone in their own homes. There is a lack of knowledge about whether these individuals receive the same quality of diagnostics and treatment for AD as patients who are cohabiting.
To investigate the diagnostic work-up and treatment of community-dwelling AD patients who live alone.
We performed a cross-sectional cohort study based on data from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem). We studied patients diagnosed with AD between 2007 and 2015 (n?=?26,163). Information about drugs and comorbidities was acquired from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Swedish Patient Register.
11,878 (46%) patients lived alone, primarily older women. After adjusting for confounders, living alone was inversely associated with receiving computed tomography (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82-0.99), magnetic resonance imaging (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), and lumbar puncture (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.80-0.92). Living alone was also negatively associated with the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.76; 0.87), memantine (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.72; 0.83), and cardiovascular medication (OR 0.92; 0.86; 0.99). On the other hand, living alone was positively associated with the use of antidepressants (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.08; 1.22), antipsychotics (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.25; 1.58), and hypnotics and sedatives (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.02; 1.17).
Solitary living AD patients do not receive the same extent of care as those who are cohabiting.
Cites: Aging Ment Health. 2017 Oct;21(10 ):1065-1071 PMID 27267633
Cites: J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Jan;18(1):19-23 PMID 27639334