To explore pain screening in CPUP, a follow-up surveillance programme for people with cerebral palsy (CP), specifically to describe reported pain prevalence, localizations, patterns of distribution; to compare with studies using psychometrically sound assessment instruments; and to assess agreement between pain documented in CPUP and medical records.
Registry study of a population with CP, born 1993 to 2008, living in Skåne, Sweden in 2013. Descriptive data, cross-tabulations, and chi-square tests to characterize and compare the study groups. Kappa analysis to test the concordance between register and medical record reports on pain.
Pain was reported by 185 out of 497 children (37%; females 40%, males 35%). Level V in both Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) was associated with highest prevalence of pain (50% and 54%), and level I with lowest prevalence of pain (30% and 32%). Pain was most frequent in dyskinetic CP (46%) and least frequent in unilateral spastic CP (33%). Feet and knees were the dominant localizations. Fair-moderate agreement (kappa 0.37, prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa [PABAK] 0.44) was found between documented pain in CPUP and medical records, although more seldom recognized in medical records.
The distribution of pain between CP subtypes, functional levels, sex, and age in CPUP is concordant with previous population-based studies, indicating the validity of the CPUP pain screening. Despite this, further clinical evaluation with extended pain assessments and pain management were largely neglected in children reporting chronic pain.
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase plasma protein protecting tissues from oxidative damage. It exists in 2 variant alleles (hp1/hp2) giving rise to 3 protein isoforms with different biochemical properties and efficiency to limit oxidative stress. We previously found that hp2 variant is associated with stroke risk in the patients with carotid stenosis and the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events in a general population cohort. This study examined the hypothesis that Hp genotype is associated with general cardiovascular risk in patients with stroke.
Hp was genotyped in SAM study (Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory, n=378). A total of 1426 individuals ascertained from a nationally representative cross-sectional health survey served as population controls.
Hp genotype frequencies were 15.6% (hp1-1), 44.2% (hp1-2), and 40.2% (hp2-2) in patients with stroke. During a mean of 7.5-year follow-up after first-ever stroke, hp2 carriers had a substantially higher rate of cardiac deaths (24.5% versus 8.5%; P=0.006) and a trend toward more fatal strokes (23.5% versus 13.6%; P=0.122). The combined risk of ischemic cardiovascular deaths was 2.4-fold higher among hp2 carriers (95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.43) after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors.
Hp2 allele is associated with premature ischemic cardiovascular deaths after first-ever ischemic stroke.
Anticoagulant treatment is effective for preventing recurrent ischemic strokes in patients who have atrial fibrillation. This benefit is paid by a small increase of hemorrhages. Anticoagulant-related hemorrhages seem to increase with age, but there are few studies showing whether the benefits of treatment persist in old age.
For this observational study, 4 different registers were used, among them Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Register. Patients who have had a recent ischemic stroke, were 80 to 100 years of age, and had atrial fibrillation, were included from 2006 through 2013. The patients were stratified into 3 age groups: 80 to 84, 85 to 89, and =90 years of age. Information on stroke severity, risk factors, drugs, and comorbidities was gathered from the registers. The patients were followed with respect to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, other hemorrhages, or death.
Of all 23?356 patients with atrial fibrillation, 6361 (27%) used anticoagulants after an ischemic stroke. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with less recurrent ischemic stroke in all age groups. Hemorrhages increased most in the =90-year age group, but this did not offset the overall beneficial effect of the anticoagulant. Apart from age, no other cardiovascular risk factor or comorbidity was identified that influenced the risk of anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. Drugs other than anticoagulants did not influence the incidence of major hemorrhage.
Given the patient characteristics in this study, there is room for more patients to be treated with anticoagulants, without hemorrhages to prevail. In nonagenarians, hemorrhages increased somewhat more, but this did not affect the overall outcome in this age stratum.
We investigated which aneurysm-related risk factors for rupture best discriminate ruptured versus unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIAs) in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with multiple sIAs.
We included 264 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with a ruptured sIA and at least one additional unruptured sIA, from the Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm database from 2003 to 2015. These patients had 268 ruptured and 445 unruptured sIAs. Angiograms of the 713 sIAs were reevaluated for multiple variables describing aneurysm shape. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were used to calculate odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the independent risk factors for aneurysm rupture.
This nationwide observational study aimed to investigate how socioeconomic status is associated with risk of stroke recurrence and how possible associations change over time.
This study included 168?295 patients, previously independent in activities of daily living, with a first-ever stroke in the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) 2001 to 2012. Riksstroke was linked with Statistics Sweden as to add individual information on education and income. Subdistribution hazard regression was used to analyze time from 28 days after first stroke to stroke recurrence, accounting for the competing risk of other causes of death.
Median time of follow-up was 3.0 years. During follow-up, 23?560 patients had a first recurrent stroke, and 53?867 died from other causes. The estimated cumulative incidence of stroke recurrence was 5.3% at 1 year, and 14.3% at 5 years. Corresponding incidence for other deaths were 10.3% and 30.2%. Higher education and income were associated with a reduced risk of stroke recurrence. After adjusting for confounding variables, university versus primary school education returned a hazard ratio of 0.902; 95% confidence interval, 0.864 to 0.942, and the highest versus the lowest income tertile a hazard ratio of 0.955; 95% confidence interval, 0.922 to 0.989. The risk of stroke recurrence decreased during the study period, but the inverse effect of socioeconomic status on risk of recurrence did not change significantly.
Despite a declining risk of stroke recurrence over time, the differences in recurrence risk between different socioeconomic groups remained at a similar level in Sweden during 2001 to 2012.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity, in particular stroke. Despite good evidence for the reduction of stroke risk with anticoagulant therapy, there remains a significant undertreatment. The main aim of the current study is to investigate whether a clinical decision support tool for stroke prevention (CDS) integrated in the electronic health record can improve adherence to guidelines for stroke prevention in patients with AF.
We will conduct a cluster randomized trial where 43 primary care clinics in the county of Östergötland, Sweden (population 444,347), will be randomized to be part of the CDS intervention or serve as controls. The CDS will alert responsible physicians of patients with AF and increased risk for thromboembolism according to the CHA2DS2VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age = 74 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/TIA/thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category (i.e. female sex)) algorithm without anticoagulant therapy. The primary end point will be adherence to guidelines after 1 year.
The present study will investigate whether a clinical decision support system integrated in an electronic health record can increase adherence to guidelines regarding anticoagulant therapy in patients with AF.
To assess the associations of blood biomarkers of carbohydrate, lipid, and apolipoprotein metabolisms with the future risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
In the Apolipoprotein-related MOrtality RISk study, we enrolled 636,132 men and women during 1985-1996 in Stockholm, Sweden, with measurements of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were either directly measured or calculated from total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apoA-I. The cohort was followed until the end of 2011. We used Cox models and mixed-effects models to, first, estimate the associations between these biomarkers and ALS incidence and, second, to assess the changes of these biomarkers during the 20 years before ALS diagnosis.
One-unit increase of LDL-C (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.27), apoB (HR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.17-2.42), and apoB/apoA-I ratio (HR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.29-2.78) was associated with a higher incidence of ALS. High glucose level (=6.11mmol/L) was associated with a lower incidence (HR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.42-0.93), whereas high LDL-C/HDL-C (=3.50; HR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96) and high apoB/apoA-I (=0.90 for men, =0.8 for women; HR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.04-1.90) ratios were associated with a higher incidence. During the 10 years before diagnosis, ALS patients had increasing levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, apoB, and apoA-I, whereas gradually decreasing levels of LDL-C/HDL-C and apoB/apoA-I ratios.
Alterations in the carbohydrate, lipid, and apolipoprotein metabolisms are associated with ALS risk and may serve as prodromal symptoms decades before ALS diagnosis. The imbalance between apoB and apoA-I as well as between LDL-C and HDL-C may be an etiological mechanism for ALS and needs to be further studied. Ann Neurol 2017;81:718-728.
The roles of different dietary proteins in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary proteins with the risk of incident T2D in Finnish men from the prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The study included 2332 men aged 42-60 years at the baseline examinations in 1984-1989. Protein intakes were calculated from 4-d dietary records. Incident T2D was determined by self-administered questionnaires, fasting blood glucose measurements, 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests, and with national registers. The multivariable-adjusted risk of T2D on the basis of protein intakes was compared by the Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). During the mean follow-up of 19·3 years, 432 incident T2D cases were identified. Total, animal, meat or dairy product protein intakes were not associated with risk of T2D when the potential confounders were accounted for. Plant (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile HR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·42, 1·00; P trend 0·04) and egg (HR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·44, 1·00; P trend 0·03) protein intakes were associated with a decreased risk of T2D. Adjustments for BMI, plasma glucose and serum insulin slightly attenuated associations. Replacing 1 % energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0, 11) increased risk of T2D, but adjustment for fibre intake attenuated the association. Replacing 1 % of energy from animal protein with energy from plant protein was associated with 18 % (95 % CI 0, 32) decreased risk of T2D. This association remained after adjusting for BMI. In conclusion, favouring plant and egg proteins appeared to be beneficial in preventing T2D.
Prenatal low vitamin D may have consequences for bone health. By means of a nationwide mandatory vitamin D fortification programme, we examined the risk of fractures among 10-18-year-old children from proximate birth cohorts born around the date of the termination of the programme. For all subjects born in Denmark during 1983-1988, civil registration numbers were linked to the Danish National Patient Registry for incident and recurrent fractures occurring at ages 10-18 years. Multiplicative Poisson models were used to examine the association between birth cohort and fracture rates. The variation in fracture rates across birth cohorts was analysed by fitting an age-cohort model to the data. We addressed the potential modification of the effect of vitamin D availability by season of birth. The risk of fractures was increased among both girls and boys who were born before the vitamin D fortification terminated in 1985 (rate ratio (RR) exposed v. non-exposed girls: 1
15 (95 % CI 1
20); RR exposed v. non-exposed boys: 1
11 (95 % CI 1
14). However, these associations no longer persisted after including the period effects. There was no interaction between season of birth and vitamin D availability in relation to fracture risk. The study did not provide evidence that prenatal exposure to extra vitamin D from a mandatory fortification programme of 1
25 Âµg vitamin D/100 g margarine was sufficient to influence the risk of fractures in late childhood, regardless of season of birth. Replication studies are needed.
The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) was introduced in the North Denmark Region in March 2013. NIPT is offered as an alternative to invasive tests if the combined first trimester risk of trisomy 21 (T21) is = 1:300. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NIPT implementation among high-risk pregnancies in a region with existing first-trimester combined screening for T21. The primary objective was to examine the effect on the invasive testing rate.
This was a retrospective observational study including high-risk singleton pregnancies in the North Denmark Region. The women were included in two periods, i.e. before and after the implementation of NIPT, respectively. Group 1 (before NIPT): n = 253 and Group 2 (after NIPT): n = 302.
After NIPT implementation, the invasive testing rate fell from 70% to 48% (p
The epidemiology of children or adolescents admitted to a Scandinavian trauma centre is largely unknown. The aim of this paper was to describe the epi-demiology and severity of potentially severely injured children and adolescents admitted to a university hospital trauma centre.
This was a descriptive study of all children and adolescents aged 0-17 admitted to the university level trauma centre at Odense University Hospital, Denmark in the 2002-2011 period. Data were extracted from the Southern Danish Trauma Register and from medical records.
A total of 950 children and adolescents were included. The median age was 13 (range: 0-17) years. Boys accounted for 60.6% of the cases. Accidents accounted for 97.2%, violence 1.4% and self-inflicted injuries 0.4%. More than three fourths of the injuries occurred either in traffic or at home. The occurrence was greatest in the summer (34.0%), during weekends (48.9%) and in the hours between 12.00 and 20.00 (59.2%). Overall, 58.5% of the in-juries were due to traffic. Of these injuries, 39.7% were in-juries suffered by passengers in motor vehicles, 27.5% drivers/passengers of a scooter/MC, 21.8% bicyclists and 10.3% pedestrians. The median Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Abbreviated Injury Scale was 4 (range: 1-75) and 2 (range: 1-6), respectively. Head/face injuries accounted for 36.5% and injuries to the extremities for 30.9% of all injuries. A total of 153 (16.1%) suffered from severe injuries (ISS > 15). Overall, 49 (5.2%) died due to their injuries.
Based on a local trauma register, we described the epidemiology and severity of potentially se-verely injured children and adolescents admitted to a university trauma centre.
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between "waiting time to onset of municipal rehabilitation", "length of municipal rehabilitation" and the attained level of function four months after the hip fracture.
Among a consecutive series of 156 patients, the 116 patients who were recommended a municipal rehabilitation sequence after discharge were included. The expos-ures were waiting time in days and duration in hours of the municipal rehabilitation. The outcome was lower-extremity functional level as measured with the Short Physical Per-form-ance Battery. Effects were assessed with non-parametric gamma coefficients.
The median waiting time to initiation of rehabilitation was ten days. A weak and insignificant correlation was observed between waiting time and outcome at four months, and a statistically significant correlation was recorded between duration of municipal rehabilitation and outcome, also at four months. No marked differences in these results were found when subgrouped by pre-fracture level of function as assessed with the Barthel-20 index.
Waiting times from hospital discharge to initiation of municipal rehabilitation seems not to correlate with functional level four months after the hip fracture. In contrast, the amount of municipal rehabilitation time does correlate with a better functional level four months after the hip fracture. Furthermore, large-sample studies are warranted to clarify this relationship.
In 2005, a nationwide programme on hearing screening in newborns was launched in Denmark. The purpose of the programme was to ensure early detection of hearing loss in newborns and to institute subsequent treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether the Central Denmark Region observes the guidelines of the Danish Health and Medicines Authority (DHMA) for neonatal hearing. In addition, we wanted to identify factors that may influence screening density positively or negatively.
Data were collected retrospectively from patient record forms completed in the 2006-2014 period. For selected periods, patient record forms were examined man-ually.
We recorded an annual increase in average screening density; from 88.6% in 2006 to 94.8% in 2013. Furthermore, in 2006, 89.5% had completed the hearing screening programme within 30 days and in 2014 this figure had increased to 99%. The average time to diagnosis decreased from 3.5 months in 2006 to 0.7 months in 2013. A strike among healthcare professionals in 2008 and the launch of electronic patient record (EPJ) forms in 2012 had a negative impact on screening density. Due to EPJ errors, the hearing screening density occasionally appeared to be lower than the actual number of newborns screened. In contrast, advanced training of primary screening staff, the establishment of close relations with the primary screening units in hospitals and the implementation of "Maternity packages" improved screening density.
Based on our results, our conclusion is that the Central Denmark Region observes the DHMA guidelines on neonatal hearing screening in Denmark.
There is growing concern about the long-term neurologic effects of prenatal exposure to maternal overweight and obesity. The causes of epilepsy are poorly understood and, in more than 60% of the patients, no definitive cause can be determined.
To investigate the association between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of childhood epilepsy and examine associations between obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications and risks of childhood epilepsy.
A population-based cohort study of 1?441?623 live single births at 22 or more completed gestational weeks in Sweden from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2011, was conducted. The diagnosis of epilepsy as well as obesity-related pregnancy and neonatal complications were based on information from the Sweden Medical Birth Register and National Patient Register. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after adjusting for maternal age, country of origin, educational level, cohabitation with partner, height, smoking, maternal epilepsy, and year of delivery. Data analysis was conducted from June 1 to December 15, 2016.
Risk of childhood epilepsy.
Of the 1?421?551 children born between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, with covariate information available, 7592 (0.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy through December 31, 2012. Of these 3530 (46.5%) were female. The overall incidence of epilepsy in children aged 28 days to 16 years was 6.79 per 10?000 child-years. Compared with offspring of normal-weight mothers (BMI 18.5 to
In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which approximated measurements in three seasons (autumn, winter, spring). Dietary and supplement intake, physical activity, BMI and parathyroid hormone were likewise measured at each time point. In all, eleven SNP in four vitamin D-related genes: Cytochrome P450 subfamily IIR1 (CYP2R1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped. We found minor alleles of CYP2R1 rs10500804, and of GC rs4588 and rs7041 to be associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across the three seasons (all P
Evidence indicates that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of gallstone disease, which is strongly associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer. The association between coffee consumption and gallbladder cancer incidence was examined in a prospective cohort study of 72 680 Swedish adults (aged 45?-?83 years) who were free of cancer and reported their coffee consumption at baseline. Gallbladder cancers were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Statistical tests were two-sided. During 967 377 person-years of follow-up, 74 gallbladder cancer case patients were identified. Compared with consumption of one or less cups of coffee per day, the multivariable hazard ratios were 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 1.41) for two cups per day, 0.50 (95% CI?=?0.24 to 1.06) for three cups per day, and 0.41 (95% CI?=?0.20 to 0.83) for four or more cups per day. In conclusion, coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of gallbladder cancer.
Androgen exposure of the fetus during gestation plays an important role in human physiology and pathophysiology, but assessment of androgens, in particular dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in human umbilical cord blood is technically challenging. The aim of this study was to assess umbilical cord androgen levels, including DHT, at birth by a highly sensitive assay, and study their association with sex of the infant, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and gestational age at delivery. Swedish infants (27 girls, 26 boys) were recruited at maternity care clinics in Southern Sweden. Umbilical cord blood levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, testosterone and DHT at delivery were assessed by a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Cord blood levels of DHT were 2.4-fold higher in boys (median 27.8pg/mL) than in girls (11.5pg/mL), while the sex difference was less pronounced for testosterone (1.3-fold higher in boys) and non-significant for DHEA and androstenedione. Gestational age at delivery associated inversely with DHT levels in boys and with DHEA levels in girls. There was a strong inverse correlation between SHBG and DHEA in both sexes, while there were no associations between SHBG and testosterone or DHT levels. In conclusion, using state of the art technology, we report that there is a pronounced sexual dimorphism in human umbilical cord blood DHT levels. The possibility to assess a complete androgen profile in human cord blood opens up for future increased understanding of the biological impact of the fetal androgen milieu.
Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses showed season-dependent changes in the morphofunctional parameters of the structural components of the thyroid gland in males of indigenous (Yakuts, Evens, and Evenkis) and non-indigenous (Russian and Ukrainians) populations of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in different seasons. External and internal diameters of follicles and area of the colloid in the thyroid gland was higher in non-indigenous than in non-indigenous individuals both in summer and in winter. The height of thyroid epithelium, areas of thyrocytes and their nuclei, and nucleocytoplasmic index of the thyroid gland were lower in men from non-indigenous population in summer, and higher in winter than in non-indigenous inhabitants. Transition of a part of follicular apparatus of the thyroid gland to enhanced activity during winter was less pronounced in indigenous males in comparison with non-indigenous subjects.
Background: Whole-grain consumption seems to be cardioprotective in adults, but evidence in children is limited.Objective: We investigated whether intakes of total whole grain and dietary fiber as well as specific whole grains were associated with fat mass and cardiometabolic risk profile in children.Methods: We collected cross-sectional data on parental education, puberty, diet by 7-d records, and physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, fat mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure in 713 Danish children aged 8-11 y. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin, and glucose. Linear mixed models included puberty, parental education, physical activity, and intakes of energy, fruit and vegetables, saturated fat, and n-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.Results: Median (IQR) whole-grain and dietary fiber intakes were 52 g/d (35-72 g/d) and 17 g/d (14-22 g/d), respectively. Fourteen percent of children were overweight or obese and most had low-risk cardiometabolic profiles. Dietary whole-grain and fiber intakes were not associated with fat mass index but were inversely associated with serum insulin [both P
To explore trends in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence, age and stage at diagnosis, treatment and survival in Norway from 1961 to 2010.
From 1961 to 2010, 2233 cases of vulvar SCC were extracted from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Data on age at diagnosis, tumor morphology, stage of the disease and treatment were analyzed. Age-standardized incidence rates, adjusted to the Norwegian standard population, were computed. Relative survival was calculated as a ratio of the observed survival in the study population over the expected survival in the background population. Multivariate Cox model was fitted to estimate hazard ratios.
The overall incidence of vulvar SCC increased >2.5 fold (from 1.70 to 4.66 per 100,000 women/year; P