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The association between relevant co-morbidities and prevalent as well as incident heart failure in patients with atrial fibrillation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303045
Source
J Cardiol. 2018 07; 72(1):26-32
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
Per Wändell
Axel C Carlsson
Martin J Holzmann
Johan Ärnlöv
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. Electronic address: per.wandell@ki.se.
Source
J Cardiol. 2018 07; 72(1):26-32
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology
Cardiomyopathies - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Depression - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Heart Failure - epidemiology
Heart Valve Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a serious complication in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
To study associations between relevant co-morbidities and CHF in patients with AF.
Study population included all adults (n=12,283) =45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centers in Sweden 2001-2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between co-morbidities, and prevalent CHF. In a subsample (n=9424), (excluding patients with earlier CHF), Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% CIs for the association between co-morbidities, and a first hospital diagnosis of CHF, after adjustment for age and socio-economic factors.
During 5.4 years' follow-up (standard deviation 2.5), 2259 patients (24.0%; 1135 men, 21.8%, and 1124 women, 26.7%) were diagnosed with CHF. Patients with hypertension were less likely to have CHF, while a diagnosis of coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was consistently associated with CHF among men and women. CHF was more common among women with depression. The relative fully adjusted risk of incident CHF was increased for the following diseases in men with AF: valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes; and for the following diseases in women: valvular heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and COPD. The corresponding risk was decreased among women for hypertension.
In this clinical setting we found hypertension to be associated with a decreased risk of CHF among women; valvular heart disease and diabetes to be associated with an increased risk of CHF in both sexes; and cardiomyopathy to be associated with an increased risk of CHF among men.
PubMed ID
29358024 View in PubMed
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Artistic creativity and risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression: a Swedish population-based case-control study and sib-pair analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303027
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2018 06; 212(6):370-376
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
J H MacCabe
A Sariaslan
C Almqvist
P Lichtenstein
H Larsson
S Kyaga
Author Affiliation
Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology and Neuroscience,Kings College London,UK.
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2018 06; 212(6):370-376
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Creativity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Many studies have addressed the question of whether mental disorder is associated with creativity, but high-quality epidemiological evidence has been lacking.AimsTo test for an association between studying a creative subject at high school or university and later mental disorder.
In a case-control study using linked population-based registries in Sweden (N = 4 454 763), we tested for associations between tertiary education in an artistic field and hospital admission with schizophrenia (N = 20 333), bipolar disorder (N = 28 293) or unipolar depression (N = 148 365).
Compared with the general population, individuals with an artistic education had increased odds of developing schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% CI = [1.69; 2.12]) bipolar disorder (odds ratio = 1.62 [1.50; 1.75]) and unipolar depression (odds ratio = 1.39 [1.34; 1.44]. The results remained after adjustment for IQ and other potential confounders.
Students of artistic subjects at university are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression in adulthood.Declaration of interestNone.
PubMed ID
29697041 View in PubMed
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Invasive Dental Treatment and Risk for a First Myocardial Infarction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303029
Source
J Dent Res. 2018 09; 97(10):1100-1105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
E Nordendahl
B Kjellström
C M Fored
A Ekbom
T Svensson
A Norhammar
A Gustafsson
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
J Dent Res. 2018 09; 97(10):1100-1105
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Dental Care - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Invasive dental treatment is suggested to be associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that the incidence of a first myocardial infarction (MI) within 4 wk after invasive dental treatments is increased. A registry-based case-control study within nationwide health care and population registries in Sweden was performed. The case patients included 51,880 individuals with a first fatal or nonfatal MI between January 2011 and December 2013. For each case, 5 control subjects, free from prior MI and matched for age, sex, and geographic area of residence, were randomly selected from the national population registry through risk set sampling with replacement, resulting in 246,978 control subjects. Information on dental treatments was obtained from the Dental Health Register, and the procedures were categorized into invasive dental treatments or other dental treatments. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for MI with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition to the matching variables, adjustments were made for the following confounders: diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD drug treatment, education, and income. The mean age for case patients and controls subjects was 72.6 ± 13.0 y and 72.3 ± 13.0 y, respectively. Case patients more often had previous CVD (49% vs. 23%; P
PubMed ID
29634394 View in PubMed
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Abdominal symptoms and cancer in the abdomen: prospective cohort study in European primary care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303030
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2018 05; 68(670):e301-e310
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Knut Holtedahl
Peter Hjertholm
Lars Borgquist
Gé A Donker
Frank Buntinx
David Weller
Tonje Braaten
Jörgen Månsson
Eva Lena Strandberg
Christine Campbell
Joke C Korevaar
Ranjan Parajuli
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2018 05; 68(670):e301-e310
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abdominal Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Abdominal Pain - etiology - pathology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Belgium - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Early Detection of Cancer
Female
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage - etiology - pathology
Hematuria - etiology - pathology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Primary Health Care
Prospective Studies
Referral and Consultation
Scotland - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Weight Loss
Young Adult
Abstract
Different abdominal symptoms may signal cancer, but their role is unclear.
To examine associations between abdominal symptoms and subsequent cancer diagnosed in the abdominal region.
Prospective cohort study comprising 493 GPs from surgeries in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Scotland, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
Over a 10-day period, the GPs recorded consecutive consultations and noted: patients who presented with abdominal symptoms pre-specified on the registration form; additional data on non-specific symptoms; and features of the consultation. Eight months later, data on all cancer diagnoses among all study patients in the participating general practices were requested from the GPs.
Consultations with 61 802 patients were recorded and abdominal symptoms were documented in 6264 (10.1%) patients. Malignancy, both abdominal and non-abdominal, was subsequently diagnosed in 511 patients (0.8%). Among patients with a new cancer in the abdomen (n = 251), 175 (69.7%) were diagnosed within 180 days after consultation. In a multivariate model, the highest sex- and age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was for the single symptom of rectal bleeding (HR 19.1, 95% confidence interval = 8.7 to 41.7). Positive predictive values of >3% were found for macroscopic haematuria, rectal bleeding, and involuntary weight loss, with variations according to age and sex. The three symptoms relating to irregular bleeding had particularly high specificity in terms of colorectal, uterine, and bladder cancer.
A patient with undiagnosed cancer may present with symptoms or no symptoms. Irregular bleeding must always be explained. Abdominal pain occurs with all types of abdominal cancer and several symptoms may signal colorectal cancer. The findings are important as they influence how GPs think and act, and how they can contribute to an earlier diagnosis of cancer.
PubMed ID
29632003 View in PubMed
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Long-term unprocessed and processed red meat consumption and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study of women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303034
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar; 58(2):665-672
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Joanna Kaluza
Holly Harris
Anders Linden
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171-77, Stockholm, Sweden. joanna_kaluza@sggw.pl.
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar; 58(2):665-672
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Meat Products - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology
Red Meat - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Limited studies have examined red meat consumption in relation to risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and none have examined the impact of long-term diet on COPD risk. We sought to investigate the association between long-term red meat consumption and risk of COPD.
The population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort included 34,053 women, aged 48-83 years, followed for the current analyses from 2002 to 2014. Unprocessed and processed red meat consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1987 and 1997. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Over a mean follow-up of 11.6 years (2002-2014; 393,831 person-years), 1488 COPD cases were ascertained via linkage to the Swedish health registers. A positive association between long-term processed red meat (average from 1987 to 1997) and risk of COPD was observed. In contrast, no association was observed with unprocessed red meat with corresponding HRs of 1.36 (95% CI 1.03-1.79) for processed and 0.87 (95% CI 0.74-1.02) for unprocessed red meat among women who consumed =?50 g/day compared to
PubMed ID
29532164 View in PubMed
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Prevention Models of Childhood Obesity in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303009
Source
Obes Facts. 2018; 11(3):257-262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2018
Author
Carl-Erik Flodmark
Source
Obes Facts. 2018; 11(3):257-262
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Models, organizational
Overweight - epidemiology - therapy
Pediatric Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Preventive Medicine - methods - organization & administration
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Weight Gain
Weight Reduction Programs - methods - organization & administration
Abstract
The impact of childhood obesity on the Swedish Health Care system is described. Childhood Obesity and Diabetes Type 2 is increasing for the last 10 years, but not Diabetes Type 1. Thus, prevention is needed. How to define prevention of obesity? Could treatment of childhood obesity be regarded as prevention of adult obesity? Of course it could, but we are lacking a long term follow-up from childhood to adulthood. However, we know that childhood obesity is a risk factor for adult disease. But we need long-lasting results in children to being able to state that we have prevented adult obesity. What about treatment of children with overweight, i.e. defined as the less severe level of an increased body weight as opposed to obesity? There are few if any studies restricting the treatment only to overweight children. Normally, obese children are treated, and some overweight children are added usually to increase the study sample. Then of course promotion of a healthy lifestyle could be of major interest. Finally, the traditional concept of primary prevention seems to be the only solution that is realistic according to many. However, there is no clear pattern when primary prevention works.
PubMed ID
29961051 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Patients with Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303017
Source
Am J Med. 2018 09; 131(9):1118-1124
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Maria Daniel
Stefan Agewall
Felix Berglund
Kenneth Caidahl
Olov Collste
Christina Ekenbäck
Mats Frick
Loghman Henareh
Tomas Jernberg
Karin Malmqvist
Karin Schenck-Gustafsson
Jonas Spaak
Örjan Sundin
Peder Sörensson
Shams Y-Hassan
Claes Hofman-Bang
Per Tornvall
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: dr.maria.daniel@gmail.com.
Source
Am J Med. 2018 09; 131(9):1118-1124
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - psychology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sweden - epidemiology
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries is a working diagnosis for several heart disorders. Previous studies on anxiety and depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries.
We included 99 patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries together with age- and sex-matched control groups who completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) 3 months after the acute event.
Using the Beck Depression Inventory, we found that the prevalence of depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (35%) was higher than in healthy controls (9%; P = .006) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (30%; P = .954). Using the HADS anxiety subscale, we found that the prevalence of anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (27%) was higher than in healthy controls (9%; P = .002) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (21%; P = .409). Using the HADS depression subscale, we found that the prevalence of depression in patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (17%) was higher than in healthy controls (4%; P = .003) and similar to that of patients with coronary heart disease (13%; P = .466). Patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries and takotsubo syndrome scored higher on the HADS anxiety subscale than those without (P = .028).
This is the first study on the mental health of patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries to show that prevalence rates of anxiety and depression are similar to those in patients with coronary heart disease.
PubMed ID
29859805 View in PubMed
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Acute hip fracture surgery anaesthetic technique and 30-day mortality in Sweden 2016 and 2017: A retrospective register study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302999
Source
F1000Res. 2018; 7:1009
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Caroline Gremillet
Jan G Jakobsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Institution for Clinical Sciences, Danderyds University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 18288, Sweden.
Source
F1000Res. 2018; 7:1009
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anesthesia, General
Anesthetics - administration & dosage
Comorbidity
Female
Hip Fractures - mortality - surgery
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Background: Hip fractures affect 1.6 million patients yearly worldwide, often elderly with complex comorbidity. Mortality following surgery for acute hip fracture is high and multifactorial; high age, comorbidities and complication/deterioration in health following surgery. Whether the anaesthesia technique affects the 30-day mortality rate has been studied widely without reaching a consensus. The primary aim of this study was to determine anaesthetic techniques used in Sweden and their impact on the 30-day mortality rate in elderly undergoing acute hip fracture surgery. Other aims were to study the impact of age, gender, ASA class, fracture type and delay in surgery on the 30-day mortality rate. Methods: Data from 13,649 patients =50 years old who had undergone acute hip fracture surgery and been reported to Swedish perioperative register (SPOR) between 2016 and 2017 were analysed.     Results: The most commonly used anaesthetic technique was neuraxial anaesthesia (NA; 11,257, 82%), followed by general anaesthesia (GA; 2,190, 16%) and combined general and neuraxial anaesthesia (CA; 202, 1.5%) out of the 13,649 studied. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.7% for the entire cohort; GA 7.8%, NA 7.7% and CA 7.4%. Mortality was higher in elderly patients, those with a high ASA class, pertrochanteric fracture and males.     Conclusions: The present study showed that NA is by far the most common anaesthetic technique for acute hip fracture surgery in Sweden. However, the anaesthetic technique used during this type of surgery had no impact on the 30-day mortality rate in patients. Increasing age, ASA class and male gender increased the 30-day mortality.
PubMed ID
30210789 View in PubMed
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Leukocyte Telomere Length and All-Cause Mortality: A Between-Within Twin Study With Time-Dependent Effects Using Generalized Survival Models.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303008
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 10 01; 187(10):2186-2191
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Date
10-01-2018
Author
Yiqiang Zhan
Xing-Rong Liu
Chandra A Reynolds
Nancy L Pedersen
Sara Hägg
Mark S Clements
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 10 01; 187(10):2186-2191
Date
10-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Variation, Population - genetics
Blotting, Southern
Cause of Death
Female
Frailty - genetics - mortality
Humans
Leukocytes - cytology
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Telomere - genetics
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Although previous studies examining leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and all-cause mortality controlled for several confounders, the observed association could be biased due to unmeasured confounders, including familial factors. We aimed to examine the association of LTL with all-cause mortality in a Swedish twin sample while adjusting for familial factors and allowing for time-dependent effects. A total of 366 participants (174 twin pairs and 18 individuals) were recruited from the Swedish Twin Registry. LTL was assessed using the Southern blot method. All-cause mortality data were obtained through linkage with the Swedish Population Registry, updated through November 15, 2017. To control for familial factors within twin pairs, we applied a between-within shared frailty model based on generalized survival models. Overall, 115 (31.4%) participants were men and 251 (68.6%) were women. The average age of the study participants when blood was drawn was 79.1 years, and follow-up duration ranged from 10 days to 25.7 years (mean = 10.2 years). During the follow-up period, 341 (93.2%) participants died. Shorter LTL was associated with higher mortality rates when controlling for familial factors in the between-within shared frailty model. We found significant time-dependent effects of LTL on all-cause mortality, where the mortality rate ratios were attenuated with increasing age.
PubMed ID
29961868 View in PubMed
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Pancreatic Cancer Following Acute Pancreatitis: A Population-based Matched Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302990
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 11; 113(11):1711-1719
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-2018
Author
Omid Sadr-Azodi
Viktor Oskarsson
Andrea Discacciati
Per Videhult
Johan Askling
Anders Ekbom
Author Affiliation
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Surgery, Eskilstuna County Hospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden. Center for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Surgery, Västerås County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 11; 113(11):1711-1719
Date
11-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Delayed Diagnosis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Pancreas - diagnostic imaging - pathology
Pancreatic Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Pancreatitis - complications - diagnosis - pathology
Prospective Studies
Recurrence
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Young Adult
Abstract
Acute pancreatitis is linked to pancreatic cancer, but the direction of this association is not fully elaborated.
This was a population-based cohort study including all Swedish residents diagnosed with a first-time episode of acute pancreatitis between 1997 and 2013 and corresponding matched pancreatitis-free individuals from the general population. Hazard ratios for the association between acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models.
Overall, 49,749 individuals with acute pancreatitis and 138,750 matched individuals without acute pancreatitis were followed up for 1,192,134 person-years (median 5.3 years). A total of 769 individuals developed pancreatic cancer, of whom 536 (69.7%) had a history of acute pancreatitis. The risk of pancreatic cancer was substantially increased during the first few years after a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but declined gradually over time, reaching a level comparable to the pancreatitis-free population after >10 years of follow-up. In those with non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis, the risk of pancreatic cancer declined to a level comparable to the pancreatitis-free population only when follow-up time was censored for a second episode of acute pancreatitis or a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Increasing number of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
These findings imply a delay in the diagnosis of pre-existing pancreatic cancer, if clinically presented as acute pancreatitis. Any association between non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in the long-term (>10 years) could be mediated through recurrent acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis.
PubMed ID
30315287 View in PubMed
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Long-term Survival and Cardiovascular Morbidity after Elective Open Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Propensity-Adjusted Analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302967
Source
Ann Vasc Surg. 2019 Aug; 59:110-118
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Date
Aug-2019
Author
Moncef Zarrouk
Stefan Franzén
Stefan Acosta
Peter Nilsson
Mervete Miftaraj
Björn Eliasson
Ann-Marie Svensson
Anders Gottsäter
Author Affiliation
Department of Vascular Diseases, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Ann Vasc Surg. 2019 Aug; 59:110-118
Date
Aug-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Keywords
Aged
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal - diagnostic imaging - mortality - surgery
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation - adverse effects - mortality
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Elective Surgical Procedures - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Epidemiological data indicate decreased risk for development and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), but DM also goes with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effects of DM on mortality and CV morbidity after elective open AAA repair.
This is a nationwide observational cohort study of patients registered in the Swedish Vascular Registry and the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Comparison of mortality and CV morbidity after elective open AAA repair in 397 patients with and 1709 without DM with propensity score-adjusted analysis, during median 4.51 years of follow-up for patients with DM and 4.59 years for those without.
In adjusted analysis, diabetic patients showed higher rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (relative risk [RR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-2.36; P = 0.03) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, RR 1.28, CI 1.04-1.58; P = 0.02) during follow-up, whereas there were no differences in total (RR 0.98, CI 0.75-1.29; P = 0.91) or CV (RR 0.30, CI 0.07-1.26; P = 0.10) mortality or stroke (RR 1.06, CI 0.67-1.67; P = 0.80). Among diabetic patients, higher HbA1c was related to a higher risk for AMI during follow-up (RR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.08; P = 0.02).
Patients with DM had higher rates of AMI and MACE after elective open AAA repair than those without DM, whereas neither total nor CV mortality differed between groups. Putative beneficial effects of DM on the aortic wall might not be relevant after open surgery including thrombus removal and aneurysmorrhaphy.
PubMed ID
31029685 View in PubMed
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Sex-specific associations between body mass index and death before life expectancy: a comparative study from the USA and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302973
Source
Glob Health Action. 2019; 12(1):1580973
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2019
Author
Melissa Scribani
Margareta Norberg
Kristina Lindvall
Lars Weinehall
Julie Sorensen
Paul Jenkins
Author Affiliation
a Bassett Healthcare Network, Bassett Research Institute , Cooperstown , NY , USA.
Source
Glob Health Action. 2019; 12(1):1580973
Date
2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body mass index
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Female
Global health
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality, Premature - trends
New York - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Understanding the impact of obesity on premature mortality is critical, as obesity has become a global health issue.
To contrast the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and premature death (all-cause; circulatory causes) in New York State (USA) and Northern Sweden.
Baseline data were obtained between 1989 and 1999 via questionnaires (USA) and health exams (Sweden), with mortality data from health departments, public sources (USA) and the Swedish Death Register. Premature death was death before life expectancy based on sex and year of birth. Within country and sex, time to premature death was compared across BMI groups (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (reference), 25-29.9 kg/m2, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, =35.0 kg/m2) using Proportional Hazards regression. Absolute risk (deaths/100,000 person-years) was compared for the same stratifications among nonsmokers.
60,600 Swedish (47.8% male) and 31,198 US subjects (47.7% male) were included. Swedish males with BMI=30 had increased hazards (HR) of all-cause premature death relative to BMI 18.5-24.9 (BMI 30-34.9, HR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.02); BMI=35, HR = 2.89 (2.16, 3.88)). BMI=25 had increased hazards of premature circulatory death (BMI 25-29.9, HR = 1.66 (1.32, 2.08); BMI 30-34.9, HR = 3.02 (2.26, 4.03); BMI=35, HR = 4.91 (3.05, 7.90)). Among US males, only BMI=35 had increased hazards of all-cause death (HR = 1.63 (1.25, 2.14)), while BMI 30-34.9 (HR = 1.83 (1.20, 2.79)) and BMI=35 (HR = 3.18 (1.96, 5.15)) had increased hazards for circulatory death. Swedish females showed elevated hazards with BMI=30 for all-cause (BMI 30-34.9, HR = 1.42 (1.18, 1.71) and BMI=35, HR = 1.61 (1.21, 2.15) and with BMI=35 (HR = 3.11 (1.72, 5.63)) for circulatory death. For US women, increased hazards were observed among BMI=35 (HR = 2.10 (1.60, 2.76) for all-cause and circulatory HR = 3.04 (1.75, 5.30)). Swedish males with BMI=35 had the highest absolute risk of premature death (762/100,000 person-years).
This study demonstrates a markedly increased risk of premature death associated with increasing BMI among Swedish males, a pattern not duplicated among females.
PubMed ID
30947624 View in PubMed
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The Effect of Rotavirus Vaccine on Socioeconomic Differentials of Paediatric Care Due to Gastroenteritis in Swedish Infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302975
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 03 27; 16(7):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-27-2019
Author
Lina Schollin Ask
Can Liu
Karl Gauffin
Anders Hjern
Author Affiliation
Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, South General Hospital, 118 83 Stockholm, Sweden. lina.schollin-ask@sll.se.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 03 27; 16(7):
Date
03-27-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Hospitalization
Humans
Immunization Programs - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Male
Rotavirus Infections - prevention & control
Rotavirus Vaccines - administration & dosage
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Background: Previous Swedish studies have shown a social gradient on paediatric care for viral gastroenteritis. Aim: To study the effect of a free rotavirus vaccine programme on hospital care for viral gastroenteritis. Method: A register-based national cohort study of paediatric in- and outpatient care for viral gastroenteritis in children
PubMed ID
30934717 View in PubMed
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Population-based, nationwide registration of prostatectomies in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302938
Source
J Surg Oncol. 2019 Sep; 120(4):803-812
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2019
Author
Walter Cazzaniga
Rebecka Arnsrud Godtman
Stefan Carlsson
Göran Ahlgren
Eva Johansson
David Robinson
Jonas Hugosson
Pär Stattin
Author Affiliation
Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology URI, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
Source
J Surg Oncol. 2019 Sep; 120(4):803-812
Date
Sep-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Postoperative Complications
Prognosis
Prostatectomy - statistics & numerical data
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - surgery
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a common surgical procedure with a risk of postoperative erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. There is a need for data on RP as a basis for quality assurance and benchmarking.
In 2015, prostatectomies in Sweden (PiS) form was implemented in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden with data on pre-, peri- and post-operative variables.
Out of all radical prostatectomies performed in 2016 in Sweden, 3096/3881 (80%) were registered in PiS. A total of 2605 (84%) were robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and 491 (16%) were RRP (retropubic radical prostatectomy). RARP was performed by 91 surgeons of whom 47% operated more than 25 RP/year; and RRP was performed by 69 surgeons of whom 10% performed more than 25 RP/year. RARP had a longer operative time (median operating time: RARP 155?minutes [IQR 124-190]; RRP 129?minutes [IQR 105-171]; P?
PubMed ID
31355454 View in PubMed
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Trajectories of income and social benefits for mothers and fathers of children with cancer: A national cohort study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302897
Source
Cancer. 2018 04 01; 124(7):1492-1500
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-01-2018
Author
Ayako Hiyoshi
Scott Montgomery
Matteo Bottai
Emma I Hovén
Author Affiliation
Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Source
Cancer. 2018 04 01; 124(7):1492-1500
Date
04-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Fathers
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mothers
Neoplasms - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Prognosis
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The contribution of different income sources from work and social benefits to trajectories of income for the parents of children with cancer has not been empirically investigated.
Using Swedish registers, parents of children with an incidence cancer diagnosis between 2004 and 2009 were identified and matched with parents of children without cancer (reference parents). A total of 20,091 families were followed from the year before the diagnosis to a maximum of 8 years. Generalized linear models estimated the ratios of mean incomes from work and social benefits and of its total.
Around the time of the child's cancer diagnosis, the total income was on average up to 6% higher among the mothers of children with cancer compared with reference mothers, but no differences were noted among fathers. Income from work dropped to the lowest level around the time of a cancer diagnosis, with swift recovery noted for fathers but not for mothers. Sickness and childcare-related benefits were up to 6 times larger for the parents of children with cancer than reference parents. As social benefits diminished after approximately 3 years, the total income of mothers of children with cancer became lower than that of reference mothers, and the gap widened over time.
Social benefits appeared to ease the financial burden during the years around a cancer diagnosis. However, mothers experienced persistently lower income after benefits diminished. Experiences differed by single-parent versus dual-parent households, the survival of the child with cancer, and other relevant characteristics. Further investigation is needed for potential long-term consequences for mothers, including their career and future pension in retirement. Cancer 2018;124:1492-500. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Notes
ErratumIn: Cancer. 2018 Jul 1;124(13):2861-2863 PMID 29913048
PubMed ID
29430634 View in PubMed
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Urban upbringing and childhood respiratory and allergic conditions: A multi-country holistic study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302905
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:276-283
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Christina Tischer
Payam Dadvand
Xavier Basagana
Elaine Fuertes
Anna Bergström
Olena Gruzieva
Erik Melen
Dietrich Berdel
Joachim Heinrich
Sibylle Koletzko
Iana Markevych
Marie Standl
Dorothea Sugiri
Lourdes Cirugeda
Marisa Estarlich
Ana Fernández-Somoano
Amparo Ferrero
Jesus Ibarlueza
Aitana Lertxundi
Adonina Tardón
Jordi Sunyer
Josep M Anto
Author Affiliation
ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health - Campus MAR, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: christina.tischer@isglobal.org.
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:276-283
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Child
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Respiratory Sounds
Rhinitis, Allergic - epidemiology
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We integratively assessed the effect of different indoor and outdoor environmental exposures early in life on respiratory and allergic health conditions among children from (sub-) urban areas.
This study included children participating in four ongoing European birth cohorts located in three different geographical regions: INMA (Spain), LISAplus (Germany), GINIplus (Germany) and BAMSE (Sweden). Wheezing, bronchitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis throughout childhood were assessed using parental-completed questionnaires. We designed "environmental scores" corresponding to different indoor, green- and grey-related exposures (main analysis, a-priori-approach). Cohort-specific associations between these environmental scores and the respiratory health outcomes were assessed using random-effects meta-analyses. In addition, a factor analysis was performed based on the same exposure information used to develop the environmental scores (confirmatory analysis, data-driven-approach).
A higher early exposure to the indoor environmental score increased the risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the first year of life (combined adjusted odds ratio: 1.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.27] and 1.28 [1.18-1.39], respectively). In contrast, there was an inverse association with allergic rhinitis between 6 and 8 years (0.85 [0.79-0.92]). There were no statistically significant associations for the outdoor related environmental scores in relation to any of the health outcomes tested. The factor analysis conducted confirmed these trends.
Although a higher exposure to indoor related exposure through occupants was associated with an increased risk for wheezing and bronchitis within the 1st year, it might serve as a preventive mechanism against later childhood allergic respiratory outcomes in urbanized environments through enhanced shared contact with microbial agents.
PubMed ID
29172161 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of various environmental intolerances in a Swedish and Finnish general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302906
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:220-228
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Kirsi Karvala
Markku Sainio
Eva Palmquist
Maj-Helen Nyback
Steven Nordin
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 b, 00250 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: kirsi.karvala@ttl.fi.
Source
Environ Res. 2018 02; 161:220-228
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Electromagnetic fields
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Illness - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To determine the prevalence of various environmental intolerances (EIs), using several criteria in a Swedish and a Finnish general population. Ill-health attributed to low-level environmental exposures is a commonly encountered challenge in occupational and environmental medicine.
In population-based questionnaire surveys, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (Sweden) and the Österbotten Environmental Health Study (Finland), EI was inquired by one-item questions on symptom attribution to chemicals, certain buildings, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and difficulties tolerating sounds. The respondents were asked whether they react with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms or have a physician-diagnosed EI attributed to the corresponding exposures. Prevalence rates were determined for different age and sex groups and the Swedish and Finnish samples in general.
In the Swedish sample (n = 3406), 12.2% had self-reported intolerance to chemicals, 4.8% to certain buildings, 2.7% to EMFs, and 9.2% to sounds. The prevalence rates for the Finnish sample (n = 1535) were 15.2%, 7.2%, 1.6%, and 5.4%, respectively, differing statistically significantly from the Swedish. EI to chemicals and certain buildings was more prevalent in Finland, while EI to EMFs and sounds more prevalent in Sweden. The prevalence rates for EI with CNS-symptoms were lower and physician-diagnosed EIs considerably lower than self-reported EIs. Women reported EI more often than men and the young (18-39 years) to a lesser degree than middle-aged and elderly.
The findings reflect the heterogeneous nature of EI. The differences in EI prevalence between the countries might reflect disparities concerning which exposures people perceive harmful and focus their attention to.
PubMed ID
29161654 View in PubMed
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Associations Between Divorce and Onset of Drug Abuse in a Swedish National Sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302907
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 05 01; 187(5):1010-1018
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-01-2018
Author
Alexis C Edwards
Sara Larsson Lönn
Jan Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 05 01; 187(5):1010-1018
Date
05-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Divorce - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Widowhood - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Rates of drug abuse are higher among divorced individuals than among those who are married, but it is not clear whether divorce itself is a risk factor for drug abuse or whether the observed association is confounded by other factors. We examined the association between divorce and onset of drug abuse in a population-based Swedish cohort born during 1965-1975 (n = 651,092) using Cox proportional hazards methods, with marital status as a time-varying covariate. Potential confounders (e.g., demographics, adolescent deviance, and family history of drug abuse) were included as covariates. Parallel analyses were conducted for widowhood and drug-abuse onset. In models with adjustments, divorce was associated with a substantial increase in risk of drug-abuse onset in both sexes (hazard ratios > 5). Co-relative analyses (among biological relatives) were consistent with a partially causal role of divorce on drug-abuse onset. Widowhood also increased risk of drug-abuse onset, although to a lesser extent. Divorce is a potent risk factor for onset of drug abuse, even after adjusting for deviant behavior in adolescence and family history of drug abuse. The somewhat less-pronounced association with widowhood, particularly among men, suggests that the magnitude of association between divorce and drug abuse may not be generalizable to the end of a relationship.
PubMed ID
29155917 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of donors and recipients: lessons from the SCANDAT database.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302908
Source
Transfus Med. 2019 Apr; 29 Suppl 1:6-12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Apr-2019
Author
G Edgren
H Hjalgrim
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Transfus Med. 2019 Apr; 29 Suppl 1:6-12
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Blood Donors
Blood Transfusion
Databases, Factual
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Sweden - epidemiology
Transfusion Medicine
Abstract
With the development of several 'vein-to-vein' databases, which capture data on the entire donor-recipient continuum and link this data to health outcomes, there has been an increasing number of studies investigating the health effects of all aspects of the practice of transfusion medicine. The Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database is one of several such databases, which includes all electronically available data on blood donors, donations and transfusions since the late 1960s in Sweden and the early 1980s in Denmark. The SCANDAT database has been used to characterise disease occurrence among blood donors and transfused patients, as well as to investigate possible health effects of blood donations, aspects of transfusion care and possible transfusion transmission of disease. Recent publications include studies on recipient mortality associated with the storage lesion, studies on the effects of donor demographics on patient mortality and health effects of frequent blood donation. Although this research approach is clearly very powerful, the appropriate analysis of such real-world data is complex and requires close methodological attention. The purpose of this review is to present some of the research conducted within the SCANDAT collaboration. We hope more international collaboration may help improve our understanding of the important remaining questions about donor and recipient health.
PubMed ID
29148106 View in PubMed
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Grandmaternal smoking increases asthma risk in grandchildren: A nationwide Swedish cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302910
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2018 02; 48(2):167-174
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
C J Lodge
L Bråbäck
A J Lowe
S C Dharmage
D Olsson
B Forsberg
Author Affiliation
Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2018 02; 48(2):167-174
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Family
Female
Grandparents
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Phenotype
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
There is growing interest in exposures prior to conception as possible risk factors for offspring asthma. Although partially supported by evidence from limited human studies, current evidence is inconsistent and based on recall of exposure status.
We aimed to investigate grandmaternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of asthma in grandchildren using prospectively collected population-based data.
Information on grandmaternal and maternal smoking during pregnancy and grandchild use of asthma medications was collected from national Swedish registries. Associations between grandmaternal smoking during pregnancy (10-12 weeks) and asthma medication use in grandchildren were investigated using generalized estimating equations. Ages at which asthma medications were prescribed classified childhood asthma into never, early transient (0-3 years), late onset (3-6 years) and early persistent (0-3 and 3-6 years) phenotypes.
From 1982 to 1986, 44 583 grandmothers gave birth to 46 197 mothers, who gave birth to 66 271 grandchildren (born 1996-2010). Children aged 1-6 years had an increased asthma risk if their grandmothers had smoked during pregnancy, with a higher risk for more exposure (10+ cigs/d; adjusted OR 1.23; 1.17, 1.30). Maternal smoking did not modify this relationship.
Children had an increased risk of asthma in the first 6 years of life if their grandmothers smoked during early pregnancy, independent of maternal smoking. Importantly, this exhibited a dose-response relationship and was associated with a persistent childhood asthma phenotype. These findings support possible epigenetic transmission of risk from environmental exposures in previous generations.
PubMed ID
28925522 View in PubMed
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