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Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302823
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75(21):1298-313. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2012.709445.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Hallanger IG
Jørgensen EH
Fuglei E
Ahlstrøm Ø
Muir DC
Jenssen BM
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75(21):1298-313. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2012.709445.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Blood
Metabolism
Arctic Regions
Diet
Adverse effects
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants
Foxes
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Analysis
Testosterone
Thyroid Hormones
Thyrotropin
Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Abstract
Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n?=?5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n?=?5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 µg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n?=?5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 µg/g l.w. (n?=?5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.
PubMed ID
23030655 View in PubMed
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Biotransformation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: characterization of phase I and II pathways at transcriptional, translational and activity levels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303060
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;152(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.02.009. Epub 2010 Feb 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Helgason LB1, Arukwe A, Gabrielsen GW, Harju M, Hegseth MN, Heimstad ES, Jørgensen EH, Mortensen AS, Wolkers J.
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;152(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.02.009. Epub 2010 Feb 20.
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Arctic Regions
Biotransformation
Birds
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Genetics
Metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Protein Biosynthesis
Transcription, Genetic
Abstract
Arctic seabirds are exposed to a wide range of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs). Exposure occurs mainly through food intake, and many pollutants accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. Little is known about how HOCs are biotransformed in arctic seabirds. In this study, we characterized biotransformation enzymes in chicks of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway). Phase I and II enzymes were analyzed at the transcriptional, translational and activity levels. For gene expression patterns, quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), using gene-sequence primers, were performed. Protein levels were analyzed using immunochemical assays of western blot with commercially available antibodies. Liver samples were analyzed for phase I and II enzyme activities using a variety of substrates including ethoxyresorufin (cytochrome (CYP)1A1/1A2), pentoxyresorufin (CYP2B), methoxyresorufin (CYP1A), benzyloxyresorufin (CYP3A), testosterone (CYP3A/CYP2B), 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene (CDNB) (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and 4-nitrophenol (uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT)). In addition, the hydroxylated (OH-) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in the blood, liver and brain tissue, whereas the methylsulfone (MeSO(2)-) PCBs were analyzed in liver tissue. Results indicated the presence of phase I (CYP1A4/CYP1A5, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and phase II (GST and UDPGT) enzymes at the activity, protein and/or mRNA level in both species. Northern fulmar chicks had higher enzyme activity than black-legged kittiwake chicks. This in combination with the higher SigmaOH-PCB to parent PCB ratios suggests that northern fulmar chicks have a different biotransformation capacity than black-legged kittiwake chicks.
PubMed ID
20176133 View in PubMed
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Biomarker response and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning in Arctic charr from Bjørnøya (74°30'?N), Norway, with high levels of organohalogenated compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303059
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2017 Jun;187:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Jørgensen EH
Maule AG
Evenset A
Christensen G
Bytningsvik J
Frantzen M
Nikiforov V
Faught E
Vijayan MM
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2017 Jun;187:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Blood
Pharmacokinetics
toxicity
Drug effects
Arctic Regions
Biomarkers
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Endocrine Disruptors
Environmental monitoring
Hydrocortisone
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Kidney
Lakes
Chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Tissue Distribution
Trout
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Abstract
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (
PubMed ID
28384517 View in PubMed
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Seasonality in contaminant accumulation in Arctic marine pelagic food webs using trophic magnification factor as a measure of bioaccumulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302919
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 May;30(5):1026-35. doi: 10.1002/etc.488. Epub 2011 Mar 18.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Hallanger IG
Warner NA
Ruus A
Evenset A
Christensen G
Herzke D
Gabrielsen GW
Borgå K
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 May;30(5):1026-35. doi: 10.1002/etc.488. Epub 2011 Mar 18.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Aquatic Organisms
Arctic Regions
Birds
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fishes
Flame Retardants
Food chain
Male
Metabolisn
Analysis
Organic Chemicals
Pesticides
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Seasons
Seawater
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Water Pollution, Chemical
Statistics & numerical data
Zooplankton
Abstract
Seasonality in biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs; polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants) in Arctic marine pelagic food webs was investigated in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs; average factor change in concentration between two trophic levels) were used to measure food web biomagnification in biota in May, July, and October 2007. Pelagic zooplankton (seven species), fish (five species), and seabirds (two species) were included in the study. For most POP compounds, highest TMFs were found in July and lowest were in May. Seasonally changing TMFs were a result of seasonally changing POP concentrations and the d¹5N-derived trophic positions of the species included in the food web. These seasonal differences in TMFs were independent of inclusion/exclusion of organisms based on physiology (i.e., warm- versus cold-blooded organisms) in the food web. The higher TMFs in July, when the food web consisted of a higher degree of boreal species, suggest that future warming of the Arctic and increased invasion by boreal species can result in increased food web magnification. Knowledge of the seasonal variation in POP biomagnification is a prerequisite for understanding changes in POP biomagnification caused by climate change.
PubMed ID
21312250 View in PubMed
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Influence of season, location, and feeding strategy on bioaccumulation of halogenated organic contaminants in Arctic marine zooplankton.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302918
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 Jan;30(1):77-87. doi: 10.1002/etc.362.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Hallanger IG1, Ruus A, Herzke D, Warner NA, Evenset A, Heimstad ES, Gabrielsen GW, Borgå K.
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 Jan;30(1):77-87. doi: 10.1002/etc.362.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Environmental Exposure
Analysis
Statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Methods
Feeding Behavior
Flame Retardants
Food chain
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated
Metabolism
Pesticides
Seasons
Svalbard
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Zooplankton
Classification
Abstract
The influence of season, location, feeding strategy, and trophic position on concentration, compositional pattern, and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs; polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants) was investigated within an Arctic zooplankton food web. Water (dissolved fraction) and seven Arctic marine pelagic zooplankton species (including herbivores, omnivores, and predators) were sampled in May, July, and October 2007 at two stations in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. The HOC concentrations in both water and zooplankton generally decreased from May to October. The HOC concentrations and patterns among zooplankton species were explained by their feeding strategies, roughly categorized as herbivores, omnivores, and predators, and not stable isotope-derived trophic position. Field-derived BAFs varied greatly, with higher BAFs in May compared with July and October. Furthermore, BAFs differed among the species according to their feeding strategies. The relationship between BAFs from the different seasons and K(OW) (octanol:water partitioning coefficient) showed comparable intercepts and different slopes between May and October, with all relationships diverging from the assumed 1:1 relationship between BAF and K(OW). Differences in HOC concentrations and BAFs from herbivores to predators showed that biomagnification occurred in zooplankton. The results suggest that concentrations and patterns of HOCs in zooplankton species are influenced not only by equilibrium partitioning with water but also by feeding strategy.
PubMed ID
20853452 View in PubMed
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Differences between Arctic and Atlantic fjord systems on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in zooplankton from Svalbard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302917
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jun 15;409(14):2783-95. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 May 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Hallanger IG
Ruus A
Warner NA
Herzke D
Evenset A
Schøyen M
Gabrielsen GW
Borgå K
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jun 15;409(14):2783-95. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 May 20.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Atlantic Ocean
Analysis
Metabolism
Chemistry
Chlordan
DDT
Environmental monitoring
Food chain
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorocyclohexane
Hydrocarbons, Halogenated
Mirex
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Seawater
Svalbard
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Statistics & numerical data
Zooplankton
Abstract
Differences in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between fjords characterized by different water masses were investigated by comparing POP concentrations, patterns and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in seven species of zooplankton from Liefdefjorden (Arctic water mass) and Kongsfjorden (Atlantic water mass), Svalbard, Norway. No difference in concentrations and patterns of POPs was observed in seawater and POM; however higher concentrations and BAFs for certain POPs were found in species of zooplankton from Kongsfjorden. The same species were sampled in both fjords and the differences in concentrations of POPs and BAFs were most likely due to fjord specific characteristics, such as ice cover and timing of snow/glacier melt. These confounding factors make it difficult to conclude on water mass (Arctic vs. Atlantic) specific differences and further to extrapolate these results to possible climate change effects on accumulation of POPs in zooplankton. The present study suggests that zooplankton do biomagnify POPs, which is important for understanding contaminant uptake and flux in zooplankton, though consciousness regarding the method of evaluation is important.
PubMed ID
21600630 View in PubMed
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Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302809
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2017 Dec;87:92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.09.023. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Barry KH
Martinsen JI
Alavanja MCR
Andreotti G
Blair A
Hansen J
Kjærheim K
Koutros S
Lynge E
Sparèn P
Tryggvadottir L
Weiderpass E
Berndt SI
Pukkala E
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2017 Dec;87:92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.09.023. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Humans
Incidence
Job Description
Kallikreins
Blood
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Occupational Diseases
Diagnosis
Epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Adverse effects
Occupational Health
Occupations
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Prostatic Neoplasms
Public Sector
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study.
METHODS: We used occupational information from census data in five Nordic countries from 1960 to 1990. We identified prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1961 to 2005 by linkage of census information to national cancer registries and calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) separately for men aged 30-49 and those aged 50 or older. We also conducted separate analyses by period of follow-up, 1961-1985 and 1986-2005, corresponding to pre- and post-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening.
RESULTS: For early-onset prostate cancer (n = 1521), we observed the highest SIRs for public safety workers (e.g. firefighters) (SIR = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.31) and military personnel (SIR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.85). These SIRs were significantly higher than the SIRs for later-onset disease (for public safety workers, SIR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.14 and for military personnel, SIR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13; pheterogeneity = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Administrators and technical workers also demonstrated significantly increased risks for early-onset prostate cancer, but the SIRs did not differ from those of later-onset disease (pheterogeneity >0.05). While our early-onset finding for public safety workers was restricted to the post-PSA period, that for military personnel was restricted to the pre-PSA period.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that occupational exposures, particularly for military personnel, may be associated with early-onset prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed to explain these findings.
PubMed ID
29132062 View in PubMed
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The Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS) Study: Design and Characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302820
Source
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Dec;62(12):2204-10. doi: 10.1002/pbc.25661. Epub 2015 Jul 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Asdahl PH
Winther JF
Bonnesen TG
De Fine Licht S
Gudmundsdottir T
Anderson H
Madanat-Harjuoja L
Tryggvadottir L
Småstuen MC
Holmqvist AS
Hasle H
Olsen JH
ALiCCS Study Group
Source
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015 Dec;62(12):2204-10. doi: 10.1002/pbc.25661. Epub 2015 Jul 20.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Neoplasms
Mortality
Therapy
Registries
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Epidemiology
Survivors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: During the last five decades, survival of childhood cancer has increased from 25% to 80%. At the same time, however, it has become evident that survivors experience a broad range of therapy-related late adverse health effects. The aim of the Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS) study is to investigate long-term health consequences of past and current therapies in order to improve follow-up care of survivors and to reduce treatment-related morbidity of future patients.
PROCEDURE: Childhood cancer survivors were identified through the five Nordic cancer registries and a comparison cohort was established through random selection of cancer-free individuals from the civil registration systems. A unique personal identification number was used to link between different health registries. Abstraction of treatment information for a subset of survivors allows investigation of the association between the various components of cancer therapy and late occurring comorbidity.
RESULTS: The childhood cancer survivor cohort comprises 33,160 1-year survivors and the comparison cohort comprises 212,892 cancer free individuals from the general population. In the childhood cancer survivor cohort, all types of childhood cancer are represented including leukemia (21%), lymphoma (14%), central nervous system tumors (24%), sarcomas (5%), retinoblastoma (3%), and neuroblastoma (4%). Among the survivors, 22% have been followed beyond the age of 40 years.
CONCLUSION: The ALiCCS study constitutes a new large resource for research on late effects of childhood cancers that include all types of childhood malignancies and has followed a large proportion of the survivors well into late adulthood.
PubMed ID
26193842 View in PubMed
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Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia: establishing the baseline for surveillance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302812
Source
PLoS One. 2014 Feb 5;9(2):e88323. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088323. eCollection 2014.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Nygård M1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,
Hansen BT
Dillner J
Munk C
Oddsson K
Tryggvadottir L
Hortlund M
Liaw KL
Dasbach EJ
Kjær SK
Source
PLoS One. 2014 Feb 5;9(2):e88323. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088323. eCollection 2014.
Date
2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Epidemiology
Pathology
Virology
Isolation & purification
Aged
Cervix Uteri
Female
Human papillomavirus 16
Human papillomavirus 18
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Papillomavirus Infections
Prevention & control
Papillomavirus Vaccines
Therapeutic use
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Vagina
Vaginal Neoplasms
Vulva
Vulvar Neoplasms
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases.
METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias was obtained from high-quality national population-based registries. A literature review was conducted to define the fraction of these lesions attributable to HPV16/18, i.e., those that could be prevented by HPV vaccination.
RESULTS: Among the four countries, the age-standardised IR/105 of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer ranged from 8.4-13.8, 1.3-3.1 and 0.2-0.6, respectively. The risk for cervical cancer was highest in women aged 30-39, while vulvar and vaginal cancers were most common in women aged 70+. Age-standardised IR/105 of cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia ranged between 138.8-183.2, 2.5-8.8 and 0.5-1.3, respectively. Women aged 20-29 had the highest risk for cervical pre-invasive neoplasia, while vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia peaked in women aged 40-49 and 60-69, respectively. Over 50% of the observed 47,820 incident invasive and pre-invasive cancer cases in 2004-2006 can be attributed to HPV16/18.
CONCLUSION: In the four countries, vaccination against HPV 16/18 could prevent approximately 8500 cases of gynecological cancer and pre-cancer annually. Population-based cancer and vaccination registries are essential to assess the predicted public health effects of HPV vaccination.
PubMed ID
24505474 View in PubMed
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Source
Timarit Hjukrunarfel Isl. 1972;48(4):134-66 passim.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1972
Author
Tryggvadóttir A
Jónsdóttir G
Source
Timarit Hjukrunarfel Isl. 1972;48(4):134-66 passim.
Date
1972
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Sweden
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allied Health Personnel
Nursing
Norway
Public Health
Sweden
PubMed ID
4487913 View in PubMed
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Risk of familial classical Hodgkin lymphoma by relationship, histology, age, and sex: a joint study from five Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302810
Source
Blood. 2015 Oct 22;126(17):1990-5. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-04-639781. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Kharazmi E
Fallah M
Pukkala E
Olsen JH
Tryggvadottir L
Sundquist K
Tretli S
Hemminki K
Source
Blood. 2015 Oct 22;126(17):1990-5. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-04-639781. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Epidemiology
Hodgkin Disease
Genetics
Pathology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Staging
Prognosis
Registries
Risk assessment
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
We aimed to provide the familial risk of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) by relationship, histology, age at diagnosis, and sex. A cohort of 57,475 first-degree relatives of 13,922 HL patients diagnosed between 1955 and 2009 in 5 European countries was observed for HL incidence. The overall lifetime cumulative risk (CR) of HL in first-degree relatives of a patient with HL was 0.6%, which represents a threefold (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-3.9) increased risk over the general population risk. The risk in siblings (6.0-fold; 95% CI, 4.8- to 7.4-fold) was significantly higher than in parents and/or children (2.1-fold; 95% CI, 1.6- to 2.6-fold). Very high lifetime risk of HL was found for those with multiple affected first-degree relatives (13-fold; 95% CI, 2.8- to 39-fold) and for same-sex twins (57-fold; 95% CI, 21- to 125-fold). We found high familial risks between some concordant histologic subtypes of HL such as lymphocyte-rich (81-fold; 95% CI, 30- to 177-fold) and nodular sclerosis (4.6-fold; 95% CI, 2.9- to 7.0-fold) and also between some discordant subtypes. The familial risk in sisters (9.4-fold; 95% CI, 5.9- to 14-fold) was higher than in brothers (4.5-fold; 95% CI, 2.9- to 6.7-fold) or unlike-sex siblings (5.9-fold; 95% CI, 4.3- to 8.1-fold). The lifetime risk of HL was higher when first-degree relatives were diagnosed at early ages (before age 30 years). This study provides tangible absolute risk estimates for relatives of HL patients, which can be used as a sex-, age-, and family history-based risk calculator for classical HL by oncologists and genetic counselors.
PubMed ID
26311361 View in PubMed
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Familial risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma by sex, relationship, age at diagnosis and histology: a joint study from five Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302799
Source
Leukemia. 2016 Feb;30(2):373-8. doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.272. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Fallah M
Kharazmi E
Pukkala E
Tretli S
Olsen JH
Tryggvadottir L
Sundquist K
Hemminki K
Source
Leukemia. 2016 Feb;30(2):373-8. doi: 10.1038/leu.2015.272. Epub 2015 Oct 6.
Date
2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Female
Humans
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
Etiology
Genetics
Pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Risk
Sex Factors
Abstract
We aimed to estimate stratified absolute (cumulative) and relative (standardized incidence ratios; SIRs) risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in relatives of NHL patients. A cohort of 169?830 first-degree relatives of 45?406 NHL patients who were diagnosed between 1955 and 2010 in five European countries was followed for cancer incidence. The lifetime (0-79 year) cumulative risk of NHL in siblings of a patient with NHL was 1.6%, which represents a 1.6-fold increased risk (SIR=1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-1.9) over the general population risk. NHL risk among parent-offspring pairs was increased up to 1.4-fold (95% CI=1.3-1.5; lifetime risk 1.4%). The lifetime risk was higher when NHL was diagnosed in a sister (2.5% in her brothers and 1.9% in her sisters) or a father (1.7% in his son). When there were ?2 NHL patients diagnosed in a family, the lifetime NHL risk for relatives was 2.1%. Depending on sex and age at diagnosis, twins had a 3.1-12.9% lifetime risk of NHL. Family history of most of the histological subtypes of NHL increased the risk of concordant and some discordant subtypes. Familial risk did not significantly change by age at diagnosis of NHL in relatives. Familial risk of NHL was not limited to early onset cases.
PubMed ID
26442613 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the Long-Term Anti-Human Papillomavirus 6 (HPV6), 11, 16, and 18 Immune Responses Generated by the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302798
Source
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Aug;22(8):943-8. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00133-15. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Nygård M
Saah A
Munk C
Tryggvadottir L
Enerly E
Hortlund M
Sigurdardottir LG
Vuocolo S
Kjaer SK
Dillner J
Source
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Aug;22(8):943-8. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00133-15. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration & dosage
Adolescent
Antibodies, viral
Blood
Double-Blind Method
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18
Humans
Immunology
Immunoassay
Immunoglobulin G
Papillomavirus Infections
Prevention & control
Serum
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
This quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) (HPV6, -11, -16, and -18) vaccine long-term follow-up (LTFU) study is an ongoing extension of a pivotal clinical study (FUTURE II) taking place in the Nordic region. The LTFU study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of the qHPV vaccine (Gardasil) for at least 10 years following completion of the base study. The current report presents immunogenicity data from testing samples of the year 5 LTFU visit (approximately 9 years after vaccination). FUTURE II vaccination arm subjects, who consented to being followed in the LTFU, donated serum at regular intervals and in 2012. Anti-HPV6, -11, -16, and -18 antibodies were detected by the competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and in addition, serum samples from 2012 were analyzed by the total IgG Luminex immunoassay (LIA) (n = 1,598). cLIA geometric mean titers (GMTs) remained between 70% and 93% of their month 48 value depending on HPV type. For all HPV types, the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the year 9 GMTs remained above the serostatus cutoff value. The proportion of subjects who remained seropositive based on the IgG LIA was higher than the proportion based on cLIA, especially for anti-HPV18. As expected, the anti-HPV serum IgG and cLIA responses were strongly correlated for all HPV types. Anti-HPV GMTs and the proportion of vaccinated individuals who are seropositive remain high for up to 9 years of follow-up after vaccination.
PubMed ID
26084514 View in PubMed
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Employment participation and work experience of male cancer survivors: a NOCWO study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302796
Source
Work. 2013;46(4):385-93. doi: 10.3233/WOR-131674.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Gunnarsdottir HK
Vidarsdottir H
Rafnsdottir GL
Tryggvadottir L
Olafsdottir EJ
Lindbohm ML
Source
Work. 2013;46(4):385-93. doi: 10.3233/WOR-131674.
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Employment
Psychology
statistics & numerical data
Humans
Lymphoma
Male
Middle Aged
Motivation
Organizational Culture
Personnel Loyalty
Prejudice
Prostatic Neoplasms
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Social Support
Surveys and Questionnaires
Survivors
Testicular Neoplasms
Workplace
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether employment status and work experiences, assessed in terms of job resources (organizational culture and superiors' and co-workers' support), commitment to organization, work motives, and experiences of discrimination, differ between survivors of prostate or testicular cancer or lymphoma and cancer-free reference subjects.
METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1349 male cancer survivors and 2666 referents in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway. Valid responses were 59% and 45%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Compared to the referents, survivors of lymphoma and prostate cancer were less likely to be employed (OR=0.53; CI: 0.30-0.95 and OR=0.50; CI: 0.35-0.73, respectively), but decreased employment was not evident among testicular cancer survivors. Testicular cancer survivors experienced less discrimination at work than did the referents, for example, testicular cancer survivors were less likely to report that their colleagues doubted their ability to carry out their work tasks (OR=0.38; CI: 0.17-0.83). Lymphoma survivors were less likely than the referents to praise their workplace as an enjoyable place to work (OR=0.48; CI: 0.26-0.88). The prostate cancer survivors were more likely than the referents to find the organizational climate competitive, distrustful, and suspicious.
CONCLUSIONS: Employment participation and work experiences of male cancer survivors varied substantially according to type of cancer. Occupational therapists and other health care personnel should keep this in mind when assisting cancer survivors in identifying their strengths and limitations at work.
PubMed ID
24004734 View in PubMed
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Interpreting trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the five Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302803
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Dec 19;99(24):1881-7. Epub 2007 Dec 11.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Kvåle R
Auvinen A
Adami HO
Klint A
Hernes E
Møller B
Pukkala E
Storm HH
Tryggvadottir L
Tretli S
Wahlqvist R
Weiderpass E
Bray F
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Dec 19;99(24):1881-7. Epub 2007 Dec 11.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Prostatic Hyperplasia
Prostatic Neoplasms
Blood
Diagnosis
Immunology
Registries
Research Design
Mortality
Therapy
SEER Program
Survival Rate
Abstract
Trends in incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer were analyzed using data from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Joinpoint regression models were used to quantify temporal trends for the period from 1980 to 2004. Incidence rates were increasing and similar in the Nordic countries during the 1980s. Around 1990, a more rapid incidence increase began in all Nordic countries except Denmark, where an increase was seen 5 years later. In 2001, incidence rates in Denmark were half of those seen in the other Nordic countries, but mortality rates varied only marginally among countries. Mean annual declines in prostate cancer mortality of 1.9% (95% CI = 0.4% to 3.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI = 0.5% to 3.0%) were observed from 1996 to 2004 in Finland and Norway, respectively. During the same period, mortality rates leveled off in Iceland and Sweden but continued to increase in Denmark. The rapid increase in incidence during the early 1990s coincided with the introduction of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and conveys little information about the occurrence of potentially lethal disease. Mortality rates, however, have recently stabilized or declined in countries where PSA testing and curative treatment have been commonly practiced since the late 1980s. Although other explanatory factors may be in operation, these trends are consistent with a moderate effect of increased curative treatment of early diagnosed prostate cancer and improved treatment of more advanced disease.
PubMed ID
18073376 View in PubMed
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Workplace Diesel Exhausts and Gasoline Exposure and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Four Nordic Countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302449
Source
Saf Health Work. 2019 Jun;10(2):141-150. doi: 10.1016/j.shaw.2019.01.001. Epub 2019 Jan 9.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2019
Author
Talibov M
Sormunen J
Weiderpass E
Kjaerheim K
Martinsen JI
Sparen P
Tryggvadottir L
Hansen J
Pukkala E
Source
Saf Health Work. 2019 Jun;10(2):141-150. doi: 10.1016/j.shaw.2019.01.001. Epub 2019 Jan 9.
Date
2019
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case–control study
Adult
Humans
Colorectal Cancer
Occupational Exposure
Diesel exhaust
Gasoline
Workplace
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: This case-control study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust.
RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.
PubMed ID
31297276 View in PubMed
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Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302448
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2017 Dec;87:92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.09.023. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2017 Dec;87:92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.09.023. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Humans
Incidence
Job Description
Kallikreins
Blood
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Occupational Diseases
Diagnosis
Epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Adverse effects
Occupational Health
Occupations
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Prostatic Neoplasms
Public Sector
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study.
METHODS: We used occupational information from census data in five Nordic countries from 1960 to 1990. We identified prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1961 to 2005 by linkage of census information to national cancer registries and calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) separately for men aged 30-49 and those aged 50 or older. We also conducted separate analyses by period of follow-up, 1961-1985 and 1986-2005, corresponding to pre- and post-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening.
RESULTS: For early-onset prostate cancer (n = 1521), we observed the highest SIRs for public safety workers (e.g. firefighters) (SIR = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.31) and military personnel (SIR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.85). These SIRs were significantly higher than the SIRs for later-onset disease (for public safety workers, SIR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.14 and for military personnel, SIR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13; pheterogeneity = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Administrators and technical workers also demonstrated significantly increased risks for early-onset prostate cancer, but the SIRs did not differ from those of later-onset disease (pheterogeneity >0.05). While our early-onset finding for public safety workers was restricted to the post-PSA period, that for military personnel was restricted to the pre-PSA period.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that occupational exposures, particularly for military personnel, may be associated with early-onset prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed to explain these findings.
PubMed ID
29132062 View in PubMed
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Occupational variation in the risk of female breast cancer in the Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302447
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Nov;29(11):1027-1038. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1076-2. Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2018
Author
Katuwal S
Martinsen JI
Kjaerheim K
Sparen P
Tryggvadottir L
Lynge E
Weiderpass E
Pukkala E
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Nov;29(11):1027-1038. doi: 10.1007/s10552-018-1076-2. Epub 2018 Aug 27.
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Iceland
Denmark
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Neoplasms
Epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Adverse effects
Occupations
Registries
Risk factors
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine occupational variations in the incidence of breast cancer in the population-based cohort of Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA).
METHODS: The study included long-term follow-up data from almost 7.5 million Nordic women. Participants were assigned to one of the 54 occupational categories based on census records at the ages of 30-64 years. Sixty-two thousand cases of breast cancer were identified through record linkages between nationwide cancer registries in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, followed up between 1961 and 2005. Country-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated.
RESULTS: Overall, the highest risk elevations were seen among military personnel (SIR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03-2.32), dentists (SIR 1.43, 95% CI 1.31-1.56), and physicians (SIR 1.35, 95% CI 1.26-1.46). The lowest risks were observed among gardeners (SIR 0.76, 95% CI 0.74-0.78), farmers (SIR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.82), and woodworkers (SIR 0.75, 95% CI 0.70-0.81). Welders, tobacco workers, and painters had higher SIRs for breast cancer diagnosed at age?
PubMed ID
30151565 View in PubMed
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Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer: a comparison of population-representative cohorts from Nordic countries and Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302446
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 Aug 4;7(8):e016538. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016538.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Hadkhale K
MacLeod J
Demers PA
Martinsen JI
Weiderpass E
Kjaerheim K
Lynge E
Sparen P
Tryggvadottir L
Anne Harris M
Tjepkema M
Peters PA
Pukkala E
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 Aug 4;7(8):e016538. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016538.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Epidemiology
Censuses
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases
Occupational Exposure
Adverse effects
Occupations
Statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Sex Distribution
Smoking
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Etiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare occupational variation of the risk of bladder cancer in the Nordic countries and Canada.
METHODS: In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 73?653 bladder cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 141.6?million person-years. In the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), 8170 cases were observed during the follow-up of?36.7 million person-years. Standardised incidence ratios with 95% CI were estimated for 53 occupations in the NOCCA cohort and HR with 95% CIs were estimated for 42 occupations in the CanCHEC.
RESULTS: Elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed among hairdressers, printers, sales workers, plumbers, painters, miners and laundry workers. Teachers and agricultural workers had reduced risk of bladder cancer in both cohorts. Chimney-sweeps, tobacco workers and waiters had about 1.5-fold risk in the Nordic countries; no risk estimates for these categories were given from the CanCHEC cohort.
CONCLUSION: We observed different occupational patterns in risk of bladder cancer in Nordic countries and Canada. The only occupation with similarly increased risk was observed among sales workers. Differences in smoking across occupational groups may explain some, but not all, of this variation.
PubMed ID
28780557 View in PubMed
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Occupational variation in bladder cancer in Nordic males adjusted with approximated smoking prevalence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302445
Source
Acta Oncol. 2019 Jan;58(1):29-37. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2018.1518591. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2019
Author
Hadkhale K
Martinsen JI
Weiderpass E
Kjærheim K
Sparén P
Tryggvadóttir L
Lynge E
Pukkala E
Source
Acta Oncol. 2019 Jan;58(1):29-37. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2018.1518591. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Date
2019
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Iceland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Humans
Lung Neoplasms
Epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Adverse effects
Prevalence
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Smoking
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Etiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure has been identified as the most important risk factor for bladder cancer second to smoking. The objective of this study was to estimate the occupational variation in risk of bladder cancer that is not attributable to smoking.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 111,458 cases of bladder cancer and 208,297 cases of lung cancer cases were observed among men in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden during 1961-2005. Relative smoking prevalence in an occupation was estimated based on standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer in the given occupation. Crude and smoking-adjusted SIRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for bladder cancer were calculated for each occupation.
RESULTS: The smoking-adjusted SIR for most of the occupations was closer to 1.00 than the unadjusted SIR. The highest statistically significant smoking-adjusted SIRs were observed among chimney sweeps (SIR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.56), waiters (1.22, 1.07-1.38) hairdressers (1.14, 1.02-1.26), cooks and stewards (1.12, 1.01-1.25), printers (1.11, 1.04-1.18) and seamen (1.09, 1.03-1.14).
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a strong risk factor for bladder cancer but there may also be other factors in some specific occupations in addition to smoking. The occupational variation in risk of bladder cancer is small when adjusted for smoking, but risk increasing factors are indicated in some occupations.
PubMed ID
30320536 View in PubMed
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