From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 56.
UAA/APU Consortium, Alaskana Collection E99 E7 H48 1976. UAF - Rasmuson Library E99.E7 H48 1976 ALASKA.
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1419.
In 1975, a survey was carried out in Canada to determine the primary and acquired drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates to isoniazid (INH), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and streptomycin. The results of this investigation were compared with those of the primary drug resistant study of Armstrong, undertaken in 1963-64. It revealed that primary drug resistance has increased from 4.9% to 6.3%. The increase is mainly due to immigrants having arrived in this country during the last 12 years. In these newcomers the primary resistance rate was 11.5%. Moreover, 57.8% of the immigrants examined in the survey were of Asian origin, with a drug resistance rate of 11.7%, while 15.6% had arrived from South Europe with a resistant ratio of 16.7%. In retreatment cases, the national average of drug resistance was 26.4%. Among the Canadian provinces, the highest drug resistance rate in retreatment patients (40%) was found in Quebec. While in primary resistance Streptomycin exhibited the highest incidence, in retreatment cases isoniazid resistance proved to be more frequent. In natives, the rates and patterns of primary and acquired resistance were very similar to those observed in other Canadian born patients.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1750.
In 1981, a hepatitis B vaccine demonstration project was initiated among Yupik Eskimos of southwest Alaska to demonstrate that, under field conditions, the vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious. Laboratory tests for serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) performed on sera collected in May 1981 from 3,988 residents of 17 remote Eskimo villages revealed that 2,645 (66.3%) had no evidence of hepatitis B virus infection. Because of a limited supply of vaccine, specific criteria for selection were used so that those at highest risk of infection would be immunized first. In November 1981, the first dose of vaccine was administered to 1,693 carefully selected individuals. The second dose was administered to 1,678 (99.1%) of those who received the first dose, and the final dose was administered to 1,630 persons (96.3%). Serologic follow-up showed the vaccine to be safe (0.4% experienced minor adverse reactions) and immunogenic (97.4% developed antibody). Vaccine-induced antibody levels were significantly higher for persons less than 30 years of age (p less than 0.001) and for females (p less than 0.001). Vaccine recipients were also protected from hepatitis B virus infection (p = 0.002). This public health measure proved to be feasible and effective in this remote arctic population despite difficult conditions for delivery and administration of this temperature-sensitive vaccine. This strategy for immunization is now being applied on a larger scale in Alaska as part of a program for the primary prevention of this infection and its sequelae.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1923.