Proton-pumping rhodopsins provide an alternative pathway to photosynthesis by which solar energy can enter the marine food web. Rhodopsin genes are widely found in marine bacteria, also in the Arctic, and were recently reported from several eukaryotic lineages. So far, little is known about rhodopsin expression in Arctic eukaryotes. In this study, we used metatranscriptomics and 18S rDNA tag sequencing to examine the mid-summer function and composition of marine protists (size 0.45-10 µm) in the high-Arctic Billefjorden (Spitsbergen), especially focussing on the expression of microbial proton-pumping rhodopsins. Rhodopsin transcripts were highly abundant, at a level similar to that of genes involved in photosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses placed the environmental rhodopsins within disparate eukaryotic lineages, including dinoflagellates, stramenopiles, haptophytes and cryptophytes. Sequence comparison indicated the presence of several functional types, including xanthorhodopsins and a eukaryotic clade of proteorhodopsin. Transcripts belonging to the proteorhodopsin clade were also abundant in published metatranscriptomes from other oceanic regions, suggesting a global distribution. The diversity and abundance of rhodopsins show that these light-driven proton pumps play an important role in Arctic microbial eukaryotes. Understanding this role is imperative to predicting the future of the Arctic marine ecosystem faced by a changing light climate due to diminishing sea-ice.
A total of 26 samples of surface sediments collected in the Neva River (including the St. Petersburg city area) and in the Russian part of the Gulf of Finland were analyzed for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of total PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in sediments ranged from
The authors officially present for the first time the Russian version of Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Today CRS-R is the only validated scale in Russian for assessment of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). The study showed high consistency for different researchers, high sensitivity in the evaluation of patients over time as well as high concurrent validity. This article contains the text of the scale and recommendations how to use CRS-R and interpret the data. Presented version of the CRS-R is recommended for use in DOC patients. Russian version of the CRS-R is a standardized, comprehensive and systematic approach to the examination and assessment of patients with chronic DOS. It ensures the standard approach to examination and assessment that warrants the accuracy and homogeneity of the obtained results.
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs. For background site (Linnévatnet area, sampling during April to June 2015), SPFAS levels ranged from 0.4 to 4 ng/L in surface lake water (n?=?20). PFAS in meltwater from the contributing glaciers showed similar concentrations (~?4 ng/L, n?=?2). The short-chain perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) was predominant in lake water (60-80% of the SPFASs), meltwater (20-30%) and run-off water (40%). Long-range transport is assumed to be the major PFAS source. In Longyearbyen, five water samples (i.e. 2 seawater, 3 run-off) were collected near the local firefighting training site (FFTS) in November 2014 and June 2015, respectively. The highest PFAS levels were found in FFTS meltwater run-off (118 ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound in the FFTS meltwater run-off (53-58% PFASs). At the research station Ny-Ålesund, seawater (n?=?6), soil (n?=?9) and freshwater (n?=?10) were collected in June 2016. Low SPFAS concentrations were determined for seawater (5-6 ng/L), whereas high SPFAS concentrations were found in run-off water (113-119 ng/L) and soil (211-800 ng/g dry weight (dw)) collected close to the local FFTS. In addition, high SPFAS levels (127 ng/L) were also found in freshwater from lake Solvatnet close to former sewage treatment facility. Overall, at both FFTS-affected sites (soil, water), PFOS was the most abundant compound (60-69% of SPFASs). FFTS and landfill locations were identified as major PFAS sources for Svalbard settlements.
Newcomb-Benford's Law (NBL) proposes a regular distribution for first digits, second digits and digit combinations applicable to many different naturally occurring sources of data. Testing deviations from NBL is used in many datasets as a screening tool for identifying data trustworthiness problems. This study aims to compare public available waiting lists (WL) data from Finland and Spain for testing NBL as an instrument to flag up potential manipulation in WLs.
Analysis of the frequency of Finnish and Spanish WLs first digits to determine if their distribution is similar to the pattern documented by NBL. Deviations from the expected first digit frequency were analysed using Pearson's ?2, mean absolute deviation and Kuiper tests.
Publicly available WL data from Finland and Spain, two countries with universal health insurance and National Health Systems but characterised by different levels of transparency and good governance standards.
Adjustment of the observed distribution of the numbers reported in Finnish and Spanish WL data to the expected distribution according to NBL.
WL data reported by the Finnish health system fits first digit NBL according to all statistical tests used (p=0.6519 in ?2 test). For Spanish data, this hypothesis was rejected in all tests (p
The objective of the study was to examine diagnosis-specific sickness absences of different lengths as predictors of disability retirement in different occupational classes.
Register-based prospective cohort study up to 8 years of follow-up.
A 70% random sample of the non-retired Finnish population aged 25-62 at the end of 2006 was included (n=1 727 644) and linked to data on sickness absences in 2005 and data on disability retirement in 2007-2014.
Cox proportional hazards regression was utilised to analyse the association of sickness absence with the risk of all-cause disability retirement during an 8-year follow-up.
The risk of disability retirement increased with increasing lengths of sickness absence in all occupational classes. A long sickness absence was a particularly strong predictor of disability retirement in upper non-manual employees as among those with over 180 sickness absence days the HR was 9.19 (95% CI 7.40 to 11.40), but in manual employees the HR was 3.51 (95% CI 3.23 to 3.81) in men. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 7.26 (95% CI 6.16 to 8.57) and 3.94 (95% CI 3.60 to 4.30), respectively. Adjusting for the diagnosis of sickness absence partly attenuated the association between the length of sickness absence and the risk of disability retirement in all employed groups.
A long sickness absence is a strong predictor of disability retirement in all occupational classes. Preventing the accumulation of sickness absence days and designing more efficient policies for different occupational classes may be crucial to reduce the number of transitions to early retirement due to disability.
Trajectories of disposable income among people of working ages diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a nationwide register-based cohort study in Sweden 7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis with a population-based reference group.
To describe how disposable income (DI) and three main components changed, and analyse whether DI development differed from working-aged people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to a reference group from 7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis in Sweden.
Population-based cohort study, 12-year follow-up (7?years before to 4?years after diagnosis).
Swedish working-age population with microdata linked from two nationwide registers.
Residents diagnosed with MS in 2009 aged 25-59 years (n=785), and references without MS (n=7847) randomly selected with stratified matching (sex, age, education and country of birth).
DI was defined as the annual after tax sum of incomes (earnings and benefits) to measure individual economic welfare. Three main components of DI were analysed as annual sums: earnings, sickness absence benefits and disability pension benefits.
We found no differences in mean annual DI between people with and without MS by independent t-tests (p values between 0.15 and 0.96). Differences were found for all studied components of DI from diagnosis year by independent t-tests, for example, in the final study year (2013): earnings (-64 867 Swedish Krona (SEK); 95%?CI-79 203 to -50 528); sickness absence benefits (13 330 SEK; 95%?CI 10?042 to 16 500); and disability pension benefits (21 360 SEK; 95%?CI 17?380 to 25 350). A generalised estimating equation evaluated DI trajectory development between people with and without MS to find both trajectories developed in parallel, both before (-4039 SEK; 95%?CI -10?536 to 2458) and after (-781 SEK; 95%?CI -6988 to 5360) diagnosis.
The key finding of parallel DI trajectory development between working-aged MS and references suggests minimal economic impact within the first 4 years of diagnosis. The Swedish welfare system was responsive to the observed reductions in earnings around MS diagnosis through balancing DI with morbidity-related benefits. Future decreases in economic welfare may be experienced as the disease progresses, although thorough investigation with future studies of modern cohorts are required.
Evaluate the urinary, bowel and sexual function as well as stress symptoms and depression in a sample of the Swedish population.
A random sample of Swedish men and women in age groups from 30 to 89 years, a total of 3000 individuals, were contacted and after receiving informed consent, a questionnaire was sent.
Measures of urinary, bowel, sexual function and quality of life.
The questionnaire was sent to 2094 individuals who gave informed consent. The questionnaire was answered by 1078 individuals. Quality of life, stress symptoms and depressed mood were relatively constant across age groups for both men and women. Urinary function differed significantly across gender and age groups, but bowel function was relatively unaffected by age. Overall bowel dysfunction was slightly more prevalent among women compared with men. For both men and women, the frequency of intercourse or other sexual activities decreased with age, whereas sexually associated distress increased by age in men, but decreased among women.
In a general population, the urinary function varied across age and sex. Overall bowel dysfunction was slightly more prevalent among women compared with men. Sexually associated distress increased by age for men, but decreased for women.
To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular (LV) function in a population with low average alcohol intake.
A total of 1296 healthy participants, free from cardiovascular diseases, were randomly selected from the third wave of the Norwegian HUNT study (2006-2008) and underwent echocardiography. After validation of the inclusion criteria, 30 participants were excluded due to arrhythmias or myocardial or valvular pathology. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic and major cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by questionnaires and clinical examination in the HUNT3. General linear models were used to analyse the cross-sectional associations between alcohol intake and LV indices.
LV functional and structural indices were measured with tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography.
We observed no associations between alcohol consumption and multivariable-adjusted LV functional indices. Excluding abstainers who reported regular alcohol consumption 10 years prior to the baseline did not change the results. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with LV mass indices (p
Although there have been occasional reports of rare and low-level trichinellae infestation in beavers, no human cases of beaver-associated trichinellosis have been described. This report presents a possible case of human trichinellosis linked to beaver meat. Increasing consumption of beaver meat necessitates raising awareness of this potential source of trichinellosis.
We estimated the lifetime prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel release (CTR) and identified risk factors for CTR.
The study population consisted of individuals aged =30 years living in Finland during 2000-2001 (N?=?6,256) and was linked to the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from 2000 to 2011.
Lifetime prevalence of CTR was 3.1%, and incidence rate was 1.73 per 1,000 person-years. Female sex (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), age of 40-49 years (HR?=?2.5, CI 1.7-3.8 compared with other age groups), education (HR?=?0.6, CI 0.4-0.9 for high level vs. low/medium level), obesity (HR?=?1.7, CI 1.2-2.5 for body mass index =30 vs.?
The Norwegian Armed Forces' shooting ranges contain contamination by metals such as lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) and are often used as grazing pastures for livestock. To determine whether the sheep were at risk from grazing at a shooting range in Nord-Trøndelag (the Leksdalen shooting field), a study was conducted wherein the aim was to determine the amount of soil the sheep were eating, the accumulation of Cu and Pb in the livers of lambs grazing on the shooting ranges, and the accumulation of Pb and Cu in the grass. The grazing behavior of the sheep was mapped using GPS tracking and wildlife cameras. Soil, grass, feces, and liver samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed for Pb, Cu, and molybdenum (Mo), and soil and feces were also analyzed for titanium (Ti). Mean concentrations in grass, soil, feces, and liver was 41-7189, 1.3-29, 4-5, and 0.3 mg/kg Pb, respectively, and 42-580, 4.2-11.9, 19-23, and 273 mg/kg Cu, respectively. The soil ingestion rate was calculated using Ti in feces and soil. From these results, the theoretical dose of Cu and Pb ingested by grazing sheep was calculated. The soil ingestion rate was found to be 0.1-0.4%, significantly lower than the soil ingestion rate of 5-30% usually used for sheep. Little or no accumulation of Cu and Pb in the grass was found. There was no difference between the metal concentrations in the washed and unwashed grass. According to the calculated dose, the sheep were at little or no risk of acute or chronic Pb and Cu poisoning from grazing on the Leksdalen shooting range. The analysis of liver samples showed that lambs grazing on the shooting range did not have higher levels of Cu or Pb than lambs grazing elsewhere. None of the lambs had concentrations of Cu or Pb in their livers indicating poisoning.
Prenatal exposure to metabolic disturbances is associated with increased risk of offspring neurodevelopmental impairment and autism spectrum disorder, while little is known about the joint effect of maternal obesity and diabetes. With this study, we aim to assess the joint effect of maternal obesity and diabetes on the risk for offspring psychiatric and mild neurodevelopmental disorders.
Nationwide registries were used to link data of all live births in Finland between 2004 and 2014 (n = 649?043). Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusting for potential confounders was applied to estimate the effect of maternal obesity, pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM), and gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as their joint effects, on the outcomes of offspring psychiatric and mild neurodevelopmental diagnoses and offspring prescription of psychotropic drugs.
Among mothers without diabetes, severely obese mothers had 67% to 88% increased risk of having a child with mild neurodevelopmental disorders (hazard risk ratio [HR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-1.86), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or conduct disorder (HR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.58-2.23), and psychotic, mood, and stress-related disorders (HR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.31-2.13) compared with mothers with a normal BMI. PGDM implied a further risk increase for all groups of psychiatric diagnoses with onset in childhood or adolescence in mothers with severe obesity. Marked effects were found particularly for autism spectrum disorder (HR = 6.49; 95% CI = 3.08-13.69), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder (HR = 6.03; 95% CI = 3.23-11.24), and mixed disorders of conduct and emotions (HR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.14-8.60). Gestational diabetes mellitus did not increase the risk highly for these offspring disorders.
Maternal PGDM combined with severe maternal obesity markedly increases the risk of several children's psychiatric and mild neurodevelopmental disorders.
This study investigates a comparative multivariate approach for studying the biodegradation of chemically dispersed oil. The rationale for this approach lies in the inherent complexity of the data and challenges associated with comparing multiple experiments with inconsistent sampling points, with respect to inferring correlations and visualizing multiple datasets with numerous variables. We aim to identify novel correlations among microbial community composition, the chemical change of individual petroleum hydrocarbons, oil type and temperature by creating modelled datasets from inconsistent sampling time points. Four different incubation experiments were conducted with freshly collected Norwegian seawater and either Grane and Troll oil dispersed with Corexit 9500. Incubations were conducted at two different temperatures (5 °C and 13 °C) over a period of 64 days.
PCA analysis of modelled chemical datasets and calculated half-lives revealed differences in the biodegradation of individual hydrocarbons among temperatures and oil types. At 5 °C, most n-alkanes biodegraded faster in heavy Grane oil compared to light Troll oil. PCA analysis of modelled microbial community datasets reveal differences between temperature and oil type, especially at low temperature. For both oils, Colwelliaceae and Oceanospirillaceae were more prominent in the colder incubation (5 °C) than the warmer (13 °C). Overall, Colwelliaceae, Oceanospirillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Alteromonadaceae and Piscirickettsiaceae consistently dominated the microbial community at both temperatures and in both oil types. Other families known to include oil-degrading bacteria were also identified, such as Alcanivoracaceae, Methylophilaceae, Sphingomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae, but they were all present in dispersed oil incubations at a low abundance (
Anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) reactivities precede clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and it has been suggested that ACPA reactivities towards distinct target proteins may be associated with differences in RA phenotypes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of baseline ACPA reactivities in an inception cohort of patients with early RA, and to investigate their associations with disease activity, treatment response, ultrasound findings and radiographic damage.
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve patients with early RA, classified according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria, were included in the ARCTIC trial and assessed in the present analysis. During follow up, patients were monitored frequently and treatment was adjusted according to a predetermined protocol, starting with methotrexate monotherapy with prednisolone bridging. Analysis of 16 different ACPA reactivities targeting citrullinated peptides from fibrinogen, alpha-1 enolase, vimentin, filaggrin and histone was performed using a multiplex chip-based assay. Samples from 0, 3, 12 and 24 months were analysed. Controls were blood donors with similar characteristics to the patients (age, gender, smoking status).
A total of 217 patients and 94 controls were included. Median [25, 75 percentile] number of ACPA reactivities in all patients was 9 [4, 12], and were most prevalent in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide /rheumatoid factor-positive patients 10 [7, 12]. Disease activity measures and ultrasound scores at baseline were lower in ACPA reactivity-positive compared to ACPA reactivity-negative patients. ACPA reactivity levels decreased after 3 months of DMARD treatment, most pronounced for fibrinogenß 60-74 to 62% of baseline antibody level, with least change in filaggrin 307-324 to 81% of baseline antibody level, both p?
Establishing reference ranges as well as identifying and quantifying the determinants of thyroid function during pregnancy is important for proper clinical interpretation and optimizing research efforts. However, such data are sparse, specifically for triiodothyronine measurements, and most studies do not take into account thyroid antibodies or human chorionic gonadotropin.
To determine reference ranges and to identify/quantify determinants of TSH, free T4 (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total T4 (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3).
This study included 2314 participants of the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study, a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort of mother-child pairs. Reference ranges were calculated by 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles after excluding thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb)-positive and/or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)-positive women.
TSH, FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 in prenatal serum.
After exclusion of TPOAb-positive women, reference ranges were as follows: TSH, 0.11 to 3.48 mU/L; FT4, 11.6 to 19.4 pmol/L; FT3, 3.72 to 5.92 pg/mL; TT4, 82.4 to 166.2 pmol/L; and TT3, 1.28 to 2.92 nmol/L. Additional exclusion of TgAb-positive women did not change the reference ranges substantially. Exposure to tobacco smoke, as assessed by questionnaires and serum cotinine, was associated with lower TSH and higher FT3 and TT3. Body mass index (BMI) and gestational age were the main determinants of TSH (only for BMI), FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3.
We show that the exclusion of TgAb-positive women on top of excluding TPOAb-positive women hardly affects clinical reference ranges. We identified various relevant clinical determinants of TSH, FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 that could reflect endocrine-disrupting effects and/or effects on thyroid hormone transport or deiodination.
This study aimed to evaluate (i) longitudinal fluctuations and considerable changes in adult fear at five data-collection points during a 2.5-yr period and (ii) the stability of symptoms of depression in dental fear-change groups. Pilot data from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort study, of 254 families expecting a baby, were used. Data-collection points (DCPs) were: 18-20 and 32-34 gestational weeks; and 3, 12, and 24 months after delivery. At baseline, 119 women and 85 men completed the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) questionnaire. At all DCPs, 57 (48%) women and 35 (41%) men completed MDAS. Depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Changes in MDAS were analyzed using general linear modelling for repeated measures. Stability of dental fear was assessed using dichotomized MDAS scores. Dental fear among women decreased statistically significantly in late pregnancy and increased thereafter. Among men, dental fear tended to increase in late pregnancy and decreased afterwards. Depression scores varied in high and fluctuating fear groups but the differences diminished towards the last DCP. Dental fear among adults experiencing a major life event does not seem to be stable. Clinicians should take this into account. The mechanisms behind these changes need further research.
Understanding drivers of permafrost microbial community composition is critical for understanding permafrost microbiology and predicting ecosystem responses to thaw. We hypothesize that permafrost communities are shaped by physical constraints imposed by prolonged freezing, and exhibit spatial distributions that reflect dispersal limitation and selective pressures associated with these physical constraints. To test this, we characterized patterns of environmental variation and microbial community composition in permafrost across an Alaskan boreal forest landscape. We used null modeling to estimate the importance of selective and neutral assembly processes on community composition, and identified environmental factors influencing ecological selection through regression and structural equation modeling (SEM). Proportionally, the strongest process influencing community composition was dispersal limitation (0.36), exceeding the influence of homogenous selection (0.21), variable selection (0.16) and homogenizing dispersal (0.05). Fe(II) content was the most important factor explaining variable selection, and was significantly associated with total selection by univariate regression (R2 = 0.14, P = 0.003). SEM supported a model in which Fe(II) content mediated influences of the Gibbs free energy of the organic matter pool and organic acid concentration on total selection. These findings suggest that the dominant processes shaping microbial communities in permafrost result from the stability of the permafrost environment, which imposes dispersal and thermodynamic constraints.
Rural, remote, and Indigenous communities often contend with free-roaming dog populations, increasing the risk of aggressive dog encounters, particularly dog bites and fatal dog attacks. This qualitative survey gathered a range of perspectives to ascertain the current veterinary services available in rural, remote, and Indigenous communities of northern Manitoba, as well as needs, barriers to, and considerations for future veterinary care provision. Survey results indicated terminology such as "overpopulation" and "rescue" need to be carefully considered as they may have negative connotations for communities. While veterinary services such as vaccination and deworming are important for public health, most programs were focused on sterilization. There was consensus that conversations must begin with individual communities to determine what services are needed and how to fulfil those needs. Perceived barriers include the remoteness of communities, finances, and culturally different views of veterinary medicine. Recommendations for future delivery of services include increased frequency and funding of current models, while others focused on different methods of delivery; all of which will require further discussions within the veterinary community and with other stakeholders.
Réflexions concernant la prestation de services vétérinaires dans les régions insuffisamment desservies : exemple de cas dans le nord du Manitoba, au Canada. Les collectivités autochtones rurales et éloignées doivent souvent gérer des populations de chiens errants, ce qui augmente le risque de rencontres avec des chiens agressifs, particulièrement des morsures de chien et d’attaques mortelles par des chiens. Cette enquête qualitative a réuni un éventail de points de vue afin de déterminer les services vétérinaires actuellement disponibles dans les collectivités autochtones rurales et éloignées dans le nord du Manitoba, ainsi que les besoins, les obstacles et les considérations pour la prestation future de soins vétérinaires. Les résultats de l’enquête ont indiqué que la terminologie de «surpopulation» ou de «secours» doit être soigneusement considérée car elle évoque des connotations négatives pour les collectivités. Même si les services vétérinaires comme la vaccination et la vermifugation sont importants pour la santé publique, la plupart des programmes se concentraient sur la stérilisation. Il y avait un consensus que les conversations doivent être entamées dans les collectivités individuelles afin de déterminer les services qui sont requis et comment répondre à ces besoins. Les obstacles perçus incluent l’éloignement des collectivités, les finances et des vues culturelles différentes de la médecine vétérinaire. Des recommandations pour la prestation future de services incluent une fréquence accrue et le financement des modèles actuels, tandis que d’autres portent sur des modes de prestation différents. Toutes ces recommandations exigeront des discussions approfondies au sein de la collectivité vétérinaire et avec les autres intervenants.(Traduit par Isabelle Vallières).
The diversity and metabolic functions of deep subsurface ecosystems remain relatively unexplored. Microbial communities in previously studied deep subsurface sites of the Fennoscandian Shield are distinctive to each site. Thus, we hypothesized that the microbial communities of the deep Archaean bedrock fracture aquifer in Romuvaara, northern Finland, differ both in community composition and metabolic functionality from the other sites in the Fennoscandian Shield. We characterized the composition, functionality and substrate preferences of the microbial communities at different depths in a 600 m deep borehole. In contrast to other Fennoscandian deep biosphere communities studied to date, iron-oxidizing Gallionella dominated the bacterial communities, while methanogenic and ammonia-oxidizing archaea were the most prominent archaea, and a diverse fungal community was also detected. Potential for methane cycling and sulfate and nitrate reduction was confirmed by detection of the functional genes of these metabolic pathways. Organotrophs were less abundant, although carbohydrates were the most preferred of the tested substrates. The microbial communities shared features with those detected from other deep groundwaters with similar geochemistry, but the majority of taxa distinctive to Romuvaara are different from the taxa previously detected in saline deep groundwater in the Fennoscandian Shield, most likely because of the differences in water chemistry.