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20109 records – page 2 of 1006.

Multiple mechanisms of early plant community assembly with stochasticity driving the process.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303055
Source
Ecology. 2018 Jan; 99(1):91-102
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Bryndís Marteinsdóttir
Kristín Svavarsdóttir
Thóra Ellen Thórhallsdóttir
Author Affiliation
Institute of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101, Reykjavík, Iceland.
Source
Ecology. 2018 Jan; 99(1):91-102
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Ecosystem
Iceland
Plants
Soil
Abstract
Initial plant establishment is one of the most critical phases in ecosystem development, where an early suite of physical (environmental filtering), biological (seed limitation, species interactions) and stochastic factors may affect successional trajectories and rates. While functional traits are commonly used to study processes that influence plant community assembly in late successional communities, few studies have applied them to primary succession. The objective here was to determine the importance of these factors in shaping early plant community assembly on a glacial outwash plain, Skeiðarársandur, in SE Iceland using a trait based approach. We used data on vascular plant assemblages at two different spatial scales (community and neighborhood) sampled in 2005 and 2012, and compiled a dataset on seven functional traits linked to species dispersal abilities, establishment, and persistence for all species within these assemblages. Trait-based null model analyses were used to determine the processes that influenced plant community assembly from the regional species pool into local communities, and to determine if the importance of these processes in community assembly was dependent on local environment or changed with time. On the community scale, for most traits, random processes dominated the assembly from the regional species pool. However, in some communities, there was evidence of non-random assembly in relation to traits linked to species dispersal abilities, persistence, and establishment. On the neighborhood scale, assembly was mostly random. The relative importance of different processes varied spatially and temporally and the variation was linked to local soil conditions. While stochasticity dominated assembly patterns of our early successional communities, there was evidence of both seed limitation and environmental filtering. Our results indicated that as soil conditions improved, environmental constraints on assembly became weaker and the assembly became more dependent on species availability.
PubMed ID
29121406 View in PubMed
Less detail

Differences in physical activity at recess and school-related social factors in four Finnish lower secondary schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303056
Source
Health Educ Res. 2017 12 01; 32(6):499-512
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-01-2017
Author
H L Haapala
M H Hirvensalo
K Laine
L Laakso
H Hakonen
T Lintunen
T H Tammelin
Author Affiliation
LIKES Research Centre for Physical Activity and Health, 40700 Jyväskylä, Finland.
Source
Health Educ Res. 2017 12 01; 32(6):499-512
Date
12-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Exercise
Female
Finland
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Organizational Culture
Peer Group
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Social Environment
Students - statistics & numerical data
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
This study investigated the differences in physical activity (PA) at recess and school-related social factors, and described school PA promotion processes and staff experiences at four lower secondary schools from the Finnish Schools on the Move programme. Recess PA, peer relationships at school, relatedness to school, and school climate were assessed via surveys with eighth-grade students in spring 2011 (n = 385) and spring 2013 (n = 373). Local contact people in the school projects (n = 6), school staff (n = 83) and principals (n = 3) provided information on the PA promotion process via telephone interviews and surveys. Differences in student-level data in years 2011 and 2013 were analysed by gender using two-way ANOVA. Data on school processes were analysed using a combination of classification, narrative approach and content analysis.In two of the four schools, male students reported higher levels of recess PA in 2013 compared to 2011. In three schools, school-related social factors did not differ between 2011 and 2013. School cultures and routes towards a more physically active school day differed; the project was highly visible in all schools, but staff participation varied. More research is needed to determine the effective physically active strategies to promote positive social well-being and to enhance staff engagement.
PubMed ID
29096026 View in PubMed
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Embedded survey study harms colorectal cancer screening attendance: Experiences from Finland 2010 to 2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303057
Source
J Med Screen. 2018 Mar; 25(1):51-54
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Sanni Helander
Tytti Sarkeala
Nea Malila
Author Affiliation
1 Mass Screening Registry, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Med Screen. 2018 Mar; 25(1):51-54
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Colorectal Neoplasms - diagnosis
Early Detection of Cancer - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Health Services Research - ethics
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Objective We previously found that administering a pre-screening lifestyle questionnaire lowered the subsequent attendance proportion in the first-ever colorectal cancer screening. We sought to determine whether the effect continued in subsequent screening rounds. Methods The eligible survey cohort ( n?=?10,375) received a follow-up questionnaire in 2012, and in 2013, they were invited for colorectal cancer screening for the second time. For the third screening round, in 2015, no questionnaires were sent in the previous year. Screening attendance in 2013 and in 2015 was examined in relation to survey mailings. Results The colorectal cancer screening attendance rate in 2013 was 58.4% in the survey population, and 63.9% in those not surveyed ( P?
PubMed ID
28372514 View in PubMed
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Methodological Challenges in Developing a Youth Questionnaire, Life & Health Young People, for Comparative Studies in Thailand and Sweden: About Bridging the Language Gap Between Two Non-English-Speaking Countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303058
Source
J Transcult Nurs. 2017 Nov; 28(6):582-589
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Anchalee Thitasan
Marianne Velandia
Chularat Howharn
Elinor Brunnberg
Author Affiliation
1 Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
Source
J Transcult Nurs. 2017 Nov; 28(6):582-589
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Communication Barriers
Humans
Internationality
Psychometrics - instrumentation - methods - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Thailand
Translating
Abstract
To develop a Thai questionnaire ??????????????????????????????????? (TYQ) to explore girls' and boys' living conditions, lifestyles, and self-reported health with special focus on sexuality, based on a Swedish questionnaire, Liv & Hälsa ung (SYQ). Challenges in developing a youth questionnaire for comparative studies are described.
A multistep translation, sociocultural adaptation procedure, and a mixed-method validation test were performed using English as a common language within the research group. Three versions of SYQ were used as a pool of questions to develop the questionnaire.
From a field test, unclear questions were identified and minor adjustments made. Life & Health Young People in a Thai version was successfully developed. The English version was used to bridge the language gap.
This unique multistep methodology, including mixed-method validation procedure, can be used by researchers in countries where English is not the main language.
PubMed ID
27629861 View in PubMed
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Toward understanding the contribution of waterbodies to the methane emissions of a permafrost landscape on a regional scale-A case study from the Mackenzie Delta, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303025
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):3976-3989
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
09-2018
Author
Katrin Kohnert
Bennet Juhls
Sina Muster
Sofia Antonova
Andrei Serafimovich
Stefan Metzger
Jörg Hartmann
Torsten Sachs
Author Affiliation
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):3976-3989
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Greenhouse gases
Lakes
Methane - analysis
Permafrost
Seasons
Wetlands
Abstract
Waterbodies in the arctic permafrost zone are considered a major source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4 ) in addition to CH4 emissions from arctic wetlands. However, the spatio-temporal variability of CH4 fluxes from waterbodies complicates spatial extrapolation of CH4 measurements from single waterbodies. Therefore, their contribution to the CH4 budget of the arctic permafrost zone is not yet well understood. Using the example of two study areas of 1,000 km² each in the Mackenzie Delta, Canada, we approach this issue (i) by analyzing correlations on the landscape scale between numerous waterbodies and CH4 fluxes and (ii) by analyzing the influence of the spatial resolution of CH4 flux data on the detected relationships. A CH4 flux map with a resolution of 100 m was derived from two aircraft eddy-covariance campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. We combined the CH4 flux map with high spatial resolution (2.5 m) waterbody maps from the Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database and classified the waterbody depth based on Sentinel-1 SAR backscatter data. Subsequently, we reduced the resolution of the CH4 flux map to analyze if different spatial resolutions of CH4 flux data affected the detectability of relationships between waterbody coverage, number, depth, or size and the CH4 flux. We did not find consistent correlations between waterbody characteristics and the CH4 flux in the two study areas across the different resolutions. Our results indicate that waterbodies in permafrost landscapes, even if they seem to be emission hot spots on an individual basis or contain zones of above average emissions, do currently not necessarily translate into significant CH4 emission hot spots on a regional scale, but their role might change in a warmer climate.
PubMed ID
29697179 View in PubMed
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Cross-scale controls on carbon emissions from boreal forest megafires.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303026
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):4251-4265
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
09-2018
Author
Xanthe J Walker
Brendan M Rogers
Jennifer L Baltzer
Steven G Cumming
Nicola J Day
Scott J Goetz
Jill F Johnstone
Edward A G Schuur
Merritt R Turetsky
Michelle C Mack
Author Affiliation
Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):4251-4265
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Carbon - analysis
Fires
Global warming
Northwest Territories
Picea - chemistry
Pinus - chemistry
Taiga
Abstract
Climate warming and drying is associated with increased wildfire disturbance and the emergence of megafires in North American boreal forests. Changes to the fire regime are expected to strongly increase combustion emissions of carbon (C) which could alter regional C balance and positively feedback to climate warming. In order to accurately estimate C emissions and thereby better predict future climate feedbacks, there is a need to understand the major sources of heterogeneity that impact C emissions at different scales. Here, we examined 211 field plots in boreal forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana) or jack pine (Pinus banksiana) of the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada after an unprecedentedly large area burned in 2014. We assessed both aboveground and soil organic layer (SOL) combustion, with the goal of determining the major drivers in total C emissions, as well as to develop a high spatial resolution model to scale emissions in a relatively understudied region of the boreal forest. On average, 3.35 kg C m-2 was combusted and almost 90% of this was from SOL combustion. Our results indicate that black spruce stands located at landscape positions with intermediate drainage contribute the most to C emissions. Indices associated with fire weather and date of burn did not impact emissions, which we attribute to the extreme fire weather over a short period of time. Using these results, we estimated a total of 94.3 Tg C emitted from 2.85 Mha of burned area across the entire 2014 NWT fire complex, which offsets almost 50% of mean annual net ecosystem production in terrestrial ecosystems of Canada. Our study also highlights the need for fine-scale estimates of burned area that represent small water bodies and regionally specific calibrations of combustion that account for spatial heterogeneity in order to accurately model emissions at the continental scale.
PubMed ID
29697169 View in PubMed
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Artistic creativity and risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression: a Swedish population-based case-control study and sib-pair analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303027
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2018 06; 212(6):370-376
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
J H MacCabe
A Sariaslan
C Almqvist
P Lichtenstein
H Larsson
S Kyaga
Author Affiliation
Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology and Neuroscience,Kings College London,UK.
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2018 06; 212(6):370-376
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Creativity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Many studies have addressed the question of whether mental disorder is associated with creativity, but high-quality epidemiological evidence has been lacking.AimsTo test for an association between studying a creative subject at high school or university and later mental disorder.
In a case-control study using linked population-based registries in Sweden (N = 4 454 763), we tested for associations between tertiary education in an artistic field and hospital admission with schizophrenia (N = 20 333), bipolar disorder (N = 28 293) or unipolar depression (N = 148 365).
Compared with the general population, individuals with an artistic education had increased odds of developing schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% CI = [1.69; 2.12]) bipolar disorder (odds ratio = 1.62 [1.50; 1.75]) and unipolar depression (odds ratio = 1.39 [1.34; 1.44]. The results remained after adjustment for IQ and other potential confounders.
Students of artistic subjects at university are at increased risk of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression in adulthood.Declaration of interestNone.
PubMed ID
29697041 View in PubMed
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Metapopulation dynamics in a changing climate: Increasing spatial synchrony in weather conditions drives metapopulation synchrony of a butterfly inhabiting a fragmented landscape.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303028
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):4316-4329
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Aapo Kahilainen
Saskya van Nouhuys
Torsti Schulz
Marjo Saastamoinen
Author Affiliation
Metapopulation Research Centre, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):4316-4329
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Butterflies - growth & development - physiology
Climate change
Ecosystem
Finland
Larva - growth & development - physiology
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
Habitat fragmentation and climate change are both prominent manifestations of global change, but there is little knowledge on the specific mechanisms of how climate change may modify the effects of habitat fragmentation, for example, by altering dynamics of spatially structured populations. The long-term viability of metapopulations is dependent on independent dynamics of local populations, because it mitigates fluctuations in the size of the metapopulation as a whole. Metapopulation viability will be compromised if climate change increases spatial synchrony in weather conditions associated with population growth rates. We studied a recently reported increase in metapopulation synchrony of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) in the Finnish archipelago, to see if it could be explained by an increase in synchrony of weather conditions. For this, we used 23 years of butterfly survey data together with monthly weather records for the same period. We first examined the associations between population growth rates within different regions of the metapopulation and weather conditions during different life-history stages of the butterfly. We then examined the association between the trends in the synchrony of the weather conditions and the synchrony of the butterfly metapopulation dynamics. We found that precipitation from spring to late summer are associated with the M. cinxia per capita growth rate, with early summer conditions being most important. We further found that the increase in metapopulation synchrony is paralleled by an increase in the synchrony of weather conditions. Alternative explanations for spatial synchrony, such as increased dispersal or trophic interactions with a specialist parasitoid, did not show paralleled trends and are not supported. The climate driven increase in M. cinxia metapopulation synchrony suggests that climate change can increase extinction risk of spatially structured populations living in fragmented landscapes by altering their dynamics.
PubMed ID
29682866 View in PubMed
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Invasive Dental Treatment and Risk for a First Myocardial Infarction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303029
Source
J Dent Res. 2018 09; 97(10):1100-1105
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
E Nordendahl
B Kjellström
C M Fored
A Ekbom
T Svensson
A Norhammar
A Gustafsson
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
J Dent Res. 2018 09; 97(10):1100-1105
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Dental Care - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Invasive dental treatment is suggested to be associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that the incidence of a first myocardial infarction (MI) within 4 wk after invasive dental treatments is increased. A registry-based case-control study within nationwide health care and population registries in Sweden was performed. The case patients included 51,880 individuals with a first fatal or nonfatal MI between January 2011 and December 2013. For each case, 5 control subjects, free from prior MI and matched for age, sex, and geographic area of residence, were randomly selected from the national population registry through risk set sampling with replacement, resulting in 246,978 control subjects. Information on dental treatments was obtained from the Dental Health Register, and the procedures were categorized into invasive dental treatments or other dental treatments. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for MI with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition to the matching variables, adjustments were made for the following confounders: diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD drug treatment, education, and income. The mean age for case patients and controls subjects was 72.6 ± 13.0 y and 72.3 ± 13.0 y, respectively. Case patients more often had previous CVD (49% vs. 23%; P
PubMed ID
29634394 View in PubMed
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Abdominal symptoms and cancer in the abdomen: prospective cohort study in European primary care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303030
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2018 05; 68(670):e301-e310
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Knut Holtedahl
Peter Hjertholm
Lars Borgquist
Gé A Donker
Frank Buntinx
David Weller
Tonje Braaten
Jörgen Månsson
Eva Lena Strandberg
Christine Campbell
Joke C Korevaar
Ranjan Parajuli
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
Source
Br J Gen Pract. 2018 05; 68(670):e301-e310
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abdominal Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Abdominal Pain - etiology - pathology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Belgium - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Early Detection of Cancer
Female
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage - etiology - pathology
Hematuria - etiology - pathology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Primary Health Care
Prospective Studies
Referral and Consultation
Scotland - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Weight Loss
Young Adult
Abstract
Different abdominal symptoms may signal cancer, but their role is unclear.
To examine associations between abdominal symptoms and subsequent cancer diagnosed in the abdominal region.
Prospective cohort study comprising 493 GPs from surgeries in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Scotland, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
Over a 10-day period, the GPs recorded consecutive consultations and noted: patients who presented with abdominal symptoms pre-specified on the registration form; additional data on non-specific symptoms; and features of the consultation. Eight months later, data on all cancer diagnoses among all study patients in the participating general practices were requested from the GPs.
Consultations with 61 802 patients were recorded and abdominal symptoms were documented in 6264 (10.1%) patients. Malignancy, both abdominal and non-abdominal, was subsequently diagnosed in 511 patients (0.8%). Among patients with a new cancer in the abdomen (n = 251), 175 (69.7%) were diagnosed within 180 days after consultation. In a multivariate model, the highest sex- and age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was for the single symptom of rectal bleeding (HR 19.1, 95% confidence interval = 8.7 to 41.7). Positive predictive values of >3% were found for macroscopic haematuria, rectal bleeding, and involuntary weight loss, with variations according to age and sex. The three symptoms relating to irregular bleeding had particularly high specificity in terms of colorectal, uterine, and bladder cancer.
A patient with undiagnosed cancer may present with symptoms or no symptoms. Irregular bleeding must always be explained. Abdominal pain occurs with all types of abdominal cancer and several symptoms may signal colorectal cancer. The findings are important as they influence how GPs think and act, and how they can contribute to an earlier diagnosis of cancer.
PubMed ID
29632003 View in PubMed
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Time lag and negative responses of forest greenness and tree growth to warming over circumboreal forests.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303031
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):4225-4237
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Shunsuke Tei
Atsuko Sugimoto
Author Affiliation
Arctic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 09; 24(9):4225-4237
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Alaska
Canada
Climate change
Europe
Forests
Global warming
Models, Biological
Regression Analysis
Russia
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Trees - growth & development
Abstract
The terrestrial forest ecosystems in the northern high latitude region have been experiencing significant warming rates over several decades. These forests are considered crucial to the climate system and global carbon cycle and are particularly vulnerable to climate change. To obtain an improved estimate of the response of vegetation activity, e.g., forest greenness and tree growth, to climate change, we investigated spatiotemporal variations in two independent data sets containing the dendroecological information for this region over the past 30 years. These indices are the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI3g) and the tree-ring width index (RWI), both of which showed significant spatial variability in past trends and responses to climate changes. These trends and responses to climate change differed significantly in the ecosystems of the circumarctic (latitude higher than 67°N) and the circumboreal forests (latitude higher and lower than 50°N and 67°N, respectively), but the way in which they differed was relatively similar in the NDVI3g and the RWI. In the circumarctic ecosystem, the climate variables of the current summer were the main climatic drivers for the positive response to the increase in temperatures showed by both the NDVI3g and the RWI indices. On the other hand, in the circumboreal forest ecosystem, the climate variables of the previous year (from summer to winter) were also important climatic drivers for both the NDVI3g and the RWI. Importantly, both indices showed that the temperatures in the previous year negatively affected the ecosystem. Although such negative responses to warming did not necessarily lead to a past negative linear trend in the NDVI3g and the RWI over the past 30 years, future climate warming could potentially cause severe reduction in forest greenness and tree growth in the circumboreal forest ecosystem.
PubMed ID
29569800 View in PubMed
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Contrasting drivers and trends of coniferous and deciduous tree growth in interior Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303032
Source
Ecology. 2018 06; 99(6):1284-1295
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
06-2018
Author
Sean M P Cahoon
Patrick F Sullivan
Annalis H Brownlee
Robert R Pattison
Hans-Erik Andersen
Kate Legner
Teresa N Hollingsworth
Author Affiliation
Environment and Natural Resources Institute, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, Alaska, 99508, USA.
Source
Ecology. 2018 06; 99(6):1284-1295
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Climate
Picea
Tracheophyta
Trees
Abstract
The boreal biome represents approximately one third of the world's forested area and plays an important role in global biogeochemical and energy cycles. Numerous studies in boreal Alaska have concluded that growth of black and white spruce is declining as a result of temperature-induced drought stress. The combined evidence of declining spruce growth and changes in the fire regime that favor establishment of deciduous tree species has led some investigators to suggest the region may be transitioning from dominance by spruce to dominance by deciduous forests and/or grasslands. Although spruce growth trends have been extensively investigated, few studies have evaluated long-term radial growth trends of the dominant deciduous species (Alaska paper birch and trembling aspen) and their sensitivity to moisture availability. We used a large and spatially extensive sample of tree cores from interior Alaska to compare long-term growth trends among contrasting tree species (white and black spruce vs. birch and aspen). All species showed a growth peak in the mid-1940s, although growth following the peak varied strongly across species. Following an initial decline from the peak, growth of white spruce showed little evidence of a trend, while black spruce and birch growth showed slight growth declines from ~1970 to present. Aspen growth was much more variable than the other species and showed a steep decline from ~1970 to present. Growth of birch, black and white spruce was sensitive to moisture availability throughout most of the tree-ring chronologies, as evidenced by negative correlations with air temperature and positive correlations with precipitation. However, a positive correlation between previous July precipitation and aspen growth disappeared in recent decades, corresponding with a rise in the population of the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella), an herbivorous moth, which may have driven growth to a level not seen since the early 20th century. Our results provide important historical context for recent growth and raise questions regarding competitive interactions among the dominant tree species and exchanges of carbon and energy in the warming climate of interior Alaska.
PubMed ID
29569245 View in PubMed
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Leisure time physical activity and future psychological distress: A thirteen year longitudinal population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303033
Source
J Psychiatr Res. 2018 06; 101:50-56
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
Davy Vancampfort
Brendon Stubbs
Author Affiliation
Health Services Research Unit, Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address: mashhood.a.sheikh@uit.no.
Source
J Psychiatr Res. 2018 06; 101:50-56
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety - epidemiology
Depression - epidemiology
Exercise
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Abstract
A number of cross-sectional studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) is negatively associated with psychological distress in adulthood. A paucity of regionally representative and longitudinal studies has considered this relationship. This study investigated the association between leisure time light and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and psychological distress over 13 years in a regionally representative sample. A total of 4754 men (mean age: 47.2 years) and 5571 women from (mean age: 46.9 years) the Tromsø Study were followed for 13 years. Light PA and MVPA was captured at baseline and psychological distress was captured using the Hopkins Symptom Check List-10 scale. Ordinary least square and Poisson regression models were used, adjusting for multiple confounders to investigate the relationship between light PA/MVPA and psychological distress. In the fully-adjusted model, accounting sociodemographics, history of parental psychopathology, socioeconomic status, marital status, smoking, social support and risk factors, we found evidence that both light PA (ß 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.19; p?
PubMed ID
29550608 View in PubMed
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Long-term unprocessed and processed red meat consumption and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study of women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303034
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar; 58(2):665-672
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Joanna Kaluza
Holly Harris
Anders Linden
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171-77, Stockholm, Sweden. joanna_kaluza@sggw.pl.
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar; 58(2):665-672
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Meat Products - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology
Red Meat - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Limited studies have examined red meat consumption in relation to risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and none have examined the impact of long-term diet on COPD risk. We sought to investigate the association between long-term red meat consumption and risk of COPD.
The population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort included 34,053 women, aged 48-83 years, followed for the current analyses from 2002 to 2014. Unprocessed and processed red meat consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1987 and 1997. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Over a mean follow-up of 11.6 years (2002-2014; 393,831 person-years), 1488 COPD cases were ascertained via linkage to the Swedish health registers. A positive association between long-term processed red meat (average from 1987 to 1997) and risk of COPD was observed. In contrast, no association was observed with unprocessed red meat with corresponding HRs of 1.36 (95% CI 1.03-1.79) for processed and 0.87 (95% CI 0.74-1.02) for unprocessed red meat among women who consumed =?50 g/day compared to
PubMed ID
29532164 View in PubMed
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Undermining subsistence: Barren-ground caribou in a "tragedy of open access".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303035
Source
Sci Adv. 2018 02; 4(2):e1701611
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Brenda L Parlee
John Sandlos
David C Natcher
Author Affiliation
Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G2H1, Canada.
Source
Sci Adv. 2018 02; 4(2):e1701611
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Canada
Ecosystem
Geography
Humans
Minerals
Mining
Population Dynamics
Population Groups
Porcupines - physiology
Reindeer - physiology
Abstract
Sustaining arctic/subarctic ecosystems and the livelihoods of northern Indigenous peoples is an immense challenge amid increasing resource development. The paper describes a "tragedy of open access" occurring in Canada's north as governments open up new areas of sensitive barren-ground caribou habitat to mineral resource development. Once numbering in the millions, barren-ground caribou populations (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus/Rangifer tarandus granti) have declined over 70% in northern Canada over the last two decades in a cycle well understood by northern Indigenous peoples and scientists. However, as some herds reach critically low population levels, the impacts of human disturbance have become a major focus of debate in the north and elsewhere. A growing body of science and traditional knowledge research points to the adverse impacts of resource development; however, management efforts have been almost exclusively focused on controlling the subsistence harvest of northern Indigenous peoples. These efforts to control Indigenous harvesting parallel management practices during previous periods of caribou population decline (for example, 1950s) during which time governments also lacked evidence and appeared motivated by other values and interests in northern lands and resources. As mineral resource development advances in northern Canada and elsewhere, addressing this "science-policy gap" problem is critical to the sustainability of both caribou and people.
PubMed ID
29503864 View in PubMed
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Persistent organic pollutants and organophosphate esters in feathers and blood plasma of adult kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard - associations with body condition and thyroid hormones.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303036
Source
Environ Res. 2018 07; 164:158-164
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
N B Svendsen
D Herzke
M Harju
C Bech
G W Gabrielsen
V L B Jaspers
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address: nbos@niras.dk.
Source
Environ Res. 2018 07; 164:158-164
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Environmental Pollutants
Feathers
Organophosphates - adverse effects
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Svalbard
Thyroid Hormones
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were assessed in blood plasma and feathers of 19 adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding in two colonies (Blomstrandhalvøya and Krykkjefjellet) at the Arctic archipelago, Svalbard. Potential associations with body condition index (BCI) and thyroid hormones were investigated. All compound classes were detected in both blood plasma and feathers, but due to low sample size and volumes, OPEs could only be quantified in four individuals, warranting larger follow-up studies. Kittiwakes breeding at Blomstrandhalvøya had significantly higher concentrations of organic pollutants in blood plasma than kittiwakes breeding at Krykkjefjellet (p?
PubMed ID
29499468 View in PubMed
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Mercury exposure and health impacts in dental personnel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303037
Source
Environ Res. 2018 07; 164:65-69
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
07-2018
Author
Jan Aaseth
Bjørn Hilt
Geir Bjørklund
Author Affiliation
Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway. Electronic address: jaol-aas@online.no.
Source
Environ Res. 2018 07; 164:65-69
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Dental Amalgam - adverse effects
Dentists
Humans
Mercury - adverse effects
Norway
Occupational Exposure
Sweden
Abstract
Based on toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological knowledge, the present paper reviews the status regarding possible deleterious health effects from occupational exposure to metallic mercury (Hg) in dental practice. Symptoms from the central nervous system are among the health problems that most often are attributed to Hg exposure in dentists and dental nurses working with amalgam. Uncharacteristic symptoms of chronic low-level Hg vapor exposure including weakness, fatigue, and anorexia have been observed in numerous studies of dental personnel. It is crucial to protect both human health and the environment against negative effects of Hg. In line with this, the use of dental amalgam in industrial countries is about to be phased out. In Norway and Sweden, the use of the filling material is banned.
PubMed ID
29482185 View in PubMed
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Gender differences in the relationship between workplace bullying and subjective back and neck pain: A two-wave study in a Norwegian probability sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303038
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2018 03; 106:73-75
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2018
Author
Mats Glambek
Morten Birkeland Nielsen
Johannes Gjerstad
Ståle Einarsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: mats.glambek@uib.no.
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2018 03; 106:73-75
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Back Pain - psychology
Bullying - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Neck Pain - psychology
Norway
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The association between exposure to bullying at work and subsequent pain reports is relatively well-established, but few studies have examined possible moderators of this relationship. As gender is a known risk factor for pain, with women reporting pain levels of higher intensity and longer duration, a possible gender difference in the relationship between bullying and pain has been suggested, but not sufficiently tested. The objective of the present study was therefore to examine whether gender moderates the prospective relationship between exposure to workplace bullying behaviours and subsequent subjective back and neck pain.
A national probability sample of Norwegian workers (N=1003) was collected at two time points with a six-month time-lag. Assumptions were tested using regression and moderation analyses.
Exposure to bullying behaviours was associated with increased reports of subjective back and neck pain over time, and this relationship was moderated by gender. However, the interaction took a different form than expected, with back and neck pain increasing in response to bullying among men only, to a degree that nullified the baseline gender difference.
The assumption that being female is a vulnerability factor for the development of pain in the aftermath of psychosocial stressors such as bullying was contradicted in the present study. Instead, women's relatively high baseline pain levels remain stable over time even after exposure to workplace bullying, while men's relatively low baseline pain levels increase in response to bullying, ultimately becoming tangent to the pain reported by women.
PubMed ID
29455903 View in PubMed
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Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-relative Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303039
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 04 01; 75(4):356-362
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-01-2018
Author
Golam M Khandaker
Christina Dalman
Nils Kappelmann
Jan Stochl
Henrik Dal
Kyriaki Kosidou
Peter B Jones
Håkan Karlsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 04 01; 75(4):356-362
Date
04-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Correlation of Data
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Intelligence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further.
To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association.
Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n?=?771?698). We included 647?515 participants in the analysis.
Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years.
Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants.
At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: -1.61; 95% CI, -1.74 to -1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both moderated (multiplicative, ß?=?.006; SE?=?0.002; P?=?.02 and additive, ß?=?.008; SE?=?0.002; P?=?.001) and mediated (ß?=?.028; SE?=?0.002; P?
PubMed ID
29450471 View in PubMed
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Conservation value of low-productivity forests measured as the amount and diversity of dead wood and saproxylic beetles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303040
Source
Ecol Appl. 2018 06; 28(4):1011-1019
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Aino Hämäläinen
Joachim Strengbom
Thomas Ranius
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 75007, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Ecol Appl. 2018 06; 28(4):1011-1019
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Coleoptera
Conservation of Natural Resources
Forests
Pinus sylvestris
Sweden
Abstract
In many managed landscapes, low-productivity land comprises most of the remaining relatively untouched areas, and is often over-represented within protected areas. The relationship between the productivity and conservational value of a site is poorly known; however, it has been hypothesized that biodiversity increases with productivity due to higher resource abundance or heterogeneity, and that the species communities of low-productivity land are a nested subset of communities from more productive land. We tested these hypotheses for dead-wood-dependent beetles by comparing their species richness and composition, as well as the amount and diversity of dead wood, between low-productivity (potential forest growth
PubMed ID
29446863 View in PubMed
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20109 records – page 2 of 1006.