Experiments were conducted on guinea pigs. A study was made of the pathogenicity of brucellae culture isolated from various wild and Game animals of the extreme North of the USSR (wolf, polar fox, ermine, glutton). The majority of the cultures under study proved to be highly pathogenic. Observations carried out led to the conclusion that brucella cultures circulating between the wild and domestic reindeers and migrating to other species of animals presented definite danger to the health of man.
Biochemical and immunological indexes of peripheral blood were compiled in military sanatorium "Divnomorskoe" in seamen who have suffered from general supercooling in the result of "Komsomolets" atomic submarine breakdown. The patients had the symptoms of metabolic disturbance, immunodepression, a great concentration of proteins in acute phase and activity of MB-fraction of creatine phosphokinase. Immunodepression after the general supercooling was mainly conditioned by oppression of differentiation, metabolic changes and functional activity of T-lymphocytes. A course of immunocorrective therapy was employed using "thymogen"--synthetic peptide of thymus. In the process of rehabilitation there was a gradual functional recovery, normalization of metabolism and immunological indexes.
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital maritime transportation in northern areas sets high demands on hypothermia prevention. To prevent body cooling and hypothermia of seriously-ill or injured casualties during transportation, casualty coverings must provide adequate thermal insulation and protection against cold, wind, moisture, and water splashes.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the thermal protective properties of different types of casualty coverings and to evaluate which would be adequate for use under difficult maritime conditions (cold, high wind speed, and water splashes). In addition, the study evaluated the need for thermal protection of a casualty and verified the optimum system for maritime casualty transportation.
METHODS: The study consisted of two parts: (1) the definition and comparison of the thermal protective properties of different casualty coverings in a laboratory; and (2) the evaluation of the chosen optimum protective covering for maritime prehospital transportation. The thermal insulations of ten different casualty coverings were measured according to the European standard for sleeping bags (EN 13537) using a thermal manikin in a climate chamber (-5°C) with wind speeds of 0.3 m/s and 4.0 m/s, and during moisture simulations. The second phase consisted of measurements of skin and core temperatures, air temperature, and relative humidity inside the clothing of four male test subjects during authentic maritime prehospital transportation in a partially-covered motor boat.
RESULTS: Wind (4 m/s) decreased the total thermal insulation of coverings by 11%-45%. The decrement of thermal insulation due to the added moisture inside the coverings was the lowest (approximately 22%-29%) when a waterproof reflective sheet inside blankets or bubble wrap was used, whereas vapor-tight rescue bags and bubble wrap provide the most protection against external water splashes. During authentic maritime transportation lasting 30 minutes, mean skin temperature decreased on average by 0.5°C when a windproof and water-resistant rescue bag was used over layered winter clothing.
CONCLUSION: The selected optimum rescue bag consisted of insulating and water-resistant layers providing sufficient protection against cold, wind, and water splashes during prehospital transportation lasting 30 minutes in the uncovered portion of a motor boat. The minimum thermal insulation for safe maritime transportation (30 minutes) is 0.46 m²K/W at a temperature of -5°C and a wind speed of 10 m/s.
The purpose of this research was to estimate the element status of elder Petrozavodsk citizens and to compare them with the same characteristic of people living in the central part of Russia. The hair samples taken from people aged 60 and more were examined to study the content of 25 macro- and micro elements using the method of atom-emission and mass spectrometry with inductively bonded argon plasma. No misbalance was found in Al, As, Be, Ni and minor misbalance was found in Cd, Li, Sn, V. Toxic elements Hg and Pb and essential element B were found in hair samples in higher concentrations as compared to the referent values. Low concentrations in comparison with the referent values were found in Ca, Zn, Mg, I, Fe, P, Cu, Mn, Cr, Se, Si. The above-listed element status peculiarities can be associated both with old age and specific environmental, ecological and social aspects of living in the European North. Elemental misbalance detected can lead to endemic microelemetoses and health deterioration in elder Petrozavodsk citizens.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the mineral profile of black currant fruit (Ribes nigrum l.) growing in the North-East of Russia, on the territory of the Magadan region. Material and methods. Berry samples were collected within the forest zone of Magadan from wild plants. Atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to determine the content of 25 minerals and trace elements in the objects under study. Results and discussion. The content of minerals - calcium (64.2 mg%), magnesium (21.6 mg%), sodium (0.3 mg%), phosphorus (51.8 mg%) and trace elements - iodine (1.0 µg%), zinc (0.29 mg%) in black currant fruits (Ribes nigrum l.), growing in the forest zone of Magadan, corresponded to the database of chemical composition of Germany, Spain, Norway, Russia, USA, France, Sweden, Estonia. The content of potassium (180.3 mg%), copper (0.05 mg%), iron (0.4 mg%), manganese (0.1 mg%) was below the reference ranges. A portion (100 g) of black currant berries satisfies the daily requirement of an adult for selenium by 11%, potassium by 7%, phosphorus by 6.5%, calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese - by 5%, iron by 3-4%, zinc by 2%. Conclusion. The obtained data on the content of minerals and trace elements in the berries of wild black currant growing in the North-East of Russia, can be an addition to and clarification of the information available in the literature and database on the chemical composition of foods.
To determine age-relatedpeculiarities of trace element system in oldpeople, residing in different natural and geographical regions, the content of 25 trace elements in hair samples of women from Arkhangelsk (average age is 87,0±0,98 years) and Magadan (average age is 80,1±1,25 years) was determined by spectrometric methods. In both groups there was established element misbalance characterized by lower concentration of such essential elements as Ca, Mg, Co, Cu and higher concentration of Na. The excess of K and Zn is more expressed in hair of female residents of Arkhangelsk in comparison with the city of Magadan there was revealed significantly more higher content of aluminum, boron, silicon, in the city of Magadan there are significantly higher concentrations of selenium and tin. According to the frequency of occurrence the excess of elements in the body of residents of the city of Arkhangelsk is comparable to that of residents of the city of Magadan, but has its own features. In Arkhangelsk there is more pronounced the excess ofpotassium, there was found high content of zinc, whereas in the city of Magadan there was revealed an excess of manganese and arsenic. Square of the figure, reflecting the deficiency of elements in female residents of the city of Magadan is more than in the city of Arkhangelsk, which is manifested by larger deficiency of chromium, zinc, iron. Identified regional differences in the content of macro- and microelements are related to biogeochemical and ecological features of the regions, which can determine the specifics of the aging diseases and time of their occurrence.
An inbred family A. G. with identical twin sisters having the Rhnull phenotype of the regulator type as confirmed by the maternal family data of Rh inheritance is reported. The family was traced back through church records for six generations. Several connections could be established with a Norwegian Sea Lapp community in which a family with the amorph Rhnull type has been reported. The closeness of the Finnish and the Norwegian Lapps was given special attention since, despite both of the communities are small and share a more or less common gene pool, they nevertheless seem to possess the two ultra rare Rh genes, Xor in the Finnish and r in the Norwegian family, producing, when homozygous, the Rhnull phenotype.
The intention to increase roach (Rutilus rutilus) consumption is in focus for ecological and economic reasons in Finland. However, its safety as food has not been considered comprehensively. We collected and artificially digested 85 roach halves originating from the south-eastern coast of Finland, and found trematode metacercariae in 98.8% of the samples. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of amplicons generated from the ITS2 gene region, zoonotic parasites of the family Opistorchiidae were identified as Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis bilis, and also non-zoonotic Holostephanus dubinini (family Cyathocotylidae) and Posthodiplostomum spp. (family Diplostomidae) were identified. The species identity of other trematodes found is currently being investigated. Mixed infections of several trematode species were common. The prevalence of morphologically identified zoonotic P. truncatum was 46%, and zoonotic M. bilis was found in one sequence sample. The high prevalence of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in roach from the Gulf of Finland is alarming. Only thoroughly cooked roach products can be recommended for human or animal consumption from the area.
Pulmonary gas exchange, SpO2 and heart rate at 15-min hypoxia (respiration by air with 0.17; 0.15 and 0.13 oxygen fractions) have been investigated in 24 health subjects. It has been established, results of the group analysis and the results of the individual analysis had been differed. Reaction on hypoxia at the group analysis had been found only at 0.13 02 fraction. It was only hyperventilation. The individual analysis had revealed 4 types of reaction on hypoxia already at 0.17 and 0.15 02 fractions: (1) hyperventilation, (2) decrease of oxygen consumption, (3) increase of ventilation effectiveness, (4) increase of CO2 production. The mechanisms of last reaction are unknown, but we supposed it was connected with anaerobic metabolism. The reactions were detected at light hypoxia (0.17 and 0.15 oxygen fractions) in 90% health subjects when SpO2 decreased to 87-93%. The increase ventilation has been detected at hypoxia within respiration 0.13 oxygen in 60% subjects when SpO2 decreased to 83-87%, while other reactions were nearly absent.
BACKGROUND: International variation in compulsory admissions to psychiatric care has mainly been studied in terms of civil commitment rates. The objectives of this study were to compare and analyse the levels of perceived coercion at admission to psychiatric in-patient care among the Nordic countries and between centres within these countries, in relation to legal prerequisites and clinical practice.
METHOD: From one to four centres each in Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Finland and Sweden, a total of 426 legally committed and 494 formally voluntarily admitted patients were interviewed within 5 days from admission.
RESULTS: The proportion of committed patients reporting high levels of perceived coercion varied among countries (from 49% in Norway to 100% in Iceland), and in Sweden, only, among centres (from 29 to 90%). No clear variations in this respect were found among voluntary patients. A wide concept of coercion in the Civil Commitment Act and no legal possibility of detention of voluntary patients were associated to low levels of perceived coercion at admission among committed patients.
CONCLUSION: For committed patients, differences in national legal prerequisites among countries were reflected in differences in perceived coercion. The results from Sweden also indicate that local care traditions may account for variation among centres within countries.
A seroepidemiology survey of nine zoonoses was carried out in 2007 on 90 healthy adult volunteers in Viljujsk, a northern city in the Republic of Sakha (Eastern Siberia). The seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis was 3.3% by immunofluorescence. None of the subjects displayed a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/Western blot result for alveolar or cystic echinococcosis. The seroprevalence of toxocariasis by Western blot was 4.4%, and 8.9% of the subjects had anti-Toxoplasma IgG. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the seroprevalence of trichinellosis was 4.4%. Three subjects were simultaneously positive for tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile infection, so no clear diagnostic conclusion could be reached for these flavivirus diseases. Interestingly, Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever had an 11.1% seroprevalence rate, indicating that Viljujsk is the most northern focus of this infection. Additionally, this finding suggests a potential involvement of Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever agent, or of another member of the Bunyaviridae family, in the genesis of the so-called Viljujsk encephalomyelitis.