Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is characterized by high physical and psychological burden, and therefore, more knowledge about the palliative care provided close to death is needed.
To describe symptom prevalence, relief, and management during the last week of life, as well as end-of-life communication, in patients with ESKD.
This study was based on data from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care. Patients aged 18 or older who died from a chronic kidney disease, with or without dialysis treatment (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Sweden; N18.5 or N18.9), during 2011 and 2012 were selected.
About 472 patients were included. Of six predefined symptoms, pain was the most prevalent (69%), followed by respiratory secretion (46%), anxiety (41%), confusion (30%), shortness of breath (22%), and nausea (17%). Of patients with pain and/or anxiety, 32% and 44%, respectively, were only partly relieved or not relieved at all. Of patients with the other symptoms, a majority (55%-84%) were partly relieved or not relieved at all. End-of-life discussions were reported in 41% of patients and 71% of families. A minority died in specialized palliative care: 8% in hospice/inpatient palliative care and 5% in palliative home care. Of all patients, 19% died alone. Bereavement support was offered to 38% of families.
Even if death is expected, most patients dying with ESKD had unmet palliative care needs regarding symptom management, advance care planning, and bereavement support.
To examine trends in incidence and 28-day case fatality of myocardial infarction (MI) in persons aged 75-99 years in four areas of Finland.
The Finnish Acute Myocardial Infarction (FINAMI) register is a population-based MI register study, which during 1995-2012 recorded 30561 suspected acute coronary syndromes in persons aged =75 years. Of them, 16229 fulfilled the American Heart Association criteria for a definite, probable or possible MI or coronary death. This age-group contributed 56.8% of all MIs of which 62.7% occurred in women. The incidence of MI decreased by -3.3%/year (95% CI -4.2; -2.4) in women aged 75-84 years, and by -1.2%/year (-1.9; -0.5) in women aged 85-99 years, but among men in these age-groups, only a non-significant reduction occurred. The 28-day case fatality of MI was high. In the age-group 75-84 years, it decreased non-significantly by -1.6%/year in men, and significantly by -2.4%/year (-3.9; -0.8) in women. In the age-group 85-99 years, the decrease was more remarkable: -5.1%/year (-7.8; -2.3) and -3.9%/year (-5.5; -2.2), respectively.
In Finland, more than half of MIs occur in the age-group 75-99 years, and most of them in women. The incidence of MI decreased significantly in elderly women but non-significantly in elderly men. The 28-day case fatality decreased especially in the age-group 85-99 years. Key Messages In Finland, more than one half of all myocardial infarctions (MIs) occur in the age-group of 75 years or older. Furthermore, 62.7% of MIs among elderly patients occur among women, although 58.0% of the elderly population are women. The incidence of MI decreased significantly in elderly women but not in elderly men. The 28-day case fatality in elderly patients was high but decreased significantly during the study period 1995-2012. This study provides population-based data on treatment strategies and trends in incidence, event rate, mortality and case fatality of MI in elderly individuals. Elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes still present a remarkable burden to the healthcare system in Finland as well as in many other developed countries. Especially considering the modern trend of reducing hospital resources and shifting patient care to outpatient clinics, the epidemiology of MI in elderly patients remains an important issue for the future planning of the healthcare system.
To reveal incidence and epidemiological features of traumatic spinal injuries (TSI) in Northern Finland.
In Finland the annual incidence of traumatic spine fractures requiring inpatient care has been found to be 27/100,000, while international incidences have varied across the range of 16-64/100,000. More specific epidemiological data from Finland is not available. Internationally, the most common mechanisms of injury are road traffic as well as low and high falls. Associated injuries occur in 30% to 55% of cases.
The study sample included patients with traumatic spinal injury admitted to Oulu University Hospital (OYS) with injury between the January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Patient information was collected from the hospital care register, including all inpatient and outpatient visits and surgical procedures. Traumatic spinal column and spinal cord injuries were identified using International Classification of Diseases 10th revision or Nordic Classification of Surgical Procedures codes and all patient records were manually reviewed.
Nine hundred seventy-one patients met the criteria for TSI. The mean annual incidence of hospitalized traumatic spinal injuries was 26/100,000 in the whole of Northern Finland and 35/100,000 in the OYS main responsibility area. The most frequent etiology of TSI was low falls, which accounted for 35.8% of the injuries, followed by road traffic and high falls. Lumbar spine was the most common site of the fracture. Spinal surgery was performed in 376 (38.7%) cases. Three hundred eight patients (31.7%) suffered from associated injuries, 101 (10.4%) had a spinal cord injury, and 71 (7.3%) a brain injury.
Low falls in elderly and road traffic injuries in younger age groups were the most common etiology of traumatic spinal injuries in Northern Finland and should be given more attention in primary prevention.
Objective Knowledge about patient safety in nursing homes is limited. The aim of this study was to describe what patient safety means to nurses working in nursing homes for the elderly and how these nurses address patient safety. Method Qualitative study of semi-structured interviews with 15 nurses aged 27-62 years. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results Nurses describe the meaning of patient safety in terms of proper care and treatment, and a sense of security. Based on nurses' description of patient safety, several factors were identified as prerequisites to achieve safe health care: competence; clear information transfer between health care organizations; continuity of care and appropriate environment. Barriers to patient safety were described as lack of sufficient resources; lack of communication and negative attitudes to incident reporting. To a great extent, nurses' work for patient safety consists of efforts to compensate for defects and ensure good health care in their daily work, since work with patient safety is not a management priority. Conclusion Patient safety needs to be clarified and prioritized in nursing homes, and there is a need to understand nurses' role among other care givers and the need for shared routines among care givers.
School children are usually encouraged to tell an adult whether they are being bullied. Despite this encouragement, a significant percentage of bullied students do not disclose victimization. Previous research has often failed to include this group of hidden victims, thereby limiting the available knowledge about victimization disclosure. This study aimed to investigate the process of disclosing bullying victimization from the victim's point of view. Interviews with Swedish youth who had been or currently were victims of bullying in school were carried out and analyzed with grounded theory methods using two-step coding.
The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a well-established instrument in the study of obesity-related eating behaviours among children. However, research using the CEBQ in multicultural samples is limited. This study aims to identify and examine differences in child eating behaviours as reported by Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born mothers living in Sweden. Mothers (n?=?1310, 74 countries of origin, mean age 36.5 years, 63.6% with higher education, 29.2% with overweight or obesity) of children aged 3-8 years (mean age 4.8 years, 18.1% with overweight or obesity) completed the CEBQ. Responses were analysed using CEBQ subscales Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment of Food, and Desire to Drink, clustering into Food Approach, and subscales Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating, and Food Fussiness, clustering into Food Avoidance. Data were compared across seven regional groups, divided by maternal place of birth: (1) Sweden (n?=?941), (2) Nordic and Western Europe (n?=?68), (3) Eastern and Southern Europe (n?=?97), (4) the Middle East and North Africa (n?=?110), (5) East, South and Southeast Asia (n?=?52), (6) Sub-Saharan Africa (n?=?16), and (7) Central and South America (n?=?26). Crude, partly and fully adjusted linear regression models controlled for child's age, gender and weight status, and mother's education, weight status and concern about child weight. The moderation effect of maternal concern about child weight was examined through interaction analyses. Results showed that while Food Approach and Food Avoidance behaviours were associated with maternal migrant background, associations for Food Fussiness were limited. Notably, mothers born in the Middle East and North Africa reported higher frequencies of both Food Approach (except for Enjoyment of Food) and Food Avoidance. The study highlights the importance of examining how regionally-specific maternal migrant background affects mothers' perceptions of child eating behaviours.
Previous studies have suggested that variation in results of lumbar discectomy depends on careful selection of patients. Numerous factors have been suggested to explain this variation with no direct examinations on this issue. The objective was to examine the use of pain medication before and after lumbar discectomy in patients with back pain.
Prospective occupational cohort study (N.=151,618) with linkage to national registers. Of the cohort members, 1538 (age 44 years) underwent discectomy. Records from purchases of pain medication were obtained during a 3-year period before and after hospital discharge.
Purchases of pain medication increased during the follow-up period from 9.7±28.7 to 17.3±17.3 defined daily doses. Three groups were identified: 1) with constant, relatively low pain medication use; 2) with high use combined with further increases in purchases until the time of surgery and only a slight decrease thereafter; and 3) with a sharp rise in medication use before surgery and a return to no pain medication use approximately six months after the discharge. Non-manual profession (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.69) and open surgery technique increased (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.67) the probability of being included into the third group.
The greater decline in the use of pain medication after discectomy was associated with a sharp rise of that use within six months before surgery. This suggests that lumbar discectomy may benefit especially those with acute or subacute pain within the six-month window.
The aim was to investigate if there is an interaction between sitting time and leisure time physical activity on blood pressure and if there are age differences and sex differences in this respect.
Linear regression analysis on cross-sectional data was performed in more than 45?000 men and women from two Swedish cohort studies, EpiHealth (45-75 years) and LifeGene (18-45 years). Self-reported leisure time physical activity was given in five levels from low (level 1) to vigorous physical activity (level 5) and television time was used as a proxy measure of sitting time.
High physical activity was associated with lower DBP (P?=?0.001), but not SBP. Active middle-aged men had lower DBP (-1.1?mmHg; 95% CI -1.7 to -0.4) compared with inactive participants. Prolonged television time was associated with higher SBP (P?
We present association results from a large genome-wide association study of tooth agenesis (TA) as well as selective TA, including 1,944 subjects with congenitally missing teeth, excluding third molars, and 338,554 controls, all of European ancestry. We also tested the association of previously identified risk variants, for timing of tooth eruption and orofacial clefts, with TA. We report associations between TA and 9 novel risk variants. Five of these variants associate with selective TA, including a variant conferring risk of orofacial clefts. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture of tooth development and disease. The few variants previously associated with TA were uncovered through candidate gene studies guided by mouse knockouts. Knowing the etiology and clinical features of TA is important for planning oral rehabilitation that often involves an interdisciplinary approach.
The main objective of this study was to derive cost estimates of five major foodborne illnesses (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), yersiniosis and shigellosis) in Sweden. These estimates provide a necessary contribution to perform future cost-benefit analyses aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease. A secondary aim was to obtain estimates of the true number of cases that occur in the community, thus providing necessary ground for calculating costs.
The true number of cases for each foodborne illness was simulated by multiplying the reported number of cases by sequential multipliers, one for each potential source of information loss about a case. This assessment of the true number of cases was then used to estimate the number of cases of sequelae for each illness. An incidence-based analysis was then used to calculate direct medical and non-medical costs, as well as indirect costs. Data for estimating the true number of cases for each illness were primarily based on an expert panel, while the derivation of costs mainly utilized national registries, databases and published literature.
The estimated number of cases was between 7- and 11-fold higher than the reported number of cases, indicating the importance of taking information loss into account when calculating costs. By far the most common pathogen of the five was campylobacter, with an estimated 101,719 (90% credibility interval [CI] 59,640-158,025) human cases occurring annually. For salmonella, 19,678 (90% CI 8394-40,456) cases were estimated to occur each year, while the other three pathogens were less common, with a yearly incidence of approximately 2500-5500 cases each. The total cost for the five pathogens (including sequelae) amounted to €142 million annually. Campylobacter was the most costly pathogen, representing 69% of the total costs. Salmonellosis and EHEC constituted 18 and 9% of these costs, respectively, while yersiniosis and shigellosis represented approximately 2% each. Costs for sequelae were significant and accounted for approximately 50% of the total costs.
Our simulations indicated that campylobacter infection was more common and more costly than salmonella, EHEC, yersinia and shigella combined. Estimated costs for all illnesses were highly influenced by (1) considering potential information losses about cases in the population (which increased costs 7- to 11-fold), and (2) taking account of post-infection sequelae (which doubled the costs).
Difficulty in following and understanding conversation in different daily life situations is a common complaint among persons with hearing loss. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no published validated Norwegian questionnaire available that allows for a self-assessment of unaided communication ability in a population with hearing loss.
The aims of the present study were to investigate a questionnaire for the self-assessment of communication ability, examine the psychometric properties of this questionnaire, and explore how demographic variables such as degree of hearing loss, age, and sex influence response patterns.
A questionnaire based on the subscales of the Norwegian translation of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit was applied to a group of hearing aid users and normal-hearing controls.
A total of 108 patients with bilateral hearing loss, and 101 controls with self-reported normal hearing.
The psychometric properties were evaluated. Associations and differences between outcome scores and descriptive variables were examined. A regression analysis was performed to investigate whether descriptive variables could predict outcome.
The measures of reliability suggest that the questionnaire has satisfactory psychometric properties, with the outcome of the questionnaire correlating to hearing loss severity, thus indicating that the concurrent validity of the questionnaire is good.
The findings indicate that the proposed questionnaire is a valid measure of self-assessed communication ability in both quiet and adverse listening conditions in participants with and without hearing loss.
Women have higher sickness absence rate than men, but less is known of changes in this difference over time. We examined gender differences in sickness absence trends focusing on gender segregation in the labour market.
We used large nationwide register data on Finnish wage earners aged 25-59 and generalized estimation equations based on repeated logistic regression to estimate the annual risk of sickness absence lasting at least 2 weeks.
Between 2005 and 2013, the age-adjusted proportion (%) of employees with all-cause sickness absence decreased from the initial levels of 10.6 among men and 15.1 among women by 16.7 and 13.6%, respectively. Among both genders, the largest decrease in sickness absence coincided with the peak of the economic recession in 2009. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, also the excess decrease among men mainly occurred in 2009, and in sickness absence due to mental disorders 2 years later. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, the increasing gender difference was mainly attributable to a larger decrease in sickness absence at the time of the recession in male-dominated groups, such as in manual and manufacturing work, than in other sectors and occupational classes. In mental disorders, the increasing gender difference was partly attributable to a later smaller decrease in sickness absence among female-dominated lower non-manual and lower income employment groups. The increasing gender differences did not result from differential distributional changes in employment or sociodemographic factors among the employed male and female populations. In fact, widening of the gender gap in sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases would have been even larger without faster increase among women in the educational level and in non-manual employment.
Sickness absence decreased especially in male-dominated employment groups, resulting in a larger decrease in absences among men compared with women. More research is needed to ascertain whether these differential changes are attributable, for example, to reduced willingness to seek medical advice or increased presenteeism in male-dominated groups, or to increased work pressures in female-dominated groups. Selection mechanisms, i.e. men's increased ill-health-related exit from work through other routes than sickness absence, also cannot be ruled out.
The results of the correlation analysis between the metabolite melatonin - 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) in the urine and the indicators of aging, interstitial fibrosis, the system of antioxidant protection in men in the Arctic are presented. Negative correlation of medium strength between 6-SMT with calendar age, biological age and molecular marker of aging p16INK4a in leukocytes was noted. A relationship of 6-SMT to fibrosis indices was found. It manifested itself in a negative correlation with sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the urine, with collagen markers: free hydroxyproline, peptide-linked hydroxyproline, and total hydroxyproline. Age-related decrease in the level of 6-SMT may be associated with an age-related increase in interstitial fibrosis in northerners. A positive correlation of medium strength between 6-SMT and hormones: free testosterone level (r=0,53, p=0,0002), total testosterone (r=0,43, p=0,003) and cortisol (r=0,33, p=0,007) was shown. Negative correlations of 6-SMT with the content of ceruloplasmin (r=-0,63, p=0,001) and SCORE scale (r=-0,52, p=0,001) indicate the relationship between melatonin and the antioxidant defense system and the risk of cardiovascular pathology.The results of the correlation analysis between the metabolite melatonin - 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) in the urine and the indicators of aging, interstitial fibrosis, the system of antioxidant protection in men in the Arctic are presented. Negative correlation of medium strength between 6-SMT with calendar age, biological age and molecular marker of aging p16INK4a in leukocytes was noted. A relationship of 6-SMT to fibrosis indices was found. It manifested itself in a negative correlation with sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the urine, with collagen markers: free hydroxyproline, peptide-linked hydroxyproline, and total hydroxyproline. Age-related decrease in the level of 6-SMT may be associated with an age-related increase in interstitial fibrosis in northerners. A positive correlation of medium strength between 6-SMT and hormones: free testosterone level (r=0,53, p=0,0002), total testosterone (r=0,43, p=0,003) and cortisol (r=0,33, p=0,007) was shown. Negative correlations of 6-SMT with the content of ceruloplasmin (r=-0,63, p=0,001) and SCORE scale (r=-0,52, p=0,001) indicate the relationship between melatonin and the antioxidant defense system and the risk of cardiovascular pathology.
For the purpose of systematization of the directions of rendering psychiatric help to pensioners of law-enforcement bodies (OVD) of the Russian Federation with mental disorders, the analysis of the existing normative legal acts regulating psychiatric examination of employees of Department of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at dismissal on retirement and attachment on medical care in departmental healthcare institutions is carried out. It is shown that the provision of specialized psychiatric and psychotherapeutic assistance to pensioners of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is carried out mainly in the municipal health care system, there is no monitoring of the mental state of pensioners of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, including combatants with post-stress disorders. Within the framework of the project Of the concept of development of the psychiatric service of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia, it is proposed to systematize approaches to the organization of psychiatric care for pensioners of the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation with mental disorders in the structure of departmental health care, with the improvement of the regulatory legal framework for the organization of psychiatric care, which will ensure the provision of high-quality psychiatric care.
The medical and demographic data on the health status of older citizens in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) in 2000-2017 and the analysis of medical care for elderly patients in 2015-2017 demonstrated the urgent need to expand primary health care (including at home) and to organize specialized medical care for older citizens (including geriatric service) in one of the largest regions of Russia. The main directions of implementation in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) of the Strategy of actions in the interests of the older generation of the Russian Federation until 2025 are given: the formation of the legislative basis, the creation of a three-level geriatric service, the introduction of new technologies for the provision of medical care to elderly residents of the Republic, training of personal. Measures are planned to implement the regional program «Older generation» of the National project «Demography» in order to improve the current medical and demographic situation and increase the life expectancy of the older generation and the whole population of Yakutia.
Though there is extensive research on occupational exposure in production mines, there is limited information on exposure during the exploration phase of mining.
Air samples were collected in a core processing facility in Northern Ontario, Canada. All samples were analyzed for respirable dust (NIOSH 0600) and respirable crystalline silica (NIOSH 7602). Mean exposure levels were estimated and differences in exposure between work areas were investigated.
Sixteen personal and nine area air samples were collected. Respirable dust exposure ranged from
In most Western countries, breastfeeding rates are lower than what is recommended by the World Health Organization. Depression has been shown to influence breastfeeding outcomes; however, there is very little research on the role of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined to what extent maternal postpartum PTSD predicted breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months, and continuation up to 1 and 2 years.
The study is part of the large, population-based Akershus Birth Cohort. Data from the hospital's birth record and questionnaire data from 8 weeks and 2 years postpartum were used (n = 1480). All breastfeeding variables significantly correlated with postpartum PTSD were entered into stepwise logistic regression analyses.
Although most mothers (97.1%) initiated breastfeeding, considerably fewer adhered to the World Health Organization's breastfeeding guidelines about exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months (13.4%) or continued breastfeeding for 12 or 24 months postpartum (37.7% and 4.2%, respectively). Even after adjustment for important confounding variables, maternal postpartum PTSD was significantly associated with not initiating breastfeeding (aOR 5.98 [95% CI 1.79-19.97]). Postpartum PTSD was also significantly related to not continuing breastfeeding up to 12 months, although this association did not hold after adjusting for confounding variables.
Identifying women at risk of not initiating breastfeeding is crucial to prevent a negative influence on infant development and the development of the mother-infant bond. Early screening and treatment of women at risk of developing postpartum PTSD might be a way forward.
Clinical assessments of vaccines to prevent pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require sensitive and specific case definitions, but there is no gold standard diagnostic test. To develop a new case definition suitable for vaccine efficacy studies, we applied latent class analysis (LCA) to the results from 7 diagnostic tests for pneumococcal etiology on clinical specimens from 323 elderly persons with radiologically confirmed pneumonia enrolled in the Finnish Community-Acquired Pneumonia Epidemiology study during 2005-2007. Compared with the conventional use of LCA, which is mainly to determine sensitivities and specificities of different tests, we instead used LCA as an appropriate instrument to predict the probability of pneumococcal etiology for each CAP case based on individual test profiles, and we used the predictions to minimize the sample size that would be needed for a vaccine efficacy trial. When compared with the conventional laboratory criteria of encapsulated pneumococci in culture, in blood culture or high-quality sputum culture, or urine antigen positivity, our optimized case definition for pneumococcal CAP resulted in a trial sample size that was almost 20,000 subjects smaller. We believe that the novel application of LCA detailed here to determine a case definition for pneumococcal CAP could also be similarly applied to other diseases without a gold standard.
Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at age 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626; children born in 2000-2007). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress, and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events were associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries.
Anatomic injury, physiological derangement, age, injury mechanism and pre-injury comorbidity are well-founded predictors of trauma outcome. Statistical prediction models may have poorer discrimination, calibration and accuracy when applied in new locations. We aimed to compare the TRISS, TARN and NORMIT survival prediction models in a Norwegian trauma population.
Consecutive patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevål within 24 h after injury, with Injury Severity Score = 10, proximal penetrating injuries, or received by trauma team, were studied. Original NORMIT coefficients were updated in a derivation dataset (NORMIT 2; n = 5923; 2005-2009). TRISS, TARN and NORMIT prediction models were evaluated in the validation dataset (n = 6348; 2010-2013) using two different AIS editions for injury coding. Exclusion due to missing data was 0.26%. Outcome was 30-day mortality. Validation included AUROC, scaled Brier statistics, and calibration plots.
The NORMIT models had significantly better discrimination, calibration, and overall fit than the TRISS 09, TARN 09 and TARN 12 models. The updated NORMIT 2 had higher numerical values of AUROC and scaled Brier than the original NORMIT, but with overlapping 95%CI. Overlapping 95%CI for AUROCs and Discrimination slopes indicated that the TARN and TRISS models performed similarly. Calibration plots showed tight and consistent predictions over all Ps strata for NORMIT 2 run on AIS'98 coded data, and only little deterioration when AIS'08 data was substituted.
In a Norwegian trauma population, the updated Norwegian survival prediction model in trauma (NORMIT 2) performed better than well-established British and US alternatives. External validation of these three models in other Nordic populations is warranted.