The larvae, male and female imagines, and eggs of Cinygmula levanidovi Tshernova Belov 1982 are described based on reared specimens from the Russian Far East. The larvae, female imago and eggs are described and illustrated for the first time. The larva of C. levanidovi is similar to the one of C. hirasana Imanishi, 1935 and C. kurenzovi (Bajkova, 1965). However, it can be distinguished from these species and from all other Far Eastern Cinygmula by the shape of its tergalius I, which has a heart-shape and bears a single short gill filament. Tergalius I of C. hirasana and C. kurenzovi possess a similar shape, but there are no gill filaments on the first and the other tergalii.
The parasitic barnacle Peltogaster reticulata Shiino, 1943 (Rhizocephala,<br />Peltogastridae) from Russian waters of the Sea of Japan: morphological description, molecular identification and complete larval development.
A rhizocephalan parasite of the hermit crab Pagurus minutus Hess, 1865 (Decapoda, Paguridae) is described from Russian waters using morphological and molecular methods. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) were used as a genetic marker. We refer this species to Peltogaster reticulata Shiino, 1943 (Rhizocephala, Peltogastridae) based on its morphological description, since genetic data for the species from its type locality are lacking. The species can be distinguished from its known congeners by the reticular pattern of the external cuticle. Peltogaster reticulata is the sister taxon to P. postica Yoshida Osawa, 2011 (in Yoshida et al. 2011), inhabiting the same host in southwestern Japan. The complete larval development of Peltogaster reticulata, including five naupliar and one cypris stage, is described and illustrated using SEM.
Research Laboratory «Monitoring and conservation of natural Arctic ecosystems» of the «Murmansk Arctic State University», Kommuny 9, Murmansk, Russia, 183038. Saint-Petersburg State University, 7-9 Universitetskaya emb., Saint Petersburg, Russia, 199034.. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ganesa bujnitzkii Gorbunov, 1946 was described from the bathyal of the Arctic Ocean north to the Laptev Sea based on only two specimens, which were the only representatives of this species mentioned by Gorbunov (1946b). Galkin (1955) noted that the shell sculpture of Ganesa bujnitzkii is similar to that of Cyclostrema valvatiodes (Jeffreys, 1883), and that the radula of the G. bujnitzkii differs from other species of the genus Ganesa Jeffreys, 1883 and members of the family Trochidae. Later, based on the original description, Warén (1993) proposed that the species may belong to the genus Skenea; however, he did not examine the type specimen. This opinion was reiterated by Kantor Sysoev (2006).
Land reclamation in the Athabasca oil sands region requires construction of entire soil profiles from materials salvaged during mining. Although much attention has been paid to the limited supply of suitable topsoil materials and their impact on ecosystem recovery, suitable clean subsoil materials are also in limited supply, and their efficient and effective use is an important consideration for land managers in the region. Using data from an oil sands reclamation site in northern Alberta, Canada, we compared soil and foliar nutrients to a wildfire-impacted reference ecosystem with a similarity index. Specifically, we evaluated the similarity of forest floor-mineral mix (FFM) and peat-mineral mix (PM) as topsoil, as well as the effect of different depths of salvaged B and C horizon subsoil with PM on top. All reclamation treatments were planted with jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), which were used to examine foliar nutrient concentrations. Individual macronutrient concentrations were different among treatments in total soil nutrients, but differences decreased in soil bioavailable nutrients and disappeared altogether in foliar nutrients. The similarity index revealed that distinct differences existed between treatments, with FFM being the most similar to the wildfire site. It also revealed a potential deficiency in foliar and soil bioavailable Mn on PM, and that increased water content of deeper subsoils had little to no effect. With use of this nutrient profile similarity index, reclamation practitioners may be able to determine if different soil prescriptions lead to higher levels of similarity to natural ecosystems more quickly.
During a research cruise in 2016, we isolated fungi from sediments, seawater, driftwood, fruiting bodies, and macroalgae using three different media to assess species richness and potential bioactivity of cultivable marine fungi in the High Arctic region. Ten stations from the Svalbard archipelago (73-80 °N, 18-31 °E) were investigated and 33 fungal isolates were obtained. These grouped into 22 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) with acut-off set at 98% similarity. The taxonomic analysis showed that 17 OTUs belonged to Ascomycota, one to Basidiomycota, two to Mucoromycota and two were fungal-like organisms. The nuc rDNA V1-V5 regions of 18S (18S) and D1-D3 regions of 28S (28S) were sequenced from representative isolates of each OTU for comparison to GenBank sequences. Isolates of Lulworthiales and Eurotiales were the most abundant, with seven isolates each. Among the 22 OTUs, nine represent potentially undescribed species based on low similarity to GenBank sequences and 10 isolates showed inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria in an agar diffusion plug assay. These results show promise for the Arctic region as asource of novel marine fungi with the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites with antibacterial properties.
The empidoid flies of the Russian Arctic islands and Svalbard Archipelago are revised including families Empididae (4 genera, 32 species), Hybotidae (2 genera, 3 species) and Brachystomatidae (1 genus, 2 species). The following ten new species are described: Empididae-Empis septentrionalis Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Russia: Wrangel Island); Rhamphomyia (Dasyrhamphomyia) gorodkovi Shamshev, Sinclair Saigusa sp. nov. (Russia: Chukotka mainland, Wrangel Island, Taymyr, Yakutia; USA: Alaska); R. (D.) mallochi Shamshev, Sinclair Saigusa sp. nov. (Canada: Yukon; Russia: Chukotka mainland, Kolyuchin and Wrangel Islands; USA: Alaska); R. (Pararhamphomyia) subfilicauda Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Russia: Wrangel Island); R. (P.) submacrura Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Russia: Wrangel Island); R. (P.) subtenuiterfilata Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Russia: Wrangel Island, Yakutia); R. (P.) wrangeli Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Russia: Wrangel Island); R. sublongiseta Shamshev, Sinclair Saigusa sp. nov. (Canada: Yukon; Russia: Wrangel Island); one species of Rhamphomyia was retained as unnamed due to insufficient material; Hybotidae-Platypalpus septentrionalis Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Russia: Wrangel Island), P. subtectifrons Shamshev Sinclair sp. nov. (Canada: Northwest Territories, Yukon; Russia: Wrangel Island; USA: Alaska). For previously described species a short diagnosis and a habitus photo are provided to enable easier recognition. In addition, a key to the species of Rhamphomyia (Empididae) occurring on the Russia Arctic islands and Svalbard Archipelago is compiled. A lectotype is designated for Rhamphomyia armipes Sack, 1923. The male and the female of R. taimyrensis Frey and R. kaninensis Frey are described for the first time, respectively. Tachypeza sericeipalpis Frey is newly recorded from North America (Canada: Northwest Territories, Nunavut) and first illustration of the male terminalia is provided. Trichoclinocera lapponica (Ringdahl) is recorded for the first time from the territory of Russia.
Public Health Analysis and Data Management, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden; Health Economics and Policy, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
This study aimed to investigate whether there was a difference in willingness to pay (WTP) between prevention and treatment for health benefits of equal magnitude.
We used a web-based survey instrument in a sample of the Swedish general population to perform a contingent valuation study assessing the WTP for prevention and treatment. We analyzed the WTP as a continuous variable using a two-part regression model to adjust for a mass point around 0 and a skewed distribution among respondents with a positive WTP.
The study found that people were less willing, on average, to pay at all for prevention than treatment, but those who were willing to pay for prevention had a higher WTP than for treatment. The latter effect was more substantial, and in total mean WTP for prevention was about 85% higher than for treatment.
The findings from this study contribute to the ongoing discussion on the appropriate cost-effectiveness thresholds by adding prevention as a parameter affecting the demand-side value of health improvements. As such, it can provide support to decision makers in healthcare and in health promotion priority setting.
In climate models, the subgrid-scale orography (SSO) parameterization imposes a blocked flow drag at low levels that is opposed to the local flow. In IPSL-CM6A-LR, an SSO lift force is also applied perpendicular to the local flow to account for the effect of locally blocked air in narrow valleys. Using IPSL-CM6A-LR sensitivity experiments, it is found that the tuning of both effects strongly impacts the atmospheric circulation. Increasing the blocking and reducing the lift lead to an equatorward shift of the Northern Hemisphere subtropical jet and a reduction of the midlatitude eddy-driven jet speed. It also improves the simulated synoptic variability, with a reduced storm-track intensity and increased blocking frequency over Greenland and Scandinavia. Additionally, it cools the polar lower troposphere in boreal winter. Transformed Eulerian Mean diagnostics also show that the low-level eddy-driven subsidence over the polar region is reduced consistent with the simulated cooling. The changes are amplified in coupled experiments when compared to atmosphere-only experiments, as the low-troposphere polar cooling is further amplified by the temperature and albedo feedbacks resulting from the Arctic sea ice growth. In IPSL-CM6A-LR, this corrects the warm winter bias and the lack of sea ice that were present over the Arctic before adjusting the SSO parameters. Our results, therefore, suggest that the adjustment of SSO parameterization alleviates the Arctic sea ice bias in this case. However, the atmospheric changes induced by the parametrized SSO also impact the ocean, with an equatorward shift of the Northern Hemisphere oceanic gyres and a weaker Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.
A key assumption in Finnish alcohol policy is that the officially registered alcohol consumption (i.e., alcohol sales) is closely related to alcohol-related harm. During the last two decades, a sizable part of total alcohol consumption, however, comprises unrecorded consumption, which may potentially make alcohol sales less powerful as a predictor of alcohol-related harm. This article thus aims to estimate the relationship between alcohol sales and alcohol-related harm on the basis of more recent Finnish time-series data.
Data on alcohol sales (liters of 100% alcohol/capita age 15 years and older) were obtained from the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland. As indicators of harm, we used police-reported assaults and three forms of mortality: alcohol-specific mortality, accidents, and suicide. Quarterly data on mortality and alcohol sales spanned the period 1995-2016, and data on police-reported offenses covered the period 1990-2016. Data were analyzed by SARIMA (Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) modeling.
A positive and significant association between alcohol sales and all harm indicators was found. A 1-L increase in alcohol sales per capita was associated with a 20% increase in alcohol-specific mortality, a 12% increase in assaults, and a 5%-6% increase in accidents and suicide. These estimates are in line with earlier findings estimated on data for the period when unrecorded alcohol consumption was less common in Finland.
The results provide support for a continued strong relationship between alcohol sales and alcohol-related harm in Finland. Policy measures aimed at lowering alcohol sales were supported from these results.
This article represents the third (and last) part of the catalogue of ectoparasitic gamasid mites associated with small mammals in Asiatic Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). A total of 19 species of the genus Hirstionyssus Fonseca, 1948 are indexed, with data on their taxonomic position, nomenclature, host range, and distribution within the region. As a conclusion, a brief overview of fauna of ectoparasitic gamasid mites parasitising Micromammalia (except bats) of Asiatic Russia is given. In total, 71 mite species belonging to nine genera of three families (Haemogamasidae, Hirstionyssidae, Laelapidae) are recorded and divided among taxonomic and ecological groupings.
Studies on Oribatida from Svalbard have nearly a 150-year long history. This paper reviews species diversity of Oribatida in Svalbard from a historical aspect, summarizes how often species have been found and detects erroneous reports. A list of 93 oribatid species (including Astigmata) from the Svalbard archipelago is presented. The species represent 30 families, of which Brachychthoniidae (14 spp.) and Crotoniidae (12 spp.) are particularly species-rich. The most often occurring oribatid species is Diapterobates notatus (Thorell, 1871), mentioned in 50% of publications, followed by Ameronothrus lineatus (Thorell, 1871) and Hermannia reticulata Thorell, 1871, mentioned in 30% papers each. About one third of the species have been found in Svalbard only once, and half of them (i.e. 15 species) were reported only in the last century, including five very old records. Acarological studies in Svalbard are heavily biased since they have concentrated on the island of Spitsbergen with limited sampling of other islands / island groups: for example, Barentsøya, Bjørnøya, Danskøya, Edgeøya, Hopen, Lågøya, Kong Karls Land, Prins Karls Forland and Sofiaøya.
Randomized clinical trials (RCT) involve labor-intensive, highly regulated, and controlled processes intended to transform scientific concepts into clinical outcomes. To be effective and targeted, it is imperative they include those populations who would most benefit from those outcomes. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is most detrimental to the aging population, and its clinical manifestation is influenced by socio-economic factors such as poverty, poor education, stress, and chronic co-morbidities. Indigenous populations in the United States and Canada are among the minority populations most influenced by poor socio-economic conditions and are prone to the ravages of AD, with Indigenous women carrying the added burden of exposure to violence, caregiving stresses, and increased risk by virtue of their sex. Race- and sex-based disparities in RCT enrollment has occurred for decades, with Indigenous men and women very poorly represented. In this review, we examined literature from the last twenty years that reinforce these disparities and provide some concrete suggestions and guidelines to increase the enrollment numbers in AD RCT among this vulnerable and poorly represented population.
Tentative studies of Malaise trap samples from different geographic regions and habitats indicate unanimously that Winnertzia, a genus of mycophagous gall midges (Cecidomyiidae), is exceptionally speciose, but hard data in proof of that were previously unavailable. A taxonomic inventory of mycophagous cecidomyiids in Sweden has now revealed that, of 751 species found in total, 93 are Winnertzia. A preliminary census in 2013 had identified only 26 different Winnertzia in Sweden. Two factors are responsible for this increment: the inclusion of large amounts of fresh material to study and the application of a narrower species concept. The latter results from the reevaluation of male morphological characters in the light of COI sequence (DNA barcoding) data. With the inclusion of 37 new Winnertzia described here, the genus now contains 136 extant species. New Winnertzia discovered in Sweden are described here under the following names: W. acutistylus sp. nov., W. angustistylus sp. nov., W. arctostylus sp. nov., W. bicolor sp. nov., W. brachytarsus sp. nov., W. dentata sp. nov., W. egregia sp. nov., W. ekdalensis sp. nov., W. fraxinophila sp. nov., W. grytsjoenensis sp. nov., W. hamatula sp. nov., W. hemisphaerica sp. nov., W. imbecilla sp. nov., W. incisa sp. nov., W. inornata sp. nov., W. lapponica sp. nov., W. lobata sp. nov., W. longicoxa sp. nov., W. normalis sp. nov., W. oelandica sp. nov., W. ombergensis sp. nov., W. parvidens sp. nov., W. pilosistylus sp. nov., W. pratensis sp. nov., W. pustulatula sp. nov., W. quercinophila sp. nov., W. rickebasta sp. nov., W. ruliki sp. nov., W. serri sp. nov., W. setosa sp. nov., W. silvestris sp. nov., W. smalandensis sp. nov., W. sundini sp. nov., W. tumidoides sp. nov., and W. upplandensis sp. nov. Additionally, W. panguana sp. nov. is the first Winnertzia described from the Neotropical region (Peru), and W. warraensis sp. nov. is the first member of the genus described from the Australasian region (Tasmania). Parwinnertzia Felt, 1920 syn. nov. is revealed to be a junior synonym of Winnertzia Rondani, 1860, implying the recombinations of Winnertzia notmani (Felt) comb. nov. and Winnertzia italiana (Mamaev Zaitzev) comb. nov. The intrageneric classification of Winnertzia is reviewed and developed further, with the W. setosa group introduced for species whose gonostylar claw is conspicuously long and exposed, and whose gonocoxal emargination is bordered by dense, large setae. Winnertzia feralis Mamaev, revived here from synonymy with W. tridens Panelius, and W. fusca Kieffer are new faunistic records in Sweden. Swedish records published in the past of W. brachypalpa Mamaev and W. pravdini Mamaeva Mamaev rest on misidentifications, and both species are deleted from the Swedish checklist.
A new species, Ypsolopha admirandella sp. nov., is described from clay-steppes of the Ulyanovsk Region (European Russia). The holotype of the new species is deposited in the collection of the Samara State University. The new species is associated with Ephedra distachya. The holotype and its genitalia, in addition those of the closely related Y. colleaguella Baraniak, 2007 are illustrated.
The male and female adult and larva of Clunio balticus Heimbach, 1978 are diagnosed and described based on reared material, which was collected in the marine littoral zone along the coast of Bergen (Norway). Male and female adults and larvae of C. balticus can be easily distinguished from other known European Clunio species on the basis of some atypical features found in the male and female adults and fourth instar larvae. The biological cycle (reproduction and emergence) of C. balticus is a slight semilunar-periodic synchronization on days near the high tides. C. balticus is a local biogeographic representative of the northern Atlantic coast, which includes the eastern and western seashores. Remarks on related known Clunio species from Europe with comments on the ecology and geographical distribution of C. balticus are given.
The genus Sinohaplotropis Cao et Yin, 2008 is a valid genus and not a synonym of Haplotropis Saussur, 1888. A new species Sinohaplotropis amurensis sp. nov. is described in this paper from Russia. The new species is similar to Sinohaplotropis erenchuanensis Cao et Yin, 2008, but differs from latter by subgenital plate of male triangular, with large bifurcate apex in dorsal view, pronotum longer reaching first abdominal tergite, top of Kraus` organ narrow and interspace of mesosternum straight in the middle. Type specimen is deposited in the Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China.
Historically, the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population in the United States has faced health disparities including greater prevalence of physical and mental health problems and high uninsured rates when compared with the non-AIAN population (1). Almost 80% of the AIAN population resides outside of reservations or land trusts and about 40% reside in rural areas (2). Rural Americans are more likely to die from preventable or selfmanageable conditions (3), and risk factors and health conditions may vary by urbanization level (4). This report examines differences in the percentage of selected health status and conditions by urbanization level between AIAN adults and all U.S. adults.
Four new species of Careproctus (Cottoidei: Liparidae) are described from the Bussol Strait (the deepest channel of the Kuril archipelago) and two neighboring abyssal basins of the Western North Pacific. Careproctus laperousei sp. nov. from the northern slope of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (depths of 4796-4803 m) has the following characters: vertebrae 57, pectoral-fin rays 26, principal caudal-fin rays 8 and pore pattern 2-6-7-1; it differs from the most similar congeners from the North Pacific in having a black peritoneum, short head (22.5 % of standard length, SL) and large disk (37.0 % of head length, lc). Careproctus brevipectoralis sp. nov. from the Kuril Basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (depths of 3301 m) has the following characters: vertebrae 55, pectoral-fin rays 26, caudal-fin rays 9, pore pattern 2-6-7-1 and peritoneum black; it differs from congeners by the absence of pleural ribs, deep and compressed leaf-like body (greatest depth 119 % lc, depth above anal-fin origin 113 % lc), small head (18 % SL), short pectoral fin (11 % SL) and cartilaginous-like tissue surrounding the dorsal fin. Careproctus pulcher sp. nov. and Careproctus globulus sp. nov., both having 46 vertebrae, are found on the Pacific side of the Bussol Strait at depths of 2350-2358 m. Careproctus pulcher sp. nov. is characterized by pectoral-fin rays 31-32, caudal-fin rays 10, pore pattern 2-6-7-1 and peritoneum pale; it differs from the most similar congeners in having a shorter head (25.5-26.3 % SL in adults) and gill opening reaching ventrally to 4th pectoral ray. Careproctus globulus sp. nov. has the following characters: pectoral-fin rays about 24, caudal-fin rays 8 and peritoneum black; it differs from other species in having a globular body, deep curve of vertebral column and pore pattern 2-5-6-1. Thus, based on these collections, the underwater sill of the Bussol Strait is inhabited by different species of Careproctus than the neighboring abyssal plains, Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the Kuril Basin of the Sea of Okhotsk. Careproctus laperousei sp. nov. is the most deep-water Careproctus in the North Pacific.
Daphnia curvirostris species complex is a cladoceran group (Crustacea: Cladocera) with maximum diversity in Eastern Palearctic. To date, several representatives of this complex are known from the Russian Far East. Here we describe a new species of the Daphnia sinevi species group from water bodies of Sakhalin Island. Morphology of its parthenogenetic females is similar to that in D. sinevi from the continental part of Asian Eurasia. However, we found diagnostic traits of D. sakhalinensis sp.nov. in morphology of the second pecten on postabdominal claw, armature of seta 2 on exopodite III, proportions of setae 1/ and 2 length on exopodite V, relative length of male rostrum and structure of the second pecten of male postabdominal claw. This work contributes to our full revision of the D. curvirostris species complex. Separation between continental and Sakhalin populations of D. sinevi group probably happened in Pliocene (about 5 MA) when Sakhalin began to separate from the mainland. However, we cannot exclude a version that populations of D. sakhalinensis sp.nov. appeared as a result of colonization of Sakhalin from the continent and further independent evolution of the island populations.
A new species Baetis (Rhodobaetis) molecularis sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on larvae and reared adults from the Far East of Russia. The differential diagnosis of this species is provided with regard to other representatives of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003 from East Palaearctic and Nearctic Regions. A dataset including novel and publicly available COI mtDNA sequences of 16 species of Rhodobaetis has been assembled to provide a reference dataset for DNA barcoding. The comparison between Baetis (Rhodobaetis) molecularis sp. nov. and other species produced K2P genetic distances of 0.201 in average, values well above those associated with intraspecific variation. The closest species was Baetis foemina McDonough with a K2P distance value 0.114. A Bayesian phylogeny of available Rhodobaetis is also provided.