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WIHAH: Water Innovations for Health Arctic Homes. Conference. Anchorage, Alaska. 2016 September 18-21. [Proceedings]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303062
Source
Alaska. Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Water.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2018
  1 document  
Source
Alaska. Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Water.
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
3913693
Keywords
Alaska
Water supply
Waste water and sewage
Arctic Regions
Water insecurity
Climate change
Notes
"Addressing the Challenges of Providing Safe and Affordable Access to Household Running Water and Sanitation in Remote Arctic and Sub-Arctic Communities"
Documents

2016wihahproceedings.pdf

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Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302823
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75(21):1298-313. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2012.709445.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Hallanger IG
Jørgensen EH
Fuglei E
Ahlstrøm Ø
Muir DC
Jenssen BM
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75(21):1298-313. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2012.709445.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild
Blood
Metabolism
Arctic Regions
Diet
Adverse effects
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants
Foxes
Male
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Analysis
Testosterone
Thyroid Hormones
Thyrotropin
Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Abstract
Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n?=?5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n?=?5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 µg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n?=?5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 µg/g l.w. (n?=?5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.
PubMed ID
23030655 View in PubMed
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Daylight availability: a poor predictor of depression in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302822
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 Sep;63(3):267-76.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Axelsson J
Ragnarsdóttir S
Pind J
Sigbjörnsson R
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 Sep;63(3):267-76.
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Epidemiology
Humans
Iceland
Prevalence
Seasonal affective disorder
Sunlight
Weather
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the unexpectedly low prevalence of winter depression in Iceland is explained by Icelanders enjoying more daylight, during the winter months, than allocated to them by latitude.
METHODS: A conventional photometer was applied to measure illuminance on a horizontal surface at 64 degrees 8.8' N and 21 degrees 55.8' W every minute throughout the year. The illuminance thus measured was compared with computed illuminance, based on theoretical upper bounds.
RESULTS: Daylight availability proved to be, on average, 60% of the theoretical upper bounds derived using clear sky conditions. Snow cover did not, on average, cause a significant increase in daylight availability. Great variability was observed in illuminance from day to day, as well as within days.
CONCLUSIONS: Average daylight availability does not explain the lower than expected prevalence of winter depression in Iceland. The great variability in illuminance might, however, affect the expression of winter depression, as could daylight quality and genetic factors.
PubMed ID
15526930 View in PubMed
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Correlates between feeding ecology and mercury levels in historical and modern arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302821
Source
PLoS One. 2013 May 6;8(5):e60879. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060879. Print 2013.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Bocharova N
Treu G
Czirják GÁ
Krone O
Stefanski V
Wibbelt G
Unnsteinsdóttir ER
Hersteinsson P
Schares G
Doronina L
Goltsman M
Greenwood AD
Source
PLoS One. 2013 May 6;8(5):e60879. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060879. Print 2013.
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals /metabolism* / Foxes/* Hair/metabolism Iceland Male Mercury/metabolism* Predatory Behavior Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology
Carnivory
Ecosystem
Endangered Species
Environmental Pollutants
Female
Foxes
Immunology
Metabolism
Abstract
Changes in concentration of pollutants and pathogen distribution can vary among ecotypes (e.g. marine versus terrestrial food resources). This may have important implications for the animals that reside within them. We examined 1) canid pathogen presence in an endangered arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) population and 2) relative total mercury (THg) level as a function of ecotype ('coastal' or 'inland') for arctic foxes to test whether the presence of pathogens or heavy metal concentration correlate with population health. The Bering Sea populations on Bering and Mednyi Islands were compared to Icelandic arctic fox populations with respect to inland and coastal ecotypes. Serological and DNA based pathogen screening techniques were used to examine arctic foxes for pathogens. THg was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry from hair samples of historical and modern collected arctic foxes and samples from their prey species (hair and internal organs). Presence of pathogens did not correlate with population decline from Mednyi Island. However, THg concentration correlated strongly with ecotype and was reflected in the THg concentrations detected in available food sources in each ecotype. The highest concentration of THg was found in ecotypes where foxes depended on marine vertebrates for food. Exclusively inland ecotypes had low THg concentrations. The results suggest that absolute exposure to heavy metals may be less important than the feeding ecology and feeding opportunities of top predators such as arctic foxes which may in turn influence population health and stability. A higher risk to wildlife of heavy metal exposure correlates with feeding strategies that rely primarily on a marine based diet.
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Chronic dietary exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants induces thyroid gland lesions in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303061
Source
Environ Res. 2009 Aug;109(6):702-11. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.008. Epub 2009 May 22.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Sonne C
Wolkers H
Leifsson PS
Iburg T
Jenssen BM
Fuglei E
Ahlstrøm O
Dietz R
Kirkegaard M
Muir DC
Jørgensen EH
Source
Environ Res. 2009 Aug;109(6):702-11. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.008. Epub 2009 May 22.
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Analysis
Metabolism
toxicity
Drug effects
Standards
Animals
Diet
Dietary Fats
Endocrine Disruptors
Pharmacokinetics
Energy Metabolism
Environmental Pollutants
Food chain
Foxes
Growth & development
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Thyroid Gland
Male
Time Factors
Abstract
The impact of dietary organochlorine (OC) exposure on thyroid gland pathology was studied in farmed male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). The exposed group (n=16) was fed a diet based on wild minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber as a main fat source in order to mimic the exposure to OC cocktails in the Artic environment. This resulted in an exposure of approximately 17 microg Sigma OC/kg day and a Sigma OC residue adipose tissue and liver concentration of 1700 and 4470 ng/gl.w., respectively, after 16 months of exposure. Control foxes (n=13) were fed a diet with pork (Sus scrofa) fat as a main fat source containing significantly lower OC concentrations. The food composition fed to the control and exposed group was standardized for nutrient contents. Four OC-related histopathological changes were found: (1) flat-epithelial-cell true thyroid cysts (TC) characterized by neutral content; (2) remnants of simple squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing neutral debris (EDN); (3) remnants of stratified squamous epithelial-cell embryonic ducts containing acid mucins often accompanied with debris of leukocyte inflammatory nature (EDM) and (4) disseminated thyroid C-cell hyperplasia (HPC). Of these, the prevalence of TC, EDN and HPC was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi(2) test: all p
PubMed ID
19464679 View in PubMed
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Biotransformation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: characterization of phase I and II pathways at transcriptional, translational and activity levels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303060
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;152(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.02.009. Epub 2010 Feb 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Helgason LB1, Arukwe A, Gabrielsen GW, Harju M, Hegseth MN, Heimstad ES, Jørgensen EH, Mortensen AS, Wolkers J.
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;152(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.02.009. Epub 2010 Feb 20.
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Arctic Regions
Biotransformation
Birds
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Genetics
Metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Protein Biosynthesis
Transcription, Genetic
Abstract
Arctic seabirds are exposed to a wide range of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs). Exposure occurs mainly through food intake, and many pollutants accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. Little is known about how HOCs are biotransformed in arctic seabirds. In this study, we characterized biotransformation enzymes in chicks of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway). Phase I and II enzymes were analyzed at the transcriptional, translational and activity levels. For gene expression patterns, quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), using gene-sequence primers, were performed. Protein levels were analyzed using immunochemical assays of western blot with commercially available antibodies. Liver samples were analyzed for phase I and II enzyme activities using a variety of substrates including ethoxyresorufin (cytochrome (CYP)1A1/1A2), pentoxyresorufin (CYP2B), methoxyresorufin (CYP1A), benzyloxyresorufin (CYP3A), testosterone (CYP3A/CYP2B), 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene (CDNB) (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and 4-nitrophenol (uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT)). In addition, the hydroxylated (OH-) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in the blood, liver and brain tissue, whereas the methylsulfone (MeSO(2)-) PCBs were analyzed in liver tissue. Results indicated the presence of phase I (CYP1A4/CYP1A5, CYP2B, and CYP3A) and phase II (GST and UDPGT) enzymes at the activity, protein and/or mRNA level in both species. Northern fulmar chicks had higher enzyme activity than black-legged kittiwake chicks. This in combination with the higher SigmaOH-PCB to parent PCB ratios suggests that northern fulmar chicks have a different biotransformation capacity than black-legged kittiwake chicks.
PubMed ID
20176133 View in PubMed
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Biomarker response and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning in Arctic charr from Bjørnøya (74°30'?N), Norway, with high levels of organohalogenated compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303059
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2017 Jun;187:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Jørgensen EH
Maule AG
Evenset A
Christensen G
Bytningsvik J
Frantzen M
Nikiforov V
Faught E
Vijayan MM
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2017 Jun;187:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Blood
Pharmacokinetics
toxicity
Drug effects
Arctic Regions
Biomarkers
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Endocrine Disruptors
Environmental monitoring
Hydrocortisone
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Kidney
Lakes
Chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Tissue Distribution
Trout
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Abstract
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (
PubMed ID
28384517 View in PubMed
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Periodontal condition in relation to the adherence to nutrient recommendations in daily smokers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303042
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2018 06; 45(6):636-649
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Leena M Jauhiainen
Anna L Suominen
Satu Männistö
Matti Knuuttila
Pekka V Ylöstalo
Author Affiliation
Institute of Dentistry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2018 06; 45(6):636-649
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet, Healthy
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Oral Hygiene
Periodontal Diseases - diet therapy
Smokers
Surveys and Questionnaires
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To examine whether a healthy diet based on nutrient recommendations is associated with periodontal condition in smokers.
Daily smokers from the cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (BRIF 8901) in Finland were analysed in two age groups (30-49 and 50-79 years, n = 704 and 267) and according to the level of oral hygiene. Periodontal condition was measured as the number of sextants with gingival bleeding and teeth with =4 mm deepened periodontal pockets. Information on nutrition was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire and measured using the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) and the Recommended Finnish Diet Score (RFDS).
In the total study population, no association between the scores and periodontal condition was observed. Among 30- to 49-year-old participants with good oral hygiene, diet scores associated inversely with the number of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets (p = .078 (BSDS) and p = .027 (RFDS)).
In a representative sample of Finnish adults who smoke, a healthy diet was not associated with periodontal condition. Among a younger age group with good oral hygiene, a healthy diet associated with better periodontal condition. Age and oral hygiene appeared to modify the association between diet and periodontal condition.
PubMed ID
29418017 View in PubMed
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Validation of a picture book to be used in a pan-European dietary survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303043
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 06; 21(9):1654-1663
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Study
Date
06-2018
Author
Sofia Vilela
Carla Lopes
Sofia Guiomar
Milton Severo
Lalka Rangelova
Stefka Petrova
Zuszsanna Horváth
Júlia Cseh
Antje Schweter
Oliver Lindtner
Árpád Ambrus
Duarte Torres
Author Affiliation
1EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública,Universidade do Porto,Rua das Taipas nº 135,4050-600 Porto,Portugal.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 06; 21(9):1654-1663
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Books
Bulgaria
Child
Diet Surveys - methods
Female
Finland
Germany
Humans
Hungary
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Perception
Photography
Pilot Projects
Portion Size - psychology
Portugal
Young Adult
Abstract
To validate a picture book for estimation of food portion sizes using two approaches: (i) 'perception' of food portions by comparison with a series of food photos; and (ii) 'conceptualization and memory', using the same photos to estimate the amount of served food one hour after self-served food portions.
Each partner developed a country-specific picture book based on the so-called EPIC-Soft picture book. Representative and common photo series were chosen achieving approximately 25 % of the original picture book (n 23). Three portions from each photo series were randomly selected.
The study was performed within the Pilot study in the view of a Pan-European dietary survey - Adolescents, adults and elderly (PILOT-PANEU) project.
A sample of adolescents and adults was recruited in five countries: Bulgaria (n 103), Finland (n 34), Germany (n 69), Hungary (n 62) and Portugal (n 77).
Among the portions of the corresponding photo series and depending on the type of food, from 18 % (cheese) to 96 % (ratatouille) of participants chose the correct portions. In the perception study, agreement between the portions shown and reported was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0·805) and the mean difference was very low. In the memory study, agreement between the served and reported portions was lower than in the perception study (ICC=0·536). Agreement also seemed to decrease as the appearance of food on the plate differed from food in the picture.
Overall, the picture series selected can be applied in future intake surveys to quantify foods similar to those depicted in the pictures.
PubMed ID
29388532 View in PubMed
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Medicare and the care of First Nations, Métis and Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303044
Source
Health Econ Policy Law. 2018 07; 13(3-4):280-298
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
07-2018
Author
Josée G Lavoie
Author Affiliation
Professor,Department of Community Health Sciences and Director, University of Manitoba, Canada Ongomiizwin Research,University of Manitoba,Canada.
Source
Health Econ Policy Law. 2018 07; 13(3-4):280-298
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Canada
Health Policy
Health Services Accessibility
Healthcare Disparities - ethnology
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
National health programs - organization & administration
Politics
Abstract
The Canada Health Act 1984 (CHA) is considered foundational to Canada's publicly funded health care system (known as Medicare). The CHA provides for the federal transfer of funding to the provinces/territories, in exchange for provincial/territorial adherence to Medicare's key principles of universality; comprehensiveness; portability; accessibility; and, public administration. Medicare is a decentralized health care system, managed independently by Canada's 10 provincial and three territorial governments, allowing for regional adaptations to fit varying degrees of urbanity, remoteness and needs. The Act is silent on its relationship to the Indigenous health care system - what some have described as Canada's 14th health care system. The CHA has not kept pace with Indigenous self-government activities that have since spread across Canada. It has unfortunately crystallized the federal/provincial/territorial/Indigenous jurisdictional fragmentation that perpetuates health inequities and has failed to clarify these jurisdictions' obligations towards Indigenous peoples. As a result of these omissions, access to health services remains a concern for many Indigenous Canadians, resulting in poorer outcomes and premature mortality. In this paper, I argue that Medicare renewal must: make an explicit commitment to Indigenous health equity; clarify jurisdictional obligations; establish effective mechanisms for addressing areas of jurisdictional dispute and/or confusion; and explicitly recognize First Nations and Inuit health care services as integral yet distinct systems, that nevertheless must be welcomed to seamlessly work with provincial health care systems to ensure continuity of care.
PubMed ID
29388515 View in PubMed
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The association between relevant co-morbidities and prevalent as well as incident heart failure in patients with atrial fibrillation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303045
Source
J Cardiol. 2018 07; 72(1):26-32
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
Per Wändell
Axel C Carlsson
Martin J Holzmann
Johan Ärnlöv
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. Electronic address: per.wandell@ki.se.
Source
J Cardiol. 2018 07; 72(1):26-32
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology
Cardiomyopathies - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Depression - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Heart Failure - epidemiology
Heart Valve Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a serious complication in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
To study associations between relevant co-morbidities and CHF in patients with AF.
Study population included all adults (n=12,283) =45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centers in Sweden 2001-2007. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between co-morbidities, and prevalent CHF. In a subsample (n=9424), (excluding patients with earlier CHF), Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% CIs for the association between co-morbidities, and a first hospital diagnosis of CHF, after adjustment for age and socio-economic factors.
During 5.4 years' follow-up (standard deviation 2.5), 2259 patients (24.0%; 1135 men, 21.8%, and 1124 women, 26.7%) were diagnosed with CHF. Patients with hypertension were less likely to have CHF, while a diagnosis of coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was consistently associated with CHF among men and women. CHF was more common among women with depression. The relative fully adjusted risk of incident CHF was increased for the following diseases in men with AF: valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes; and for the following diseases in women: valvular heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and COPD. The corresponding risk was decreased among women for hypertension.
In this clinical setting we found hypertension to be associated with a decreased risk of CHF among women; valvular heart disease and diabetes to be associated with an increased risk of CHF in both sexes; and cardiomyopathy to be associated with an increased risk of CHF among men.
PubMed ID
29358024 View in PubMed
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Associations of Quadriceps Torque Properties with Muscle Size, Attenuation, and Intramuscular Adipose Tissue in Older Adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303046
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 06 14; 73(7):931-938
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-14-2018
Author
Andrew W Frank-Wilson
Didier Chalhoub
Pedro Figueiredo
Pálmi V Jónsson
Kristín Siggeirsdóttir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Vilmundur Guðnason
Lenore Launer
Tamara B Harris
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging (NIA), Bethesda, Maryland.
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 06 14; 73(7):931-938
Date
06-14-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - diagnostic imaging - pathology - physiopathology
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - pathology - physiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Iceland
Isometric Contraction - physiology
Male
Muscle Strength - physiology
Quadriceps Muscle - diagnostic imaging - pathology - physiopathology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Torque
Abstract
Atrophy and fatty infiltration of muscle with aging are associated with fractures and falls, however, their direct associations with muscle function are not well described. It was hypothesized that participants with lower quadriceps muscle attenuation, area, and greater intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) will exhibit slower rates of torque development (RTD) and lower peak knee extension torques.
Data from 4,842 participants (2,041 men, 2,801 women) from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study (mean age 76 ± 0.1 years) with complete thigh computed tomography and isometric knee testing. Regression models were adjusted for health, behavior, and comorbidities. Muscle attenuation was further adjusted for muscle area and IMAT; muscle area adjusted for IMAT and attenuation; and IMAT adjusted for muscle area and attenuation. Standardized betas (ß) indicate association effect sizes.
In the fully-adjusted models, attenuation (men ß = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.11; women ß = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.11) and muscle area (men ß = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.19; women ß = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.15) were associated with knee RTD. Attenuation (men ß = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.16; women ß = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.16) and muscle area (men ß = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.43; women ß = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.37) were associated with peak torque.
These data suggest that muscle attenuation and area are independently associated with RTD and peak torque; and that area and attenuation demonstrate similar contributions to RTD.
PubMed ID
29342246 View in PubMed
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Identification as a Mutation Carrier and Effects on Life According to Experiences of Finnish Male BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303047
Source
J Genet Couns. 2018 08; 27(4):874-884
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2018
Author
Outi Kajula
Outi Kuismin
Helvi Kyngäs
Author Affiliation
Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014, Oulu, Finland. outi.kajula@oulu.fi.
Source
J Genet Couns. 2018 08; 27(4):874-884
Date
08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
BRCA2 Protein - genetics
Breast Neoplasms, Male - genetics - prevention & control
Finland
Genetic Counseling - psychology
Genetic Testing - methods
Humans
Life Style
Male
Men's health
Middle Aged
Mutation
Abstract
Earlier studies have explored post-identification experiences of male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, but more detailed knowledge of both their experiences and effects of identification as a carrier on their lives is required to improve genetic counseling. Thus, the aim of this study was to acquire deeper and broader insights into their experiences. Qualitative data were collected from theme-based interviews with 31 men carrying BRCA1/2 mutations in Finland, and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Three categories of the participants' responses to identification as BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were identified (personal, offspring-related and related to other relatives), mainly concerning issues associated with cancer, hereditary transmission of their mutations, and life decisions. Although there were many neutral responses regarding the issues, there were also strong emotional reactions and cancer worries. Identification as a carrier also had several effects on participants' lifestyles, including adoption of healthier and disease-preventing behavior, and social well-being, such as family planning and attitudes to life. The results provide detailed information about several aspects of male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' experiences, which could be used to develop a tentative model of tailored genetic counseling for them.
PubMed ID
29332197 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue fatty acids present in dairy fat and risk of stroke: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303048
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar; 58(2):529-539
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Anne Sofie Dam Laursen
Christina Catherine Dahm
Søren Paaske Johnsen
Erik Berg Schmidt
Kim Overvad
Marianne Uhre Jakobsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. asdl@ph.au.dk.
Source
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Mar; 58(2):529-539
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Dairy Products - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet - methods
Dietary Fats - analysis - metabolism
Fatty Acids - analysis - metabolism
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - metabolism
Abstract
The role of dairy fat for the risk of stroke is not yet clear. Adipose tissue reflects long-term fatty acid intake and metabolism. We, therefore, investigated associations for percentages of adipose tissue fatty acids, for which dairy products are a major source (12:0, 14:0, 14:1 cis-9, 15:0, 17:0, 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11), with incident total stroke and stroke subtypes.
We conducted a case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, including all incident stroke cases (n?=?2108) and a random sample of the total cohort (n?=?3186). The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue biopsies was determined by gas chromatography and specific fatty acids were expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Stroke cases were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and the diagnoses were individually verified.
We recorded 2108 stroke cases of which 1745 were ischemic, 249 were intracerebral hemorrhages and 102 were subarachnoid hemorrhages. We observed a lower rate of ischemic stroke for a higher adipose tissue percentage of 12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 17:0, 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11. Adipose tissue percentages of 15:0 and 18:1 trans-11 were also inversely associated with intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas no associations between the adipose tissue fatty acids and subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. No associations between 14:1 cis-9 and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were found.
Our results suggest that a larger percentage in adipose tissue of fatty acids for which dairy products are a major source is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.
PubMed ID
29330661 View in PubMed
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Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303049
Source
Sci Adv. 2018 01; 4(1):eaap9887
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2018
Author
Martin Ludvigsen
Jørgen Berge
Maxime Geoffroy
Jonathan H Cohen
Pedro R De La Torre
Stein M Nornes
Hanumant Singh
Asgeir J Sørensen
Malin Daase
Geir Johnsen
Author Affiliation
Centre of Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems (AMOS), Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Technology and Science (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Sci Adv. 2018 01; 4(1):eaap9887
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Environmental pollution
Models, Theoretical
Movement
Sunlight
Zooplankton - physiology
Abstract
Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms' response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Autonomous Surface Vehicle fitted with a hyperspectral irradiance sensor and an acoustic profiler, we detected and quantified the behavior of zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment in the high Arctic polar night and compared the results with that from a light-polluted environment close to our research vessels. First, in environments free of light pollution, the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient light regime and performs synchronized diel vertical migrations in the upper 30 m despite the sun never rising above the horizon. Second, the vast majority of the pelagic community exhibits a strong light-escape response in the presence of artificial light, observed down to 100 m. We conclude that artificial light from traditional sampling platforms affects the zooplankton community to a degree where it is impossible to examine its abundance and natural rhythms within the upper 100 m. This study underscores the need to adjust sampling platforms, particularly in dim-light conditions, to capture relevant physical and biological data for ecological studies. It also highlights a previously unchartered susceptibility to light pollution in a region destined to see significant changes in light climate due to a reduced ice cover and an increased anthropogenic activity.
PubMed ID
29326985 View in PubMed
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Physical Performance and Serum 25(OH)vitamin D Status in Community Dwelling Old Mobility Limited Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303050
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2018; 22(1):1-7
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Å von Berens
T Cederholm
R A Fielding
T Gustafsson
D Kirn
J Laussen
M Nydahl
T G Travison
K Reid
A Koochek
Author Affiliation
Åsa von Berens, Rd, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University. Uppsala Science Park, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, asa.von.berens@pubcare.uu.se.
Source
J Nutr Health Aging. 2018; 22(1):1-7
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dietary Supplements
Exercise
Female
Humans
Independent living
Male
Mobility Limitation
Nutritional Status
Physical Functional Performance
Postural Balance
Sweden
United States
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamins
Walking Speed
Abstract
To examine the potential association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D and the performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) including the sub-components; five repeated chair stands test, 4 meters walk test and balance in older mobility-limited community-dwelling men and women.
A cross sectional study was performed in American and Swedish subjects who were examined for potential participation in a combined exercise and nutrition intervention trial. Logistic regression analysis and linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association for 25(OH)D with the overall score on the SBBP, chair stand, gait speed and balance.
Community-dwelling (mean age 77.6 ± 5.3 years) mobility limited American (n=494) and Swedish (n=116) females (59%) and males.
The SPPB (0-12 points) includes chair stand (s), gait speed (m/s) and a balance test. Mobility limitation i.e., SPPB score = 9 was an inclusion criterion. A blood sample was obtained to measure serum 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations.
No clear association of 25(OH)D with SPPB scores was detected either when 25(OH)D was assessed as a continuous variable or when categorized according to serum concentrations of
PubMed ID
29300415 View in PubMed
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Temporal Trends in Healthcare Costs and Outcome Following ICU Admission After Traumatic Brain Injury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303051
Source
Crit Care Med. 2018 04; 46(4):e302-e309
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-2018
Author
Rahul Raj
Stepani Bendel
Matti Reinikainen
Sanna Hoppu
Teemu Luoto
Tero Ala-Kokko
Sami Tetri
Ruut Laitio
Timo Koivisto
Jaakko Rinne
Riku Kivisaari
Jari Siironen
Alisa Higgins
Markus B Skrifvars
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Crit Care Med. 2018 04; 46(4):e302-e309
Date
04-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
APACHE
Activities of Daily Living
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Brain Injuries, Traumatic - economics - rehabilitation
Cost of Illness
Critical Care - economics
Disability Evaluation
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Glasgow Coma Scale
Health Expenditures - statistics & numerical data
Hospital Mortality
Humans
Intensive Care Units - economics
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Econometric
Retrospective Studies
Social Security - economics
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
To assess temporal trends in 1-year healthcare costs and outcome of intensive care for traumatic brain injury in Finland.
Retrospective observational cohort study.
Multicenter study including four tertiary ICUs.
Three thousand fifty-one adult patients (= 18 yr) with significant traumatic brain injury treated in a tertiary ICU during 2003-2013.
None.
Total 1-year healthcare costs included the index hospitalization costs, rehabilitation unit costs, and social security reimbursements. All costs are reported as 2013 U.S. dollars ($). Outcomes were 1-year mortality and permanent disability. Multivariate regression models, adjusting for case-mix, were used to assess temporal trends in costs and outcome in predefined Glasgow Coma Scale (3-8, 9-12, and 13-15) and age (18-40, 41-64, and = 65 yr) subgroups. Overall 1-year survival was 76% (n = 2,304), and of 1-year survivors, 37% (n = 850) were permanently disabled. Mean unadjusted 1-year healthcare cost was $39,809 (95% CI, $38,144-$41,473) per patient. Adjusted healthcare costs decreased only in the Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15 and 65 years and older subgroups, due to lower rehabilitation costs. Adjusted 1-year mortality did not change in any subgroup (p
PubMed ID
29293155 View in PubMed
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Predator-prey interactions cause apparent competition between marine zooplankton groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303052
Source
Ecology. 2018 03; 99(3):632-641
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2018
Author
Leif Christian Stige
Kristina Ø Kvile
Bjarte Bogstad
Øystein Langangen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, N-0316, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Ecology. 2018 03; 99(3):632-641
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Biomass
Climate change
Ecosystem
Fishes
Population Dynamics
Zooplankton
Abstract
Predator-mediated apparent competition is an indirect negative interaction between two prey species mediated by a shared predator. Quantifying such indirect ecosystem effects is methodologically challenging but important for understanding ecosystem functioning. Still, there are few examples of apparent competition from pelagic marine environments. Using state-space statistical modeling, we here provide evidence for apparent competition between two dominant zooplankton groups in a large marine ecosystem, i.e., krill and copepods in the Barents Sea. This effect is mediated by a positive association between krill biomass and survival of the main planktivorous fish in the Barents Sea, capelin Mallotus villosus, and a negative association between capelin and copepod biomasses. The biomass of Atlantic krill species is expected to increase in the Barents Sea due to ongoing climate change, thereby potentially negatively affecting copepods through apparent competition. By demonstrating and quantifying apparent competition in a large marine ecosystem, our study paves the way for more realistic projections of indirect ecosystem effects of climate change and harvesting.
PubMed ID
29281755 View in PubMed
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Assessing the diversity of the g23 gene of T4-like bacteriophages from Lake Baikal with high-throughput sequencing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303053
Source
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2018 02 01; 365(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-01-2018
Author
Sergey Potapov
Olga Belykh
Andrey Krasnopeev
Anna Gladkikh
Marsel Kabilov
Aleksey Tupikin
Tatyana Butina
Author Affiliation
Limnological Institute Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Ulan-Batorskaya, Irkutsk 664033, Russia.
Source
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2018 02 01; 365(3):
Date
02-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Bacteriophage T4 - classification - genetics
Capsid Proteins - genetics
Genes, Viral - genetics
Genetic Variation
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Lakes - virology
Phylogeny
Plankton - classification - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Water Microbiology
Abstract
Based on second generation sequencing (MiSeq platform, Illumina), we determined the genetic diversity of T4-like bacteriophages of the family Myoviridae by analysing fragments of the major capsid protein gene g23 in the plankton of Lake Baikal. The sampling depth in our study was significantly higher than in those obtained by the Sanger method before. We obtained 33 701 sequences of the g23 gene fragments, 141 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of which were identified. 86 OTUs (60.9%) had the closest relatives from lakes Bourget and Annecy, and 28 OTUs (19.8%) had the highest identity with the Baikal g23 clones, which had been previously identified in the northern and southern basins of the lake by the Sanger method. The remaining OTUs were similar to the clones from other ecosystems. We showed a high genetic diversity of T4-type bacteriophages and a genetic difference with the phage communities from other ecosystems.
PubMed ID
29228190 View in PubMed
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War-Related Traumas and Mental Health Across Generations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303054
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 01 01; 75(1):5-6
Publication Type
Editorial
Comment
Date
01-01-2018
Author
Theresa S Betancourt
Dana Thomson
Tyler J VanderWeele
Author Affiliation
Research Program on Children and Adversity, Boston College School of Social Work, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 01 01; 75(1):5-6
Date
01-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Editorial
Comment
Keywords
Child
Finland
Hospitalization
Humans
Mental health
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
War-Related Injuries
World War II
Notes
CommentOn: JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 1;75(1):21-27 PMID 29188292
PubMed ID
29188290 View in PubMed
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