This report presents the tritium, gross alpha, and gross beta data from the amchitka Island study area. These data were obtained from samples analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey between October 1965 and November 1970. Analyses of water samples are tabulated by increasing latitude and decreasing longitude of sampling points. The study area from which samples are reported lies within lat 51°00' and 52°00' N., and long 179°30' and 178°30' E.
Radiochemical data from the Arnchitka Island study area were obtained from water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during August 1974. Tritium determinations were made on 18 samples, and gross alpha and gross beta/ gamma determinations were made on 12 samples. No appreciable differences were found between the data obtained during August 1974 and the data obtained before the Cannikin event
Chemical analyses were made on 4 samples collected in 1971, on 15 samples in 1972, on 11 samples in 1973, and 7 samples in 1974. Comparison of these analyses to analyses of samples collected before the Cannikin event indicates no changes outside of the seasonal range normally found at the sampling locations.
This report confirms radioactive leakage into the Bering Sea from the world's largest underground nuclear explosion. Government data show americium-241 leaking from all three nuclear blast sites under Amchitka Island, Alaska. Americium-241 is a radionuclide with a 433-year half-life. It is produced by the decay of plutonium that fueled the bombs. The full extent of the leakage from the Amchitka nuclear blast sites is yet unknown.
Nuclear Flashback Part 2 chronicles problems encountered by independent scientists when results do not conform with the government's vested interests. Norm Buske analyzed more than 1,600 pages of DOE's own data to trace the government's corruption of sample gathering, data management, violations of laboratory operating procedures, analyses, and subsequent reporting delays. Greenpeace's unique public oversight role in this study provides a first-hand look at methods by which the Department of Energy disavows evidence of radioactive leakage at Amchitka. This is the "Amchitka example" of a system-wide problem at DOE.
A report confirming radioactive leakage into the Bering Sea from the world's largest underground nuclear explosion.
Surface water samples were collected on the island of Amchitka, Alaska during the month of June 1997 as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's Long Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. The samples were scanned for the presence of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and analyzed to determine tritium concentrations. Both conventional and enrichment methods were used. No man made gamma-ray emitters were detected and results of the tritium analyses are consistent with historical values. Trends in decreasing concentration appear to be due to radioactive decay and to dilution.
Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NVI1969
Three underground nuclear tests representing approximately 15-16% of the total effective energy released during the United States underground nuclear testing program from 1951 to 1992 were conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska. In 1996, Greenpeace reported that leakage of radionuclides, 241Am and 239+240Pu, from these underground tests to the terrestrial and freshwater environments had been detected. In response to this report, a federal, state, tribal and non-governmental team conducted a terrestrial and freshwater radiological sampling program in 1997. Additional radiological sampling was conducted in 1998. An assessment of the reported leakage to the freshwater environment was evaluated by assessing 3H values in surface waters and 240Pu/239Pu ratios in various sample media. Tritium values ranged from 0.41 Bq/l +/- 0.11 two sigma to 0.74 Bq/1 +/- 0.126 two sigma at the surface water sites sampled, including the reported leakage sites. Only at the Long Shot test site, where leakage of radioactive gases to the near-surface occurred in 1965. were higher 3H levels of 5.8 Bq/1 +/- 0.19 two sigma still observed in 1997, in mud pit #3. The mean 240Pu/239Pu for all of the Amchitka samples was 0.1991 +/- 0.0149 one standard deviation, with values ranging from 0.1824 +/- 1.43% one sigma to 0.2431 +/- 6.56% one sigma. The measured 3H levels and 240Pu/239Pu ratios in freshwater moss and sediments at Amchitka provide no evidence of leakage occurring at the sites reported by Buske and Miller (1998 Nuclear-Weapons-Free America and Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, Ak, p.38) and Miller and Buske (1996 Nuclear Flashback: The Return to Anchitka, p.35). It was noted that the marine sample; 240Pu/239Pu ratios are statistically different than the global fallout ratios presented by Krey et al. (1976) and Kelley, Bond, and Beasley (1999). The additional non-fallout component 240Pu/239Pu ratio, assuming a single unique source, necessary to modify the global fallout 240Pu/239Pu ratio to that measured in the marine samples is on the order of 0.65 (Hameedi, Efurd, Harmon, Valette-Silver, & Robertson, 1999; Kelley et al., 1999). While this potentially suggests another plutonium source, such as high burn-up nuclear reactor fuel, rather than underground nuclear tests, the uncertainties in analyses and environmental processes need to be fully assessed before any conclusion can be reached. Further work is needed to evaluate these findings and to support any radiological assessment of the marine environment surrounding Amchitka. Based on geohydrological testing and modeling, leakage from the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Tests is projected to occur to the marine environment (Claassen, 1978; Fenske, 1972; Wheatcraft, 1995).
Marine mammals being among the top predators in the food web tend to accumulate organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment. The body burden of contaminants in these species could reflect their foods and thus contaminant levels could serve as proxies on the changes of ecosystem. A pilot study was carried out to investigate the possibility of radionuclide leakage at Amchitka using a suite of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) skulls collected near Amchitka nuclear test-sites before (1950s) and after the testing (1990s), and at Adak, another Aleutian Island, about 300 km from Amchitka, where the potential impact of radionuclide leakage from Amchitka is expected to be negligible. In addition, the naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclide content on the sea otter skull was also utilized to investigate if there was any significant ecosystem changes in the environment. Concentration of 210Pb in sea otter bones collected during the 1950s was significantly higher than those collected in the 1990s. We propose that among the various factors that could cause this higher enrichment in 210Pb, changes in the sea otter prey is the most likely one. Comparison of the 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu concentrations appear not to be significantly higher in sea otter skulls collected in 1990s from Amchitka where the underground tests in 1965-71 than those from Adak, although significant differences were detected among different groups collected at various times.
This report presents FBI's Amahitka research activities of FY 1973 and highlights of the entire program on the marine ecology of Amchitka since its inception in July, 1967. The primary mission of the program was to assess and evaluate both the short and long termed effects of the Milrow (October 2, 1969) and the Cannikin (November 6, 1971) underground nuclear tests on the marine environment and biota. While most of the program efforts were devoted to evaluating test effects, much work was in fundamental research, such as taxonomic work, to obtain baseline information so as to assess and intelligently interpret the changes observed after the tests.
The FY 1973 work covered largely the evaluation of the effects of Cannikin 1-year postevent and the effects of Milrow 3-year postevent. Cannikin caused the permanent uplifting of intertidal benches along 6.1 km (alongshore distance) of Bering Sea coastline which disrupted intertidal invertebrate and algal communities. Although these communities were destroyed in localised areas, this disruption is considered short-termed because invertebrate and algal communities still remaining in the tidal influence will eventually be reestablished. Offshore studies revealed that rock sole catches which declined soon after Cannikin increased and are now not significantly different from pre-Cannikin values. Nearshore studies showed that rook greenling catches which declined immediately postevent have also recovered to pre-Cannikin values.
Milrow was estimated to have uplifted and disrupted the adjacent intertidal region less than 4 ha. Milrow caused a portion of the intertidal bench to be partially uplifted and also caused a rockfall from an adjacent cliff at Duck Cove. Algal recolonization in this area has progressed with the replacement of the former Hedophyllum community by Fucus and Alaria. The area of siltation on the intertidal bench below the rockfall at Square Bay has been reduced and is now almost completely covered by algae.
Experimentally disturbed intertidal algal communities which experienced no change in tidal level recovered within 1 to 2 years after disturbance. Since most of the intertidal invertebrate communities depend on algal communities, they are expected to recover in 3 to S years. Observations on test-disturbed intertidal benches showed that recolonization of invertebrate and algal communities is progressing, but the communities are still neither stable nor complete. These communities are not expected to stabilize for at least 2 more years.
Recovery of fish populations in localized offshore and nearshore waters to pre-Canniliin levels has occurred because of immigration from adjacent areas. Fish 'habitat disruption was localized and was not great enough to reduce significantly the carrying capacity of disrupted areas.
In summary, it appears that long-term biological damage by Cannikin or Milrow to the marine communities studied is negligible. Although permanent physical changes occurred in localized portions of intertidal benches, adjacent cliffs, and possibly to some sub tidal formations, only 6,1 km of approximately 190 km of total island coastline was permanently uplifted and disturbed by Cannikin.
Prepared for Battelle, Columbus Laboratories under Atomic Energy Commission Prime, contact no, (26-1)-171
On September 6, 1987, about 6:00 a.m., a fire was discovered in the community building at Council, Alaska, where 12 radioluminescent (RL) light panels containing approximately 3000 Ci were stored. All of the tritium in the panels was released as a result of the fire. This report summarizes the recovery of the remains of the panels destroyed in the fire and investigations completed to evaluate the fire site for possible exposure of community residents or contamination by tritium release in the environment. Based on the analysis of urine samples obtained from individuals in the community and from Pacific Northwest Laboratory personnel participating in the recovery operation, no evidence of exposure to individuals was found. No tritium (above normal background) was found in water and vegetation samples obtained at various locations near the site.
Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE·AC06-76RLO 1830.
Contents: Introduction to Symposium by James B. Kirkwood. The Atomic Energy Commission's Interest in Bioenvironmental Research by J. J. Davis. Bioenvironmental Studies at Amchitka Island, Alaska by James B. Kirkwood. Physical Climatology of Amchitka Island, Alaska by Robert H. Armstrong. Marine Fishery Resources in the Vicinity of Amchitka Island, Alaska by Theodore R. Merrell, Jr. Studies of Populations of Sea Urchins, "Strongylocentrotus" sp., in Relation to Underground Nuclear Testing at Amchitka Island, Alaska by Louis Barr. The Structure and Origin of the Organic Soil Cover of Amchitka Island, Alaska by K. R. Everett. Dynamics of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Vegetation of Amchitka Island, Alaska by C. C. Amundsen and E. E. C. Clebsch. Dynamics of Raptor Populations on Amchitka Island, Alaska by Clayton M. White, William B. Emison and Francis S. L. Williamson. Geographical Affinities and Migrations of the Avifauna on Amchitka Island, Alaska by W. B. Emison, F. S. L. Williamson and C. M. White. Changes in the Ecology of the Plankton Communities on Amchitka Island, Alaska by Derry D. Koob. Freshwater Food Habits of "Salvelinus malma" (Walbaum) on Amchitka Island, Alaska by John J. Palmisano and William T. Helm. Ecology of Threespine Stickleback "Gasterosteus aculeatus" Linnaeus on Amchitka Island, Alaska by Richard A. Valdez and William T. Helm. Oceanography in the Vicinity of Amchitka Island, Alaska by W. Bruce McAlister. The Coastal Zooplankton around Amchitka Island, Alaska by Ole A. Mathisen and M. A. M. Peck. Spatial and Seasonal Distributions of Marine Algal Communities at Amchitka Island, Alaska by P. A. Lebednik, F. C. Weinmann and R. E. Norris. Transect Studies of Littoral Macrofauna, Amchitka Island, Alaska by C. E. O'Clair and K. K. Chew. Fish Communities and Food Chains in the Amchitka Area by J. S. Isakson, C. A. Simenstad and R. L. Burgner. Observations on the Effect of the Milrow Nuclear Test on Marine Organisms at Amchitka by R. L. Burgner, J. S. Isakson and P. A. Lebednik. Sea Otter Studies in the Vicinity of Amchitka Island by Ronald A. Wright and Wayne H. Allton . Bioenvironmental Surveillance Employing Photogrammetric Techniques by Joachim G. Stephan. The Lowland Stream Ecosystem of Amchitka Island, Alaska by John M. Neuhold. Mathematical Simulation of Sea Otter Population Dynamics Amchitka Island, Alaska by G. E. Raines, S. G. Bloom, P. A. McKee and J. C. Bell. Mathematical Models for Predicting the Transport of Radionuclides in a Marine Environment by S. G. Bloom and G. E. Raines. Ground Shock and Water Pressures from Milrow by Melvin L. Merritt. Variation in the Timing of Breeding and Molt of the Lapland Longspur ("Calcarius lapponicus") in Alaska, with Relation to Differences in Latitude by F. S. L. Williamson and W. B. Emison. Summary of Ecological Effects of Milrow by James B. Kirkwood.
The gold standard for health information is the health record. Hospitalization and outpatient diagnoses provide health systems with data on which to project health costs and plan programmatic changes. Although health record information may be reliable and perceived as accurate, it may not include population-specific information and may exclude care provided outside a specific health care facility. Sole reliance on medical record information may lead to underutilization of health care services and inadequate assessment of population health status. In this study, we analyzed agreement, without assuming a gold standard, between self-reported and recorded chronic conditions in an American Indian/Alaska Native cohort. Self-reported health history was collected from 3821 adult participants of the Alaska EARTH study during 2004-2006. Participant medical records were electronically accessed and reviewed. Self-reported chronic conditions were underreported in relation to the medical record and both information sources reported the absence more reliably than the presence of conditions (across conditions, median positive predictive value = 64%, median negative predictive value = 94%). Agreement was affected by age, gender, and education. Differences between participant- and provider-based prevalence of chronic conditions demonstrate why health care administrators and policy makers should not rely exclusively on medical record-based administrative data for a comprehensive evaluation of population health.
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among Alaska Native (AN) people, and the second leading cause of cancer death. The incidence rate for the combined years 1999 through 2003 was 30% higher than the rate among U.S. whites (USWs) for the same period. Current incidence rates may serve to monitor the impact of screening programs in reducing CRC in the AN population.
METHODS: Incidence data are from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. We compared AN CRC incidence, survival rates, and stage at diagnosis with rates in USWs for cases diagnosed from 2005 through 2009. Relative survival calculations were produced in SEER*Stat by the actuarial method.
RESULTS: The CRC age-adjusted incidence rate among AN men and women combined was higher than those in USW men and women (84 vs. 43/100,000; P
In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) commissioned the Urban Indian Health Institute (UIHI) to coordinate a multifaceted national evaluation plan for Good Health and Wellness in Indian Country (GHWIC), CDC’s largest investment in chronic disease prevention for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). GHWIC is a collaborative agreement among UIHI, CDC, tribal organizations, and individual tribes. In collaboration, UIHI and CDC drew upon an indigenous framework, prioritizing strength-based approaches for documenting program activities, to develop a 3-tiered evaluation model. The model incorporated locally tailored metrics, adherence to tribal protocols, and cultural priorities. Ultimately, federal requirements and data collection processes were aligned with tribal strengths and bidirectional learning was promoted. We describe how UIHI worked with tribal recipients, tribal health organizations, Tribal Epidemiology Centers, and CDC to develop and implement the model on the basis of an indigenous framework of mutual trust and respect.
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Alaska Native (AN) people, and the third leading cause of years of potential life lost. AN tribal health leaders and researchers want to understand the cancer burden attributable to modifiable risk factors among AN people, to inform the design of cancer prevention strategies that may reduce the burden of these diseases. To address this question, we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) associated with modifiable risk factors for cancer including obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and alcohol use, among AN people. We observed that PAR varied by cancer site and risk factor, but was highest for lung cancer and smoking, with an estimated 78.8% of cancers among males, and 69.8% among females attributable to this risk factor. A smaller, but still substantial proportion of cancers were associated with obesity (up to 37% for endometrial cancer among females), physical inactivity (up to 18% for endometrial cancer among females), and alcohol use (up to 34% for breast cancers among heavy drinking females). These results demonstrate the importance of smoking as a primary prevention target to reduce the burden of cancer and other chronic diseases among AN people. However, they also indicate that obesity, physical activity, and alcohol use may also account for a varying, but substantial proportion of cancers in this population. Given the high burden of cancer among AN people, a comprehensive approach to primary prevention is warranted.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has both genetic and environmental origins, including potentially maternal effects. Maternal effects describe the association of one or more maternal phenotypes with liability to ASD in progeny that are independent of maternally transmitted risk alleles. While maternal effects could play an important role, consistent with association to maternal traits such as immune status, no study has estimated maternal, additive genetic, and environmental effects in ASD.
Using a population-based sample consisting of all children born in Sweden from 1998 to 2007 and their relatives, we fitted statistical models to family data to estimate the variance in ASD liability originating from maternal, additive genetic, and shared environmental effects. We calculated sibling and cousin family recurrence risk ratio as a direct measure of familial, genetic, and environmental risk factors and repeated the calculations on diagnostic subgroups, specifically autistic disorder (AD) and spectrum disorder (SD), which included Asperger's syndrome and/or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.
The sample consisted of 776,212 children of whom 11,231 had a diagnosis of ASD: 4554 with AD, 6677 with SD. We found support for large additive genetic contribution to liability; heritability (95% confidence interval [CI]) was estimated to 84.8% (95% CI: 73.1-87.3) for ASD, 79.6% (95% CI: 61.2-85.1) for AD, and 76.4% (95% CI: 63.0-82.5) for SD.
There was modest, if any, contribution of maternal effects to liability for ASD, including subtypes AD and SD, and there was no support for shared environmental effects. These results show liability to ASD arises largely from additive genetic variation.
Complications following major abdominal surgery are common and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe 1-year mortality and identify factors that influence adverse outcomes after abdominal surgery.
This prospective observational cohort study was performed in Landspitali University Hospital and included all adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery requiring > 24-h hospital admission over 13 months. The follow-up period was 60 days for complications and 24 months for mortality.
Data were available for 1113 (99.5%) of the 1119 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria. A total of 23% of patients had at least one underlying co-morbidity. Non-elective surgeries were 48% and 13% of the patients were admitted to ICU post-operatively. A total of 20% of patients developed complications. Mortality at 30 days, 1 and 2 years was 1.8%, 5.6%, and 8.3% respectively. One-year mortality for those admitted to ICU was 18%. The long-term survival of the individuals surviving 30 days was significantly worse than for an age- and gender-matched population control group. Independent predictors for 1-year mortality were age, pre-operative acute kidney injury and intermediate- or major surgery.
Post-operative complication rates and mortality following abdominal surgery in Iceland were comparable or in the lower range of previously published outcomes, validating the utility of offering a full host of abdominal surgical services in geographically isolated region with a relatively small referral base.
Whether women are more susceptible than men to smoking-related lung cancer has been a topic of controversy. To address this question, we compared risks of lung cancer associated with smoking by sex. Altogether, 585,583 participants from 3 Norwegian cohorts (Norwegian Counties Study, 40 Years Study, and Cohort of Norway (CONOR) Study) were followed until December 31, 2013, through linkage of data to national registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models and 95% confidence intervals to estimate risks. During nearly 12 million person-years of follow-up, 6,534 participants (43% women) were diagnosed with lung cancer. More men than women were heavier smokers. Compared with never smokers, male and female current smokers with =16 pack-years of smoking had hazard ratios for lung cancer of 27.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 22.42, 33.09) and 23.90 (95% CI: 20.57, 27.76), respectively (P for heterogeneity = 0.30). In contrast, for current smokers, in a model with pack-years measured continuously, men had a hazard ratio of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.39, 1.48) and women a hazard ratio of 1.64 (95% CI: 1.57, 1.71) for each 10-pack-year increment of smoking (P for heterogeneity
A new study of ancient mitochondrial DNA from Newfoundland and Labrador indicates that this region at the northeastern margin of North America was populated three times in succession by different indigenous groups. This research helps shed light on the movement of populations across the continent, following the initial peopling of the Americas.
CommentOn: Curr Biol. 2017 Oct 23;27(20):3149-3156.e11 PMID 29033326