The energy state of rat liver at various times of cold acclimation has been studied. On day 10 of cold exposure, the energy state of the liver is characterized by a low level of ATP and the adenine nucleotide pool as well as by low values of the phosphorylation potential and the "energy charge". The respiratory control is decreased, while the low permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane is increased. It is supposed that on days 10-15 after cold exposure the liver becomes actively involved in thermal stabilization. Cold acclimation on days 35-42 leads to an increase in State 3 respiration rate, respiratory control and energization of liver mitochondria. This allows to maintain the ATP level and the total adenine nucleotide pool in liver tissues at the control level. However, this does not seem to compensate completely for the energy expenditure because the phosphorylation potential and the "energy charge" of the liver are thereby decreased.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether homicides in Finland vary according to moon phases. DESIGN: A time series study. SETTING: Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 6808 homicides committed in 1961-2014. OUTCOME: Daily numbers of homicides. METHOD: The daily numbers of homicides were related to eight moon phases and the illuminated percentage of the moon disc using negative binomial regression. To identify lunar patterns, piecewise linear terms of lunar days were used, together with changes from one moon phase to another. Homicides were similarly regressed on quintiles of the illuminated percentage of the moon disc. A periodic term of length 29.53 days was included to detect cyclic patterns. The results were adjusted for sex, age, secular trend, distance from the moon, seasons, weekday, major holidays and temperature. RESULTS: During the full moon, 15% less homicides were committed than during the new moon (RR 0.85; 95%?CI 0.77 to 0.94) and 86% less during the lightest quintile of illumination compared with the darkest quintile (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.50). Adjustments did not change the results. Piecewise linear regressions showed a significant decline in homicides at the full moon and a rise thereafter. The full moon drop in homicides was directionally similar for seasons, weekdays, sex, age and time periods, and it was particularly pronounced in the early part of period studied (1961-1974). Periodic regression showed a regular cyclic pattern of length 29.53 days (p~0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to current scientific opinion, an association exists between moon phases and homicides, and contrary to what has been previously assumed, homicides declined during the full moon, especially in earlier decades. However, the causality of the association remains elusive.
Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0-1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0-1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth.
AIMS: Diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism cause metabolic, neural and circulatory disturbances that may predispose to adverse cooling and related symptoms during the cold season. This study assessed the prevalence of cold-related cardiorespiratory symptoms in the general population according to glycaemic status.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 2436 men and 2708 women aged 45-74years who participated in the National FINRISK cold sub-studies in 2002 and 2007. A questionnaire assessed cold-related symptoms (respiratory, cardiac, peripheral circulation). Glycaemic status was determined based on fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance tests or reported diagnosis of diabetes and categorized into normal glucose metabolism, impaired fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, screening-detected type 2 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes was associated with increased odds for cold-related dyspnoea [Adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI, 1.28-2.30)], chest pain [2.10 (1.32-3.34)] and respiratory symptoms [1.85 (1.44-2.38)] compared with normal glucose metabolism. Screened type 2 diabetes showed increased OR for cold-related dyspnoea [1.36 (1.04-1.77)], cough [1.41 (1.06-1.87)] and cardiac symptoms [1.51 (1.04-2.20)]. Worsening of glycaemic status was associated with increased odds for cold-related dyspnoea (from 1.16 in impaired fasting glucose to 1.72 in type 2 diabetes, P=0.000), cough (1.02-1.27, P=0.032), chest pain (1.28-2.10, P=0.006), arrhythmias (0.87-1.74, P=0.020), cardiac (1.11-1.99, P=0.000), respiratory (1.14-1.84, P=0.000) and all symptoms (1.05-1.66, P=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with diabetes and pre-diabetes experience more cold-related cardiorespiratory symptoms and need instructions for proper protection from cold weather to reduce adverse health effects.
We evaluated the accuracy of a submaximal cycle ergometer test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents and provided population-based reference values. In a health study of the Northern Finland birth cohort born in 1985 - 1986 (NFBC 1986), cardiorespiratory fitness of 5375 males and females aged 15 to 16 years was measured by a submaximal cycle ergometer test by using a two-stage exercise protocol designed for this survey. A total of 4903 subjects performed two work stages. Maximal workload and peak oxygen consumption were calculated on the basis of heart rate responses by the WHO extrapolation method. An additional 472 subjects were able to finish only one work stage. For them, peak oxygen uptake was calculated by the Astrand nomogram. To evaluate the accuracy of submaximal testing, a validation sample of 90 subjects carried out both a submaximal test and a maximal cycle ergometer test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake. The WHO method proved to estimate peak oxygen uptake with reasonable accuracy. The Astrand nomogram method overestimated peak oxygen uptake considerably, and therefore a new single-stage regression method was applied to calculate maximal workload and peak oxygen consumption. Reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness were provided for 2690 males and 2685 females aged 15 to 16 years.
The energy state of rat liver mitochondria on day 10 of cold acclimation, when the body temperature decreases significantly concomitantly with an increase in the content of long-chain acyl-CoAs in the liver, has been studied. State 4 and uncoupling respiration rates increase in parallel; however, the integral potentials of the adenine nucleotide system in the liver diminish. In the presence of oligomycin, ADP (20 and 50 microM) decreases the II(+)-permeability and increases the Ca(2+)-capacity of mitochondria in both control and, in a lesser degree, cold-exposed rats. At 90 microM ADP has the same effect on mitochondria of both groups of rats. Carboxyatractylate abolishes the ADP effect on the mitochondria. In EGTA-containing media carboxyatractylate decreases the respiration rate in oligomycin-treated mitochondria. Palmitoyl-CoA increases the II(+)-permeability of the mitochondrial membrane and decreases the Ca(2+)-capacity of mitochondria. ADP abolished the competitive effects of this long-chain acyl-CoA. Possible involvement of the ATP/ADP antiporter in the thermoregulatory response of liver mitochondria in cold-acclimated rats and the role of fatty acids and long-chain acyl-CoAs in this process are discussed.
Although in the past, rates of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes were lower in Alaska Natives than in US whites, these diseases are now increasing. The rate of iron-deficiency anemia for Alaska Natives continues to be higher than that in the general population. To understand the role of diet in these chronic diseases, seasonal dietary intakes of 351 Alaska Native adults from 11 communities were assessed during 1987-1988. Alaska Natives consumed more energy (19%), protein (39%), fat (21%), carbohydrate (13%), iron (25%), vitamin A (53%), and vitamin C (31%), but less calcium (19%) than did the general US adult population [National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II (NHANES II)]; Alaska Natives consumed six times more fish but less fruits and vegetables. Results suggest that energy and protein intakes decreased in the last 30 y but the proportion of energy from fat (37%) remained unchanged. High fish consumption and large seasonal dietary variations persisted, which may protect against chronic diseases. However, excess energy and fat and low calcium, fruit, and vegetable intakes may be contributing to recent increases in chronic diseases. Dietary guidelines are proposed.
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the relation between omega-3 fatty acid (FA) consumption and atherosclerosis.
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that omega-3 FAs protect against atherosclerosis has not been tested with objective measures of atherosclerosis.
METHODS: A population-based sample of 1131 Alaskan Eskimos of age >or=18 underwent ultrasound assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. Those of age >35 (N=686) were included in the analysis. Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Intimal-medial thickness (IMT) of the far wall of the distal common carotid arteries and plaque score (number of segments containing plaque) were assessed.
RESULTS: Mean consumption of total omega-3 FAs was 4.76 g/day in those without and 5.07 g/day in those with plaque. In models adjusting for relevant risk factors, presence and extent of plaque were unrelated to intake of C20-22 omega-3 FAs or total omega-3 FAs. In contrast, the odds of plaque rose significantly with quartiles of palmitic (p=0.02) and stearic acid intake (p=0.04). The extent of plaque (or plaque score) was also associated with a higher percentage intake of palmitic acid (p=0.01). IMT was negatively associated with grams of C20-22 omega-3 FAs (p=0.05), total omega-3 (p=0.05), palmitate (p=0.03), and stearate (p=0.03) consumed.
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of omega-3 FAs in a moderate-to-high range does not appear to be associated with reduced plaque, but is negatively associated with IMT. The presence and extent of carotid atherosclerosis among Eskimos is higher with increasing consumption of saturated FAs.
Allele frequency distributions of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene was studied in a random sample of the indigenous population of the Sakha Republic. The allelic variants of these genes did not showed an association with blood pressure in Yakuts.
The Yakuts of northeastern Siberia are a Turkic-speaking population of horse- and cattle-breeders surrounded by Tungusic-speaking reindeer-herders and hunter-gatherers. Archaeological and ethnohistorical data suggest that Yakuts stem from a common ancestral population with the Buryats living near Lake Baikal. To address this hypothesis, we obtained sequences of the first hypervariable segment (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA control region from Yakuts and Buryats and compared these with sequences from other Eurasian populations. The mtDNA results show that the Buryats have close affinities with both Central Asian Turkic groups and Mongols, while the Yakuts have close affinities with northeastern Siberian, Tungusic-speaking Evenks and south Siberian, Turkic-speaking Tuvans. This different ancestry of the Yakuts and the Tuvans (compared with other Turkic-speaking groups) most likely reflects extensive admixture that occurred between Turkic-speaking steppe groups and Evenks as the former migrated into Siberia. Moreover, the Yakuts are unique among Siberian populations in having a high number of haplotypes shared exclusively with Europeans, suggesting, contrary to the historical record, that occasionally Yakut men took Russian women as wives.
Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056).